Applied sciences

Archives of Thermodynamics

Content

Archives of Thermodynamics | 2012 | No 3 October |

Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

This paper presents a numerical method for determining heat transfer coefficients in cross-flow heat exchangers with extended heat exchange surfaces. Coefficients in the correlations defining heat transfer on the liquid- and air-side were determined using a nonlinear regression method. Correlation coefficients were determined from the condition that the sum of squared liquid and air temperature differences at the heat exchanger outlet, obtained by measurements and those calculated, achieved minimum. Minimum of the sum of the squares was found using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The uncertainty in estimated parameters was determined using the error propagation rule by Gauss. The outlet temperature of the liquid and air leaving the heat exchanger was calculated using the analytical model of the heat exchanger.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Dawid Taler
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In the paper a research on cost-effective optimum design boiling temperature for Organic Rankine Cycle utilizing low-temperature heat sources is presented. The ratio of the heat exchanger area of the boiler to the power output is used as the objective function. Analytical relations for heat transfer area as well power of the cycle are formulated. Evaporation temperature and inlet temperature of the heat source medium as well its mass flow rate are varied in the optimization method. The optimization is carried out for three working fluids, i.e. R 134a, water and ethanol. The objective function (economics profitability, thermodynamic efficiency) leads to different optimal working conditions in terms of evaporating temperature. Maximum power generation in the near-critical conditions of subcritical ORC is the highest. The choice of the working fluid can greatly affect the objective function which is a measure of power plant cost. Ethanol exhibits a minimum objective function but not necessarily the maximum cycle efficiency.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Dariusz Mikielewicz
Jarosław Mikielewicz
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The paper presents thermodynamic analysis of the gas-steam unit of the 65 MWe combined heat and power station. Numerical analyses of the station was performed for the nominal operation conditions determining the Brayton and combined cycle. Furthermore, steam utilization for the gas turbine propulsion in the Cheng cycle was analysed. In the considered modernization, steam generated in the heat recovery steam generator unit is directed into the gas turbine combustion chamber, resulting in the Brayton cycle power increase. Computational flow mechanics codes were used in the analysis of the thermodynamic and operational parameters of the unit.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Chrzczonowski
Paweł Ziółkowski
Janusz Badur
Krzysztof Jesionek
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In the paper presented is an idea of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) operating with supercritical parameters and so called dry fluids. Discussed is one of the methods of improving the effectiveness of operation of supercritical cycle by application of internal regeneration of heat through the use of additional heat exchanger. The main objective of internal regenerator is to recover heat from the vapour leaving the turbine and its transfer to the liquid phase of working fluid after the circulation pump. In effect of application of the regenerative heat exchanger it is possible to obtain improved effectiveness of operation of the power plant, however, only in the case when the ORC plant is supplied from the so called sealed heat source. In the present paper presented is the discussion of heat sources and on the base of the case study of two heat sources, namely the rate of heat of thermal oil from the boiler and the rate of heat of hot air from the cooler of the clinkier from the cement production line having the same initial temperature of 260 oC, presented is the influence of the heat source on the justification of application of internal regeneration. In the paper presented are the calculations for the supercritical ORC power plant with R365mfc as a working fluid, accomplished has been exergy changes and exergy efficiency analysis with the view to select the most appropriate parameters of operation of the power plant for given parameters of the heat source.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Aleksandra Borsukiewicz-Gozdur
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this paper the results of the thermodynamic analysis of the oxy-combustion type pulverized bed boiler integrated with a hybrid, membrane- cryogenic oxygen separation installation are presented. For the calculations a 600 MW boiler with live steam parameters at 31.1 MPa /654.9 oC and reheated steam at 6.15 MPa/672.4 oC was chosen. In this paper the hybrid membrane-cryogenic technology as oxygen production unit for pulverized bed boiler was proposed. Such an installation consists of a membrane module and two cryogenic distillation columns. Models of these installations were built in the Aspen software. The energy intensity of the oxygen production process in the hybrid system was compared with the cryogenic technology. The analysis of the influence of membrane surface area on the energy intensity of the process of air separation as well as the influence of oxygen concentration at the inlet to the cryogenic installation on the energy intensity of a hybrid unit was performed.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Sylwia Berdowska
Anna Skorek-Osikowska
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In the paper presented are definitions of specific indicators of power which characterize the operation of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plant. These quantities have been presented as function of evaporation temperature for selected working fluids of ORC installation. In the paper presented also is the procedure for selection of working fluid with the view of obtaining maximum power. In the procedure of selection of working fluid the mentioned above indicators are of primary importance. In order to obtain maximum power there ought to be selected such working fluids which evaporate close to critical conditions. The value of this indicator increases when evaporation enthalpy decreases and it is known that the latent heat of evaporation decreases with temperature and reaches a value of zero at the critical point.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Władysław Nowak
Aleksandra Borsukiewicz-Gozdur
Sławomir Wiśniewski
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The paper describes tests intended to examine the occurrence of natural convection within the space occupied by 40×20 mm rectangular steel sections. Within these tests the bed of four layers of section was heated by the electric palate heater. Depending on the manner in which the heater was positioned, the tests were divided into two series. In the case of heating from above, the heat flowing through the bed is transferred only by conduction and radiation. When heating the bed from below, in addition to conduction and radiation, also a convective heat transfer will occur. Should this be the case, it will result in the intensification of the heat exchange. The results of measurements carried out have not demonstrated that the occurrence of any possible natural convection would influence the development of a temperature field in this type of charge.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Rafał Wyczółkowski
Dorota Musiał
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The paper presents a thermodynamic optimization of supercritical coal fired power plant. The aim of the study was to optimize part of the thermal cycle consisted of high-pressure turbine and two chosen highpressure feed water heaters. Calculations were carried out using IPSEpro software combined with MATLAB, where thermal efficiency and gross power generation efficiency were chosen as objective functions. It was shown that the optimization with newly developed framework is sufficiently precise and its main advantage is the reduction of computation time on comparison to the classical method. The calculations have shown the tendency of the increase in efficiency, with the rise of a number of function variables.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Witold Elsner
Łukasz Kowalczyk
Maciej Marek
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

A method for determining time-optimum medium temperature changes is presented. The heating of the pressure elements will be conducted so that the circumferential stress caused by pressure and fluid temperature variations at the edge of the opening at the point of stress concentration, do not exceed the allowable value. In contrast to present standards, two points at the edge of the opening are taken into consideration. The first point, P1, is located at the cross section and the second, P2, at the longitudinal section of the vessel. It will be shown that the optimum temperature courses should be determined with respect to the total circumferential stress at the point P2, and not, as in the existing standards due to the stress at the point P1. Optimum fluid temperature changes are assumed in the form of simple time functions. For practical reasons the optimum temperature in the ramp form is preferred. It is possible to increase the fluid temperature stepwise at the beginning of the heating process and then increase the fluid temperature with the constant rate. Allowing stepwise fluid temperature increase at the beginning of heating ensures that the heating time of a thick-walled component is shorter than heating time resulting from the calculations according to EN 12952-3 European Standard.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Dzierwa
Jan Taler
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

During heat transport through the walls of a hollow sphere, the heat stream can achieve extreme values. The same processes occur in regular polyhedrons. We can calculate the maximum heat transfer rate, the so-called critical heat transfer rate. We must assume here identical conditions of heat exchange on all internal and external walls of a regular polyhedron. The transfer rate of heat penetrating through the regular polyhedron with different heat transfer coefficients on the walls is called the heat transfer rate with asymmetric boundary conditions. We show that the heat transfer rate in this case will grow up if we replace those coefficients with their average values.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Pelińska-Olko
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

One of the major concerns of the power energy industries is a proper operation of steam power blocks. Pressurized working medium and high temperature cause very high stresses in the construction elements such as collectors, separators or steam valves. They are exposed to sudden temperature and pressure changes that cause high stresses at certain points. Additionally, the cyclic character of loading causes material fatigue, known as low-cyclic fatigue, which may lead to the formation of fracture. Thus, methodologies offered by many companies should ensure reliable and safe operation of steam power blocks. The advanced numerical solutions for determining time-optimum medium temperature changes are presented. They are based on Levenberg-Marquardt and nonlinear programming by quadratic Lagrangian methods. The methods allow us to find parameters for start-up and shut-down operation that can reduce total stresses to limits governed by European regulations. Furthermore, the heating and cooling operations are conducted in a shortest time possible.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Dariusz Rząsa
Piotr Duda

Instructions for authors

Archives of Thermodynamics publishes original papers which have not previously appeared in other journals. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges. The language of the papers is English. The paper should not exceed the length of 25 pages. All pages should be numbered. The plan and form of the papers should be as follows:

1. The heading should specify the title (as short as possible), author, his/her complete affiliation, town, zip code, country and e-mail. Please indicate the corresponding author. The heading should be followed by Abstract of maximum 15 typewritten lines and Keywords.

2. More important symbols used in the paper can be listed in Nomenclature, placed below Abstract and arranged in a column, e.g.:
u – velocity, m/s
v – specific volume, m/kg etc.
The list should begin with Latin symbols in alphabetical order followed by Greek symbols also in alphabetical order and with a separate heading. Subscripts and superscripts should follow Greek symbols and should be identified with separate headings. Physical quantities should be expressed in SI units ( Système International d’Unités).

3. All abbreviations should be spelled out first time they are introduced in the text.

4. The equations should be each in a separate line. Standard mathematical notation should be used. All symbols used in equations must be clearly defined. The numbers of equations should run consecutively, irrespective of the division of the paper into sections. The numbers should be given in round brackets on the righthand side of the page.

5. Particular attention should be paid to the differentiation between capital and small letters. If there is a risk of confusion, the symbols should be explained (for example small c) in the margins. Indices of more than one level (such as Bfa) should be avoided wherever possible.

6. Computer-generated figures should be produced using bold lines and characters. No remarks should be written directly on the figures, except numerals or letter symbols only. Figures should be as small as possible while displaying clearly all the information requires, and with all lettering readable. The relevant explanations can be given in the caption.

7. The figures, including photographs, diagrams, etc., should be numbered with Arabic numerals in the same order in which they appear in the text. Each figure should have its own caption explaining the content without reference to the text.

8. Computer files on an enclosed disc or sent by e-mail to the Editorial Office are welcome. The manuscript should be written as a MS Word file – ∗.doc, ∗.docx or LATEX file – ∗.tex. For revised manuscripts after peer review process, figures should be submitted as separate graphic files in either vector formats (PostScript (PS), Encapsulated PostScript (EPS), preferable, CorelDraw (CDR), etc.) or bitmap formats (Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), etc.), with the resolution not lower than 300 dpi, preferably 600 dpi. These resolutions refer to images sized at dimensions comparable to those of figures in the print journal. Therefore, electronic figures should be sized to fit on single printed page and can have maximum 120 mm x 170 mm. Figures created in MS World, Exel, or PowerPoint will not be accepted. The quality of images downloaded from websites and the Internet are also not acceptable, because of their low resolution (usually only 72 dpi), inadequate for print reproduction.

9. The references for the paper should be numbered in the order in which they are called in the text. Calling the references is by giving the appropriate numbers in square brackets. The references should be listed with the following information provided: the author’s surname and the initials of his/her names, the complete title of the work (in English translation) and, in addition:

(a) for books: the publishing house and the place and year of publication, for example:
[1] Holman J.P.: Heat Transfer. McGraw-Hill, New York 1968.

(b) for journals: the name of the journal, volume (Arabic numerals in bold), year of publication (in round brackets), number and, if appropriate, numbers of relevant pages, for example:
[2] Rizzo F.I., Shippy D.I.: A method of solution for certain problems of transient heat conduction . AIAA J. 8(1970), No. 11, 2004–2009.

For works originally published in a language other than English, the language should be indicated in parentheses at the end of the reference.

Authors are responsible for ensuring that the information in each reference is complete and accurate.

10. As the papers are published in English, the authors who are not native speakers of English are obliged to have the paper thoroughly reviewed language-wise before submitting for publication.


Manuscript submission

Manuscripts to be considered for publication should be electronically submitted to the Editorial Office via the online submission and reviewing system, the Editorial System, at http://www.editorialsystem.com/aot. Submission to the journal proceeds totally on line and you will be guided stepwise throughout the process of the creation and uploading of your files. The body of the text, tables and figures, along with captions for figures and tables should be submitted separately. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file article, for subsequent approval by the corresponding Author, which is then used in the peer-review process. All correspondence, including notification confirming the submission of the manuscripts to the Editorial Office, notification of the Editorsñs decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mails. Authors should designate the corresponding author, whose responsibility is to represent the Authors in contacts with the Editorial Office. Authors are requested not to submit the manuscripts by post or e-mail.
The illustrations may be submitted in color, however they will be printed in black and white in the journal, so the grayscale contributions are preferable. Therefore, the figure caption and the entire text of the paper should not make any reference to color in the illustration. Moreover the illustration should effectively convey author’s intended meaning when it is printed as a halftone. The illustrations will be reproduced in color in the online publication.


Further information

All manuscripts will undergo some editorial modification. The paper proofs (as PDF file) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author for acceptance, and should be returned within two weeks of receipt. Within the proofs corrections of minor and typographical errors in: author names, affiliations, articles titles, abstracts and keywords, formulas, symbols, grammatical error, details in figures, etc., are only allowed, as well as necessary small additions. The changes within the text will be accepted in case of serious errors, for example with regard to scientific accuracy, or if authors reputation and that of the journal would be affected. Submitted material will not be returned to the author, unless specifically requested. A PDF file of published paper will be supplied free of charge to the Corresponding Author. Submission of the manuscript expresses at the same time the authors consent to its publishing in both printed and electronic versions.


Transfer of Copyright Agreement

Submission of the manuscript means that the authors automatically agree to assign the copyright to the Publisher. Once a paper has been accepted for publication, as a condition of publication, the authors are asked to send by email a scanned copy of the signed original of the Transfer of Copyright Agreement, signed by the Corresponding Author on behalf of all authors to the Managing Editor of the Journal. The copyright form can be downloaded from the journal’s website at http://www.imp.gda.pl/archives-of-thermodynamics/ under Notes for Contributors.

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more