Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Content

Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2019 | vol. 59 | No 2 |

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Abstract

This study investigates the acaricidal, ovicidal, and repellent effects of the Tagetes patula Linn. (Asteraceae) leaf extract against both the adult female and egg stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) under laboratory conditions. The Tagetes patula ethanolic leaf extract [TpEtOH70%] was screened for adulticide and ovicide bioassays in order to consider its acute toxicity. One sublethal concentration was used to assess egg-laying capacity (fecundity), repellent, and oviposition deterrent activities. The chemical characterization was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis to identify the TpEtOH70% bioactive components. Results showed that the LC50 value of TpEtOH70% leaf extract predicted by Probit analysis against T. urticae adult females at 24 h was 0.99%. The TpEtOH70% leaf extract showed a significant toxic effect as the highest mean mortality rates (± SE) of the treated adult females was 88.9 ± 3.7%. However, the TpEtOH70% leaf extract was insignificant in affecting the egg-laying capacity of the adult females treated with a sublethal dose of 0.5% even after 72 h. The TpEtOH70% leaf extract was classified repellent since the repellent index (RI) value was lower than 1 – SD. In addition, it had a high oviposition deterring effect based on a 100% reduction of the total number of eggs. The TpEtOH70% leaf extract had a significant ovicidal effect on T. urticae eggs, with 56.04% reduction in hatching. Five bioactive compounds from various classes of phytochemicals were identified in the TpEtOH70% leaf extract and the major compound was phytol (62.72%). This pioneering investigation reveals the adulticidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of the TpEtOH70% leaf extract against T. urticae. A combination of multiple modes of action of different plant components may act alone or in synergism to delay the development of mite resistance.
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Authors and Affiliations

Manal Sayed Mohamed Ismail
Hend Maroof Tag
Marguerite Adly Rizk
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Abstract

The chemical composition of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) essential oils as well as their phytotoxic effects against two invasive species – Cortaderia selloana and Nicotiana glauca – were studied. Fifty-eight compounds accounting for 98.89–99.94% of the total commercial tea tree and wintergreen essential oils were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Tea tree essential oil with terpinen- 4-ol (28.37 ± 0.05%) followed by 1,8-cineole (15.81 ± 0.06%), γ-terpinene (15.60 ± 0.03%), α-pinene (10.92 ± 0.08%) and α-terpinene (8.52 ± 0.01%) as the main compounds did not produce significant effects against seed germination and hypocotyl growth of N. glauca, but showed significant effects in seed germination inhibition of C. selloana (34.69%) as well as in hypocotyl (60.96%) and radicle (62.55%) growth, at the highest dose (1 μl ⋅ ml–1) assayed. High amounts of methyl salicylate (99.63 ± 0.02%) were found in G. procumbens essential oil with remarkable phytotoxic effects in C. seollana. Methyl salicylate inhibited seed germination (77.38%) and hypocotyl and radicle growth (96.38% and 96.65%, respectively) at the highest dose (1 μl ⋅ ml–1) assayed. Wintergreen essential oil constitutes an eco-friendly alternative to control the high capacity of invasiveness of C. selloana.
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Authors and Affiliations

María Dolores Ibáñez
María Amparo Blázquez
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Abstract

Allelopathy is a complex phenomenon which depends on allelochemical concentrations. So, two pot experiments were carried out to investigate the allelopathic effect of alcoholic fresh shoot extract of Eruca sativa (foliar spray) and E. sativa shoot powder (mixed with soil) on Pisum sativum plants and two associated weeds, Phalaris minor and Beta vulgaris. The experiments were conducted in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt during two successive winter seasons (2016–2017 and 2017–2018). Ten treatments were applied in this study. Four treatments were applied before sowing, that E. sativa shoot powder was mixed with the soil at rates of 15, 30, 45 and 60 g ⋅ pot–1. The other four treatments of E. sativa alcoholic fresh shoot extract were sprayed twice on both plants and weeds at 5, 10, 15 and 20% (w/v) concentrations. Additionally, two untreated treatments, healthy (P. sativum only) and unweeded (untreated infested P. sativum plants with weeds) were applied for comparison. The results indicated that both alcoholic extracts and powder reduced growth of both weeds. Moreover, there was a direct relationship between concentration and weed reduction. Eruca sativa alcoholic extracts increased yield parameters of P. sativum plants. The maximum yield attributes were recorded by spraying of E. sativa alcoholic extract at 20%. On the other hand, it was clearly noticed that the high powder rates affected negatively P. sativum yield parameters. But the lowest powder rate (15 g ⋅ pot–1) stimulated P. sativum yield parameters as compared to unweeded treatment. Chemical analysis of E. sativa shoot powder ensured that the abundant amount of glucosinolates (9.6 μmol ⋅ g–1) and phenolic compounds (46.5 mg ⋅ g–1) may be responsible for its allelopathic effect. In conclusion, spraying of alcoholic fresh shoot extract of E. sativa at 20% (w/v) and mixing E. sativa shoot powder at 15 g · pot–1can be applied as natural bioherbicides for controlling weeds.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mona Adel El-Wakeel
Salah El-Din Abd El-Ghany Ahmed
Ebrahim Roushdi El-Desoki
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Abstract

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV; family Bromoviridae, genus Cucumovirus) is the most cosmopolitan plant virus occurring worldwide. In the present study, leaf samples showing deformations, mosaics, and chlorotic spots symptoms were collected from naturally infected Basella alba, Telfairia occidentalis and Talinum fruticosum in a home yard garden in Ibadan, Nigeria. Total nucleic acid was extracted from leaves and used as template for cDNA synthesis. RT-PCR was carried out using CMV-specific primers targeting RNA-1 segment. Samples were also tested by RT-PCR using Potyvirus and Begomovirus genusspecific primers. DNA fragments with the expected sizes of ~500 bp were amplified by using CMV-specific primers; however, the expected amplicons were not produced using specific primers used for the detection of potyviruses and begomoviruses. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences obtained for the isolates studied contained 503–511 nt and 144 aa, respectively. The isolates shared 81.9–85.3% nucleotide and 74.3–77.8% amino acid sequence identities with each other. The results of BLASTN analyses showed the highest identities of the isolates (80–93%) with CMV strains from Japan, USA and South Korea. Alignment of deduced partial protein revealed multiple amino acid substitutions within the three isolates and high identities with CMV subgroup I. Phylogenetic analyses putatively categorized the isolates in close association with subgroup IB isolates. The three isolates clustered together into a separate subclade, indicating possible new CMV strains. The results provide the first molecular evidence for CMV infections of T. fruticosum and B. alba in Nigeria and seem to show the possible presence of new strain(s). These findings also add three new hosts to the list of natural host range of the virus in Nigeria.
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Authors and Affiliations

Adedapo Olutola Adediji
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Abstract

Three transgenic soybean lines expressing the Cry1Ia5 gene were developed using the Agrobacterium transformation system. The integration of the Cry1Ia5 gene in the genome of the transgenic plants was approved using specific primers for PCR and real time PCR analysis, respectively. The insecticidal activity of three transgenic lines (L1, L2 and L3) against 2nd larval instars Spodoptera littoralis was tested. The data indicate that L2 exhibited the highest mortality percentage 9 days post feeding (60%) followed by L3 (40%) then L1 (20%) while the control showed 0% mortality. The larvae fed transgenic material appeared smaller in size than compared to the control larvae. The reduction in insect size and weight was due to the accumulation of higher phenoloxidase activity in insect tissues. The higher mortality observed in L2 was due to a significant decrease in the acetylcholine esterase activity that leads to accumulation of acetylcholin at higher levels which causes paralysis and death. The developed transgenic line 2 could be used to construct an insect resistant soybean cultivar.
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Authors and Affiliations

Reda E.A. Moghaieb
Etr Hussein Khashaba
Amany M. Abdel Azzim
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Abstract

The effects of a microbial inoculant (Thervelics®: a mixture of cells of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 and carrier materials) on rice (Oryza sativa cv. Milkyprincess) and barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Sachiho Golden) were evaluated in four pot experiments. In the first and second experiments, the dry matter production of rice and barley increased significantly by 10–20% with the inoculation of the mixture at a rate of 107 cfu ⋅ g–1 soil compared with the non-inoculated control. In the third experiment, the growth promoting effects of the mixture, the autoclaved mixture and the carrier materials were compared. The dry mater production of rice grains was the highest in the mixture, and it was significantly higher in the three treatments than in the control, suggesting that the carrier materials may also have a plant growth promoting effect and the living cells might have an additional stimulatory effect. To confirm the efficacy of the living cells in the mixture, only B. subtilis C-3102 cells were used in the fourth experiment. In addition, to estimate the mechanisms in growth promotion by B. subtilis C-3102, three B. subtilis strains with similar or different properties in the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), protease and siderophore and phosphatesolubilizing ability were used as reference strains. Only B. subtilis C-3102 significantly increased the dry matter production of rice grains and the soil protease activity was consistently higher in the soil inoculated with B. subtilis C-3102 throughout the growing period. These results indicate that the microbial inoculant including live B. subtilis C-3102 may have growth promoting effects on rice and barley.
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Authors and Affiliations

Abdul Saleem Jamily
Yuki Koyama
Thida Aye Win
Koki Toyota
Seiya Chikamatsu
Takeshi Shirai
Taisuke Uesugi
Hiroaki Murakami
Tetsuya Ishida
Takaomi Yasuhara

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Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

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