An Alternative God: The Non-Christian Divine Imaginary Amongst The Scientists from Lithuania and Ukraine

Journal title

Studia Socjologiczne




No 1


Rogińska, Maria : Uniwersytet Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie



sociology ; science ; religion ; Ukraine ; Lithuania ; (de)secularization ; imaginary

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Humanistyczne i Społeczne




Instytut Filozofii i Socjologii PAN ; Komitet Socjologii PAN ; Wydział Socjologii UW


  1. Alisauskiene, Milda. 2016. The New Age Milieu in Lithuania: Popular Catholicism or Religious Alternative? In: M. Alisauskiene, I.W. Schröder, eds. Religious diversity in post-soviet society: ethnographies of catholic hegemony and the new pluralism in Lithuania. Routledge.
  2. Alisauskiene, Milda. 2021. The role of religion in the lives of the last Soviet generation in Lithuania. Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe, 41, 2. https:// (accessed on 1.11.2023).
  3. Anderson, Benedict. 2010. Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.
  4. Andrews, James T., Asif A. Siddiqi, eds. 2011. Into the cosmos: space exploration and soviet culture. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  5. Baudrillard, Jean. 1994. Simulacra and simulation. Michigan: University of Michigan press. 
  6. Beer, Gillian. 2000. Darwin ’s Plots. Evolutionary Narrative in Darwin, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Fiction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  7. Berger, Peter. 1999. The Desecularisation of the World. Washington, D. C.: The Ethics and Public Policy Centre.
  8. Black, Max. 1962. Models and metaphors. New York: Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press.
  9. Bloor, David. 1991. Knowledge and social imagery. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  10. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1993. The field of cultural production: Essays on art and literature. New York: Columbia University Press.
  11. Boyd, Richard N. 1993. Metaphor and theory Change: What is ‘metaphor’ a metaphor for? In: A. Ortony, ed. Metaphor and Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  12. Brown, Theodore L. 2003. Making Truth. Metaphor in Science. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
  13. Bruce, Steve. 2002. God is Dead. Secularisation in the West. Oxford: Blackwell.
  14. Bruce, Steve. 2008. Fundamentalism. Cambridge: Key Concepts, Polity.
  15. Casanova, José. 2008. Introduction. In: H. de Vries, ed. Public Religions revisited in Religion. Beyond the Concept. New York, 101-119.
  16. Charmaz, Kathy. 2006. Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. London: Sage.
  17. Crockett, Alasdair, Voas David. 2006. Generations of decline: Religious change in 20th-century Britain. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 45, 4: 567-584.
  18. Davie, Grace. 1990. Believing without belonging: is this the future of religion in Britain? Social Compass, 37, 4: 455-469.
  19. Dawkins, Richard. 1986. The blind watchmaker: Why the evidence of evolution reveals a universe without design. New York: WW Norton & Company.
  20. Debord, Guy. 2021. The society of the spectacle. Cambridge, MA: Unredacted Word.
  21. Douglas, Mary. 1986. How institutions think. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press.
  22. Dobbelaere, Karel. 2002 [1981]. Secularization: An analysis at three levels. Brussels: Peter Lang.
  23. Durkheim, Emile, Marcel Mauss. [1903] 1997. Primitive classification. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  24. Durkheim, Emile. 1909. Débat sur le fondement religieux ou laïque à donner à la morale. Bulletin de la Société française de philosophie, 9: 219-231.
  25. Ecklund, Elaine Howard et al. 2019. Secularity and science: What scientists around the world really think about religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  26. Ecklund, Elaine Howard. 2010. Science vs. religion. What scientists really think. New York: Oxford University Press.
  27. Froese, Paul, Christopher Bader. 2010. America ’s four Gods: What we say about God-and what that says about us. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  28. Garfield, Eugene. 1986. The metaphor-science connection. Current Contents, 42: 3-10.
  29. Gołąb, Andrzej. 2017. Wiara lub niewiara polskich naukowców w Boga a ich poglądy na relację między nauką a religią. Roczniki Psychologiczne, 20, 1: 63-79.
  30. Greeley, Andrew. 1981. The religious imagination. Los Angeles: Sadlier.
  31. Greeley, Andrew. 2000. The Catholic imagination. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  32. Gross, Neil, Solon Simmons. 2009. The religiosity of American college and university professors. Sociology of Religion, 70: 101-129.
  33. Haack, Susan. 1994. “Dry truth and real knowledge”: epistemologies of metaphor and metaphors of epistemology. Aspects of metaphor, 1-22.
  34. Hagemeister, Michael, Birgit Menzel, eds. 2012. The New Age of Russia. Occult and esoteric dimensions, München-Berlin: Otto Sagner.
  35. Hervieu-Léger, Danièle. 1999. Religion as memory: reference to tradition and the constitution of a heritage of belief in modern societies. In: J. G. Plavoet, A. Molendijk, eds. The pragmatics of defining religion. Leiden, 73-92.
  36. Hesmondhalgh, David. 2006. Bourdieu, the media and cultural production. Media, Culture & Society, 28, 2: 211-231.
  37. Karpov, Vyacheslav. 2010. Desecularization: A conceptual framework. Journal of Church and State, 52, 2: 232- 270.
  38. Knorr Cetina, Karin. 2009. Epistemic cultures: How the sciences make knowledge. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  39. Larson, Edward, Larry Witham. 1998. Leading scientists still reject God. Nature, 394: 313.
  40. Larson, Edward, Larry Witham. 1999. Naukowcy a religia w USA. Świat Nauki, 11: 72-78.
  41. Lehman, Joe, Wayne Shriver. 1968. Academic discipline as predictive of faculty religiosity. Social Forces, 47, 2: 171-182.
  42. Leuba, James. 1916. The belief in God and immortality. A Psychological, Anthropological and Statistical Study. Boston: Sherman, French & Co.
  43. Leuba, James. 1934. Religious beliefs of American scientists. Harper’s Magazine, 169: 291-300.
  44. Libiszowska-Żółtkowska, Maria. 2000. Wiara uczonych. Esej socjologiczny mocno osadzony w empirii. Kraków: Nomos.
  45. Lovelock, James. 1972. Gaia as seen through the atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment, 6, 8: 579-580.
  46. Machamer, Peter, Michael Silberstein. 2002. Metaphors and analogies. In: The Blackwell Guide to the philosophy of science. Edited by P. Machamer, M. Silberstein. Oxford: Blackwell.
  47. Maffesoli, Michel. 1993. The imaginary and the sacred in Durkheim’s sociology. Current Sociology, 41, 2: 59-67.
  48. Mariański, Janusz. 2013. Sekularyzacja, desekularyzacja, nowa duchowość. Kraków: PTS.
  49. Martin, David. 1969. The Religious and the Secular. Studies in Secularization. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  50. Martin, David. 2008. Does the advance of science mean secularisation? Scottish Journal of Theology, 61, 1: 51-63.
  51. Menzel, Birgit. 2007. The Occult Revival in Russia Today and Its Impact on Literature, The Harriman Review, 16, 1: 1-14. 
  52. Monivas, Jesùs Romero. 2007. Science and religion in the sociology of Émile Durkheim. European Journal of Science and Theology, 3, 1: 17-30.
  53. Moscovici, Serge. 1988. Notes towards a description of social representations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 3: 222.
  54. Nelkin, Dorothy, M. Susan Lindee. 2010. The DNA mystique: the gene as a cultural icon. MI: University of Michigan Press.
  55. Niebert, Kai, Harald Gropengiesser. 2015. Understanding Starts in the Mesocosm: Conceptual metaphor as a framework for external representations in science teaching. International Journal of Science Education, 37, 5-6: 903-933.
  56. Nigel, Thomas. 2023. Mental Imagery. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (accessed on 16.07.2023) .
  57. Ostwalt, Conrad. 2012. Secular Steeples: Popular Culture and the Religious Imagination. London: A&C Black
  58. Pigliucci, Massimo, Maarten Boudry. 2011. Why machine-information metaphors are bad for science and science education. Science & Education, 20, 5: 453-471.
  59. Racius, Egdûnas. 2019. Country profile: Lithuania [Global Governance Programme]. GREASE, Country Profiles. (accessed on 17.07.2023) .
  60. Rogińska, Maria. 2021. Przyrodnicy o nadprzyrodzonym. Studium porównawcze uczonych z Polski i Ukrainy. Kraków: Nomos.
  61. Rogińska, Maria. 2023a. The religious imaginary and the repressive state: science-based beliefs of Ukrainian and Lithuanian scientists born in the USSR. Sociology of Religion. DOI: 10.1093/socrel/srad005 (accessed on 3.11.2023).
  62. Rogińska, Maria. 2023b. Imagining, not speculating? The religious imaginary of natural scientists and the secularization debate (submitted).
  63. Schröder, Ingo W. 2016. Catholic majority societies and religious hegemony: concepts and comparisons. In: M. Alisauskiene, I. Schröder, eds. Religious Diversity in Post-Soviet Society. Routledge, 17-35.
  64. Smolkin-Rothrock, Victoria. 2010. “A Sacred space is never empty”: Soviet atheism, 1954-1971. PhD thesis. University of California, Berkeley, USA.
  65. Stark, Rodney. 1999. Secularization, RIP. Sociology of Religion, 60, 3: 249-273.
  66. Thibodeau, Paul H., Lera Boroditsky. 2011. Metaphors we think with: The role of metaphor in reasoning. PloS one, 6, 2: e16782.
  67. Throntveit, Trygve. 2008. The will to behold: Thorstein Veblen’s pragmatic aesthetics. Modern Intellectual History, 5, 3: 519-546.
  68. Voas, David. 2009. The rise and fall of fuzzy fidelity in Europe. European Sociological Review, 25, 2: 155-168.
  69. Wilson, Bryan. 1969. Religion in Secular Society. Baltimore, MD.
  70. Wilson, Bryan. 1985. Secularization. The Inherited Model. In: Ph. E. Hammond, ed. The Sacred in a Secular Age. Berkeley, CA, 9-20.
  71. Wilson, Bryan. 1998. The Secularization thesis. Criticisms and rebuttals. In: R. Laermans, B. Wilson, J. Billiet, eds. Secularization and social Integration. Papers in honor of Karel Dobbelaere. Leuven: Leuven University, 45-66.
  72. В школах Украины могут появится уроки христианской этики и библейской истории sya-uroki-hristianskoy-etiki-i-bibleyskoy-istorii. (accessed on 19.11.2021).
  73. Казанова, Хосе. Українську демократію врятує релігійний плюралізм, Шон Кейсі та Хосе Казанова у програмі Миколи Княжицького, 10.03. 2019, https://espre- (accessed on: 10.10.2019)
  74. Паращевін, Максим. 2009. Релігія та релігійність в Україні. Київ: Інститут політики, Інститут соціології НАН України.
  75. Паращевін, Максим. 2017. Релігія в Україні: траєкторія інституційних змін. Київ: Ін-т соціології НАН України.
  76. Центр Разумкова, Особливості релігійного і церковно-релігійного самовизначен- ня українських громадян: тенденції 2010–2020 рр. (інформаційні матеріали), Київ 2020 (accessed on 19.11.2021).




Artykuły / Articles


DOI: 10.24425/sts.2024.149320