Nauki Techniczne

Polityka Energetyczna - Energy Policy Journal

Zawartość

Polityka Energetyczna - Energy Policy Journal | 2021 | vol. 24 | No 1 |

Abstrakt

The role of energy as a key factor in enhancing sustainable development, energy security, and economic competitiveness is a reason that has made energy efficiency trends tracking essential and is why policymakers and energy planners have focused on energy intensity and its following issues. Also, the inadequate operation of the traditional energy intensity index and the overestimation of its results turned this index into a weak one. Hence, it is necessary to employ a new index that can be decomposed and is capable of considering both monetary and physical activity indicators to offer a more accurate view of the energy intensity variation. This paper develops a Composite Energy Intensity Index by combining monetary and physical activity indicators by applying the multiplicative Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) in 2001–2011 to decompose the factors affecting energy intensity change and seeks to fill the gap between the EGR and CEI indices. The results of the survey demonstrate more economy-wide energy consumption reduction while using the composite energy intensity index as compared to the traditional energy intensity index; also, the results show the relatively important role of the overall structure effect. From Sectoral perspective results, both energy to GDP index (EGR) and composite energy intensity index (CEI) have shown passenger transport as the most energy-consuming sector. The passenger transport sector reveals an urgent need for implementing appropriate policies to reduce the high energy consumption of the sector.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mahta Ghafarian Ghadim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ali Faridzad
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Energy, Agriculture and Environmental Economics, Faculty of Economics, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Iran

Abstrakt

The article analyzes the structure of energy resources, as a result of which the reasons for their irrational use in the Ukrainian economy are revealed. It has been established that during 2014–2018 there was a decrease in demand for traditional types of fuel and energy resources (FER), except for coal. The components of the process of supply and consumption of fuel and energy resources have been formed and detailed, and an integrated approach to their rational use has been developed, which will reduce the loss of energy resources and increase their efficiency. The author’s approach is used in the form of visualized schemes for organizing the process of the rational use of energy resources, which will contribute to the implementation of an effective energy saving policy of the state, ensuring the competitive advantages of domestic enterprises, increasing their competitiveness, improving the economic and energy security of Ukraine. The expediency of constructing deterministic economic models for providing the Ukrainian economy according to different (adaptive and multiplicative) convolutions was substantiated and proved, on the basis of which a forecast and assessment of the energy independence of the Ukrainian economy until 2035, taking into account fuel and energy resources, was proposed. Based on the calculations, it was established that the state of energy independence of Ukraine is insufficient.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Uliana Andrusiv
1
ORCID: ORCID
Halyna Zelinska
2
ORCID: ORCID
Olga Galtsova
3
ORCID: ORCID
Halyna Kupalova
4
ORCID: ORCID
Nataliia Goncharenkо
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Economics Theory and Management, Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas, Ukraine
  2. Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas, Ukraine
  3. Classical Private University, Ukraine
  4. Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine

Abstrakt

The following paper presents the process of decarbonization of the energy sector in Greece and points out to different methods the Greek authorities are adopting in order to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases generated by electricity production. Greece is a country which is modernizing its energy sector gradually, yet dynamically. One of the prime aims is to reduce the level of energy produced in coal-fired power plants by focusing on the renewable energy and the gas sector. In 2010 still more than half of the electrical energy was generated by lignite-fired power plants. Almost ten years later the ratio has dropped to only slightly more than 30%. A significant reduction in coal consumption was possible thanks to investments in renewable energy sources, especially in the wind and solar energy sectors. Both sectors have seen a large increase in production, making renewable energy sources already accounting for over 20% of Greek electricity production. Capital-intensive investments were also made in the country’s gas supply through the expansion of gas-fired power plants and gas transmission networks. As a result, natural gas remains the main source of energy for Greece next to coal. Unfortunately, a big challenge in terms of decarbonization is the need for increased imports of electricity from abroad, due to the insufficient capacity of the Greek energy sector. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to define a Greek model of decarbonization and to point out to its benefits and dangers. Greek strategy might serve as an example of how to successfully solve the energy issues in the countries with similar energy profile.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wiktor Hebda
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of International and Political Studies, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland

Abstrakt

Today green energy agenda is in the lead position in the media space and scientific community. The countries have put forward ambitious strategies for green energy development: cut CO2 emissions, introduce new financial instruments. Australia is no exception. The country is trying to start a massive green energy transformation, but its effect on the economy of Australia is dubious, especially taking the losses of profit from coal exports into account. The article aims at answering the main question: is massive green transformation necessary for Australia and the ones, which follow it, namely, how can green energy transformation be conducted in the country, what sources of renewable energy are preferable in the country and how does the green energy transition influence the Australian economy? The key findings include: the proof of the non-necessity of massive green energy transformation in Australia, the proof that solar and wind power are the most effective renewable energy resources in the country and the proof that Australia should slow down the green energy transformation if it wants to preserve its economic prosperity.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Elnur Mekhdiev
1
ORCID: ORCID
Igbal Guliev
2
ORCID: ORCID
Kristina Benashvili
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Center for Analysis, Risk Management and Internal Control in Digital Space, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Russia
  2. International Institute of Energy Policy and Diplomacy, MGIMO University, Russia

Abstrakt

The world prefers to increase energy efficiency and use energy from renewable and alternative sources. Ukraine has chosen the same path. To form recommendations for improving state support schemes for the sustainable development of renewable energy, the authors conducted a thorough analysis of the state of renewable energy in Ukraine and its legislative support. The advantage of the study is the visual presentation of data. Thus, the authors presented and analyzed which energy sources Ukraine uses for its own needs, the essence of the Ukrainian energy balance and its state in 2019. The authors found that the development of renewable energy is one of the “Sustainable Development Goals of Ukraine”, which are based on the world. The authors noted the objectives and indicators of the goal, assessed the value of the indicators and found that, even though the goal is one of the most important goals because it is in third place in the number of amendments to existing regulations, there is a lag in plans and more lag on some additional tasks. The authors systematized the legal basis for the functioning of renewable energy and revealed this process’ subject-object relations. The analysis showed that the improvement of state support schemes for the sustainable development of renewable energy should be based on European norms and standards but consider national specifics. The authors proposed and described the principles of improving state support for the sustainable development of renewable energy, which should be based on ensuring the balance of interests of the three main stakeholders of the renewable energy market: the state, energy consumers and investors.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Olha Prokopenko
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anna Chechel
2
ORCID: ORCID
Iryna Sotnyk
3
ORCID: ORCID
Vitaliy Omelyanenko
4 3
ORCID: ORCID
Tetiana Kurbatova
3
ORCID: ORCID
Tetiana Nych
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. International Humanitarian University, Odessa, Ukraine
  2. Donetsk State University of Management, Mariupol, Ukraine
  3. Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine
  4. Institute of Industrial Economics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  5. Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

Abstrakt

Capacity remuneration mechanisms have been imposed globally in order to ensure capacity adequacy and prevent a sharp increase in electricity prices in the long-term. The main causes of their introduction are to provide financial support for companies to generate electricity or reduce consumption in peak demand and ensure sufficient incentives for potential investors. The paper aims to review the capacity remuneration mechanisms introduced in various countries. The following mechanisms are discussed: capacity payment, strategic reserve, reliability options, capacity obligations, and capacity auctions. The paper indicates the main advantages of mechanisms and key challenges related to their introduction and operation as well. The paper contributes to the existing literature by extending and updating the knowledge on the capacity remuneration mechanisms in various energy markets. The results indicate that the most complex schemes are market mechanisms. Regardless of the nature of the traded good (call options, certificates, capacity obligation), the second market structure must be introduced and managed. Consequently, the obligations are imposed on (i) the regulatory body (regulator or transmission system operator), generation companies (or demand-side response), trading companies, and consumers. The other challenge of the implementation of various CRMs is related to the transparent treatment of all technologies. All CRMs should be technologically neutral, but ultimately, some units are more favorable due to their greater impact on the reliability of the power system.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Aleksandra Komorowska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland

Abstrakt

Solar collectors are used increasingly in single-family housing. Their popularity depends on many factors, including the price-to-productivity ratio, which in turn results from the development of solar collector technology as well as entire systems. This development consists of many aspects, including those related to the modernization of control systems and measuring of solar collector systems. Currently used systems offer, among others, the ability to determine the approximate solar heat gains using the sensors necessary for normal control of the sensor system. The paper analyzes, on the example of one facility, how such installations work in Polish conditions. An installation consisting of 3 solar collectors has been selected for analysis, supporting the preparation of hot utility water for a single-family residential building. The detailed analysis concerned days with high heat gains compared to the average heat demand for hot water preparation in the building. The temperature verification method (TVM) of the calculated solar heat gains by the solar system controller has been proposed. Then, differences in measurements according to two methods (controller and TVM) have been presented at various characteristic moments of the installation’s operation (start- -up, stop) and during continuous operation. It has been shown that during the day gains measured by the controller can be 15% lower than gains measured by the TVM method. The check has been carried out at a daily sunlight value higher than 4.8 kWh/m2 measured on a horizontal plane. The ratio of heat energy supplied to the domestic hot water storage tank to the measured insolation has been 34%. The sum of annual solar heat gains measured by the controller and TVM differed by 5.2%.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Piotr Olczak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland

Abstrakt

The beginning of the XXI century was marked by a transitional period in the formation of the world energy system. The issue of energy saving is characterized by significant diversity and is a necessary strategic direction for the efficient use of production capacity with optimal energy costs. Intensive economic development and the use of non-renewable natural resources are currently of concern due to the danger of disturbing the ecological balance in the environment due to the burning of huge amounts of fossil fuels and emissions of various harmful substances. Biofuel production is becoming an alternative to traditional energy and can be a guarantee of solving problems of energy efficient and environmentally friendly development of rural areas. This work is a continuation of research work on the efficiency of biofuels production from energy crops and waste. The aim of the research is to assess the importance of biofuels production from the energy, economic and social aspects for sustainable development of rural areas of the world and Ukraine in particular. The conducted SWOT-analysis made it possible to determine the strategic directions of world biofuels production development. The results showed that biofuels production has a significant potential to decarbonize the economy, reduce reliance on crude oil, improve the environment by reducing emissions, create new “green” jobs in rural areas. The combination of social, economic and energy benefits will have a synergistic effect.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Natalia Pryshliak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dina Tokarchuk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hanna Shevchuk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Management and Law, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Ukraine

Abstrakt

Electromobility and electric cars are the words that began to gain significance in the social discourse in Poland especially intensively since 2017. Then, along with the announcement of the „Plan for the Development of the Electromobility Market in Poland”, government declarations appeared regarding one million electric cars that are to be used on Polish roads by 2025. It is already known today that such a result in Poland is impossible to achieve in the assumed time. According to the report of the Polish Alternative Fuels Association-PSPA (Polish EV Outlook 2020), in the event of introducing subsidies for the purchase of cars or subsidies, such as the possibility of 100% VAT deduction by buyers of such vehicles, the number of electric cars in Poland in 2025 could be over 280 thousand pcs. Without such government support, the Polish electric car park will be twice smaller. High prices of electric cars are one of the key barriers limiting Poles in making decisions related to the purchase of a vehicle. The aim of this article is to analyse the current state of the social environment in relation to the topic of ecological, electric cars. To what extent is it beneficial for the potential car owner to change from a traditional (petrol or diesel) car to an electric car due to purely financial benefits and other aspects? The article consists of an overview – presenting aspects related to the socio-economic benefits of buying an electric car. It also contains specific calculations regarding the profitability of using such a car in Polish conditions.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krystian Majchrzak
1
Piotr Olczak
2
ORCID: ORCID
Dominika Matuszewska
3
ORCID: ORCID
Magdalena Wdowin
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Foundation Instaway Institute, Warszawa, Poland
  2. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
  3. AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland

Abstrakt

The relevance of the study is due to the need to identify the problems, features and consequences of strategic transformations in the metallurgical industry of Ukraine in the context of reviewing the circular process of organization of the economy, where the blast furnace, open-hearth and rolling production waste are of a high potential. The reuse of metallurgical waste has a number of economic advantages in terms of the chemical composition of the product life cycle. Blast furnace slag is suitable as a raw material in cement production and can be used as fillers in the construction of roads, hydraulic and environmental facilities, during reclamation works, etc. Agriculture actively uses slag as a fertilizer that contains potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, magnesium, boron – as an additive that reduces soil acidity. Currently, all slag can be processed into fertilizers or building materials. The economic effect of the use of slag in construction is accounted for in the relatively low cost of products, improvement of the quality and durability of the structures. The main positive consequences of smartization of the metallurgical industry are increase of its resource efficiency and environmental friendliness, negative – the low level of blast furnace slag use in various sectors of the economy compared to the experience of developed countries, an insufficiently developed legal framework. The mechanism of state management of the use of secondary raw materials, especially metallurgical origin, in conditions of shortage of energy resources and the intensive use of non-renewable natural resources remains an important scientific problem and requires further research.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yuri Zakharovich Drachuk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Elena Stalinskaya
2
ORCID: ORCID
Elizaveta Snitko
3
ORCID: ORCID
Evgeniya Zavgorodnyaya
3
ORCID: ORCID
Monika Jaworska
4 5
ORCID: ORCID
Larisa Savyuk
6
Dmitry Cheylyakh
7
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Economics Industry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
  2. Department of International Economic Relations, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ukraine
  3. Department of Management, Lugansk National Taras Shevchenko University, Ukraine
  4. Akademia Humanistyczno-Ekonomiczna w Łodzi
  5. APEIRON Wyższa Szkoła Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego i Indywidualnego w Krakowie, Poland
  6. Ivano-Frankivsk Legal Institute of Odessa National Law Academy, Ukraine
  7. Institute of Industrial Economics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine

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