Applied sciences

Polityka Energetyczna - Energy Policy Journal

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Polityka Energetyczna - Energy Policy Journal | 2021 | vol. 24 | No 3 |

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Abstract

The analysis and assessment of the development of solar energy were carried out and it was noted that the production of solar electricity in the world has increased by more than 15% over the last year. In 2020 there are more than 37 countries with a total photovoltaic capacity of more than one GW, and the share of solar energy in total world electricity production was 8.15%. In the regional context, the largest production of electricity by solar energy sources is in Asia (at the expense of India and China) and North America (USA). The study assesses the main factors in the development of solar energy from the standpoint of environmental friendliness and stability of the electricity supply. The problem of the utilization of solar station equipment in the EU and the US is considered. According to the IPCC, IEA, Solar Power Europe, forecasting the development of solar energy in the world is considered. It is proved that the main factor in assessing the economic efficiency of solar energy production is a regional feature due to natural and climatic conditions (intensity of solar radiation). The use of solar generation is auxiliary for the operation of modern electrical networks as long as the efficiency of photovoltaic cells increases by at least 60–65%. Marginal costs of solar energy are minimal in those countries where active state support is provided. The competitiveness of solar energy is relatively low. However, from the standpoint of replacing energy fuel at a cost of USD 10 per 1 Gcal of solar energy saves 10–20 million tons of conventional fuel. Industrial production of solar electricity at modern solar power plants forms a price at the level of USD 250–450 for 1 MWh.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yevheniia Sribna
1
ORCID: ORCID
Viktor Koval
2
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Olczak
3
ORCID: ORCID
Dmytro Bizonych
4
Dominika Matuszewska
5
ORCID: ORCID
Oleksandr Shtyrov
6

  1. National University of Water Management and Environmental Engineering, Rivne, Ukraine
  2. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  3. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
  4. Etalontechservice LLC, Kharkiv, Ukraine
  5. AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
  6. Petro Mohyla Black Sea National University, Mykolaiv
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Abstract

This paper discusses the idea of combining a photovoltaic system with a heating film system to heat residential buildings. The analysis was performed for a newly built single-family house in Warsaw or its vicinity. The authors have selected the size of the photovoltaic installation, calculated the costs incurred by the user for the installation of a hybrid system, which were additionally compared to the cost of installing a gas installation (gas boiler) used for heating the building. The calculations were made for a single-family house with a usable area of 120 m2, the demand for utility energy for heating purposes in the newly built house was in the range of 10–50 kWh/m2/year. Based on the adopted parameters, the authors evaluated the economic efficiency of both investments (solutions) determining their net present values (NPV). The analysis takes the energy needed only for heating purposes into account.
NPV for a heating system with a gas boiler with an investment outlay EUR 8,000 for buildings purchased for utility energy in the amount of 20 kWh/m2/year and the price for natural gas EUR 0.04 /kWh will be EUR –10,500 (for 15 years, discount rate r = 3%). For the same thermal needs (energy required) of the building, NPV for heating films + photovoltaic (HF + PV) will amount to – EUR 8,100. Comparing the variants will get a EUR 2,400 higher NPV for HF + PV. With a utility energy demand for heating purpose of 50 kWh/m2/year and gas heating installation investment cost of EUR 7,000, the NPV for both variants will be equal for natural gas price = EUR 0.035/kWh.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krystian Majchrzak
1 2
Monika Pepłowska
3
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Olczak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
  2. Instaway Institute, Warszawa, Poland
  3. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

The objective of the European Green Deal is to change Europe into the world’s first climate- -neutral continent by 2050. Therefore, European countries are developing technological solutions to increase the production of energy from renewable sources of energy. In order to universally implement energy production from renewable energy sources, it is necessary to solve the problem of energy storage. The authors discussed the issue of energy storage and renewable energy sources, reviewing applied thermal and mechanical energy storage solutions. They referred to the energy sector in Poland which is based mainly on mining activities. The method that was used in this paper is a review of thermal and mechanical energy storage solutions. In industrial practice, various solutions on energy storage are developed around the world. The authors reviewed those solutions and described the ones which currently function in practice. Hence, the authors presented the good practices of energy storage technology. Additionally, the authors conducted an analysis of statistical data on the energy sector in Poland. The authors presented data on prime energy production in Poland in 2004–2019. They described how the data has changed over time. Subsequently, they presented and interpreted data on renewable energy sources in Poland. They also showed the situation of Poland compared to other European countries in the context of the share of renewables in the final gross energy consumption.
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Authors and Affiliations

Artur Dyczko
1
Paweł Kamiński
2
Kinga Stceuła
3
Dariusz Prostański
4
Michał Kopacz
1
Daniel Kowol
4

  1. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
  2. Faculty of Mining and Geoengineering, AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
  3. Przedsiębiorstwo Budowy Szybów SA, Tarnowskie Góry, Poland
  4. KOMAG Institute of Mining Technology, Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

The article analyzes and evaluates the development of renewable energy from the standpoint of state regulation and incentives. It is noted that the global production of renewable electricity has increased by 15% over the last year. The periods of introduction of the “green tariff” as an economic stimulus for the development of solar energy, which became the starting point for the development of alternative generation in different countries, are analyzed. The role of institutional factors in the development of renewable energy, such as the free issuance of licenses for electricity generation, stimulating the creation of specialized research areas, technology development and production of relevant equipment, was observed. The necessity of taking into account the regional peculiarity in the state stimulation of the development of renewable energy is proved. The economic efficiency of the state regulation of alternative energy in time measurement per conditional unit of alternative renewable energy stations was calculated, taking the coefficient of proportionality into account. Therefore, the calculation indicates the high effectiveness of government policy in regulating energy in terms of only short-term lag (α = 1.3) and the number of stations 80 percent of full saturation relative to the basic needs of energy consumption. A separate further stage in the development of renewable energy without the introduction and expansion of the “green tariff” has been identified. This approach was introduced in Poland, which ensured the country not only the inflow of foreign investment, but also the formation of free competition among investors.
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Authors and Affiliations

Viktor Koval
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yevheniia Sribna
2
ORCID: ORCID
Sylwester Kaczmarzewski
3
Alla Shapovalova
4
Viktor Stupnytskyi
5

  1. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine
  2. National University of Water and Environmental Engineering, Ukraine
  3. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute Polish Akademy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
  4. V.I. Vernadsky Taurida National University, Ukraine
  5. Dubno Branch Higher Education Institution «Open International University of Human Development «Ukraine», Ukraine
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Abstract

This article presents an analysis of the sustainable development of generation sources in the Polish National Electric Power System (NEPS). First, the criteria for this development were formulated. The paper also discusses the current status of generation sources, operating in power plants and combined heat and power (CHP) plants of NEPS. Furthermore, it includes a prediction of power balance in NEPS, determining; predicted electricity gross use, predicted demand for peak capacity during the winter peak, predicted demand for peak capacity during the summer peak and required new capacity of centrally dispatched generation units (CDGUs) in 2025, 2030, 2035 and 2040 that would ensure NEPS operational security. Twenty prospective technologies of electricity generation and combined electricity and heat production were analyzed. These were divided into three groups: system power plants, high- and medium-capacity combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as well as small-capacity power plants and CHP plants (dispersed sources). The unit costs of electricity generation discounted for 2021 were calculated for the analyzed technologies, taking the costs of CO2 emission allowances into account. These costs include: capital costs, fuel costs, maintenance costs, operation costs and environmental costs (CO2 emission allowances). This proceeds to a proposal of a program of the sustainable development of generation sources in NEPS, which includes the desired capacity structure of power plants and CHP plants, and the optimal structure of electricity production in 2030 and 2040. The results of calculations and analyses are presented in tables and figure.
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Authors and Affiliations

Bolesław Zaporowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Electric Power Engineering of Poznań University of Technology, Poznań, Poland
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Abstract

The purpose of this article is to investigate the problematic aspects of standardization of energy management systems in Russian enterprises. The main characteristics of energy management, existing standards in the field of energy management are given. To study the best practices and the effectiveness of the implementation of the energy management system in 2017, the Ministry of Energy of Russia, with the participation of the Federal State Budgetary Institution “Russian Energy Agency” the Ministry of Energy of Russia, carried out the monitoring of energy efficiency management and the implementation of energy management systems in the practice of Russian companies. The peculiarity of the introduction of energy management systems in the practice of managing Russian enterprises has been identified, which consists in the fact that it occurs based on the already implemented quality management system, environmental management, labor protection, when a lot of work has been done (document management, internal audit system, corrective actions, training, provisions providing feedback and the possibility of submitting proposals, etc.). Like any quality management system, the successful implementation of this standard depends on the involvement of all levels and functions of the organization’s management in this process, and especially on top management.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ramilya Savchuk
1
Alexandr Cherkasov
2
Pavel Kondratiev
1
Semen Matskepladze
1

  1. Department of Quality Management, Russian University of Transport, Russia
  2. Department of Transport Construction in Extreme Conditions, Russian University of Transport, Russia
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Abstract

In the early 21st century, the USD 64,000 Question has been whether China is actually integrating into the liberal world order. In this paper I concentrate on one segment of that order: the oil market order. I question the argument that in the present century the oil market order has moved away from being “liberal capitalist” towards becoming “state-capitalist” as a consequence of the rise of China and Chinese preferences. I argue that China has neither changed nor has had the power to change the international oil market order. To demonstrate this, I evaluate China’s behavior towards the three pillars of the liberal oil market order. The first pillar is the United States’ role as the underwriter of the global oil supply. The US guarantees oil security mainly through its military presence in the Persian Gulf, the most important region for oil exports. The US also guarantees the security of sea lines of communication. The second pillar is the ownership structure of the oil industry, where state-owned and privately-owned companies coexist. The third pillar is the currency of the oil trade (the US dollar) and its market-driven pricing system. It replaced the system of OPEC-administered prices that existed between 1973 and 1988. Pricing power moved away from OPEC to the so-called “market”. In the period 2000–2020, China did not challenge any of those three pillars. China may be a mercantilist power, but in the first two decades of the 21st century it remained within the liberal oil market order.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rafał Ulatowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Political Science and International Studies, University of Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Bangladesh is the seventh climate risky country in the world located in South Asia. Progressive economic growth, rapid industrialization and other development efforts are transforming Bangladesh towards a middle-income country. To cope up with the rapid economic growth, the energy supply needs to match energy demand. On the other hand, energy is at the heart of the solution to climate challenge as two-thirds of global greenhouse gas emissions come from the energy sector. At present, around 62% of total electricity depends on gas-fired power generation but its stock is depleting fast due to the increased rate of extraction and use. Considering the shortage of natural resources and being a country worst hit by climate change, the existing state, future prospects, renewable energy policies in Bangladesh are needed to be evaluated to make the existing energy sector more sustainable and modern. A thorough description from secondary sources of the energy sector in Bangladesh is provided in this paper with a special emphasis on the current scenario and future prospects of electricity generation, existing policy issues by using various renewable energy sources. Moreover, a comparison is made regarding the progress in renewable energy sector of Bangladesh with the countries most affected by global climate change. This comparison provides a perspective of how Bangladesh is progressing towards sustainable energy transition while facing problems due to climate change. Finally, recommendations are provided to advance the development of the existing energy sector of Bangladesh to turn it into a sustainable energy sector.
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Authors and Affiliations

Md Moynul Ahsan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Showrov Rahman
2
ORCID: ORCID
Md. Sakib Hossain
3
ORCID: ORCID
Soad Shajid
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Real Estate Development and Management, Ankara University, Turkey
  2. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Gazi University, Turkey
  3. Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Islamic University of Technology (IUT), Bangladesh
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Abstract

Given the importance of renewable energy as it provides alternative energy sources over the traditional fossil fuel that is environmentally friendly, clean and renewable, this research aims to explore scholarly articles and books that present and investigate the challenges and barriers facing the implementation of renewable energy sources in Libya where the social, cultural, financial and awareness aspects are an important consideration against renewable energy. This study contains a review of all relevant, peer-reviewed, and published articles from journals, websites, books, conference proceedings and bulletins. An extensive literature review was carried out with the aim of researching renewable energy in Libya. This was done to take a realistic perspective of the community and the knowledge services accessible. The review of literature has shown that further renewables energy research remains necessary as the current conditions of the energy sector in Libya need to be examined to understand the challenges and difficulties to introduce renewable energy within competent authorities and businesses are examined in accordance with their managers. This indicates the need to conduct various studies in Libya to explore the various challenges, mostly financial and technological, that face the purposeful implementation of renewable energy resources in Libya. Additionally, the level of awareness and culture perception of the use of renewable energy is an important aspect to be considered as reported as barriers affecting the implementation of renewable energy in various parts of the world.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mussa Mohamed Bahour
1
ORCID: ORCID
M.F.M. Alkbir
2
Fatihhi Januddi
2
Adnan Bakri
2

  1. Business School, University Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  2. Advance Facilities Engineering Technology Research Cluster (AFET-RC); Facilities Maintenance Engineering Section (FAME), Malaysian Institute of Industrial Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL MITEC), Persiaran Sinaran Ilmu, Bandar Seri Alam, 81750, Johor, Malaysia
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Abstract

The issues of green energy and sustainable development are one of the most discussed and most important today in face of the global challenges, such as global warming, greenhouse emissions, degradation of the ecology etc. In this regard, green energy is obviously a necessary part of the energy policy of a country. Still, economic crises and instability have led to the necessity to form a sustainable economy; hence the crossing of the two mentioned policies leads to the necessity to figure out what sustainable green energy is. The issues of green energy are very important for the developing economies, which are highly limited in financial resources. The countries of Latin America are among the ones which face significant issues in this sphere. The article is devoted to the formulation of this concept and to the proof that sustainable energy development is individual for every country. The scope of the research is the Latin American region, within the years since 2000. The authors conducted a regression analysis of the GDPs of several countries, namely, Brazil, Argentina, Peru and Colombia and their green energy sectors, and formulated conclusions on sustainable energy sources in these countries. The key findings include the proof of sustainable green energy sources for every researched country and the strategies for the improvement of these countries’ renewable energy sector performance. The novelty of the article encompasses the methodology used and the concept of sustainable renewable energy.
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Authors and Affiliations

Igbal Guliev
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ekaterina Krivosheeva
1
ORCID: ORCID
Luiza Akieva
1
ORCID: ORCID
Petr Kruzhilin
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. International Institute of Energy Policy and Diplomacy, MGIMO University, Russia

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