Nauki Humanistyczne i Społeczne

Rocznik Slawistyczny

Zawartość

Rocznik Slawistyczny | 2020 | No LXIX |

Abstrakt

This article is a contribution to the study of the history of the lexis of the Proto- -Slavic language. The etymological analysis of anatomical lexis presented in this article allows us to establish several chronological layers of the lexis: lexemes inherited from the Indo-European proto-language, lexemes from the Baltic and Slavic language communities, lexemes created from Indo-European bases, and lexemes created from Proto-Slavic bases, which are late innovations of the Proto- -Slavic language. Each stage of the history of the Proto-Slavic lexis is documented with appropriate material. In this way this study advances research on the development of Proto-Slavic historical lexicology.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wiesław Boryś

Abstrakt

The purpose of this article is to show the function and frequency of Turkish loanwords in modern Croatian language based on a questionnaire survey. Respondents were diversified in age, gender nad origin. The subject of analysis were stylistically marked loanwords that have fallen victim to a puristic language policy pursued by the Croatian linguists in popular language guides, especially in the 1990s. As survey results show, these activities aimed at removing Turkish loanwords from Croatian languague proved to be ineffective. Most of these words are still being used by the Croats simultaneously with the native synonyms. Puristic view declared by some of the respondents does not affect the usage of the Turkish loanwords in unofficial situations.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Przemysław Fałowski

Abstrakt

Following G. Bellmann, the article divides the German loanwords in Czech and Slovak roughly into two groups, namely those lexical units that represent a basic code extension (= type A) and those that are used immediately after adoption as (approximately) synonymous lexical duplicates of already existing designations (= type B). While type A words have the best chances of lasting integration, type B words elicit a competitive situation between old and new designations, which can result in substitution, negative integration or semantic diversification. Furthermore, the paper deals with idiosyncrasies of German loanword integration such as the expressiveness of German loanwords in Czech and Slovak and the emotional attitude towards German loanwords in those languages. The article also discusses the causality of displacement and substitution of German loanwords, subsequently elaborates on the loss of terms and realities, the change in domain-specific language use, the role of language awareness and language culture, the loss of immediate contact areas as well as the question of prestige, and concludes with an outlook on future developments.

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Stefan Michael Newerkla

Abstrakt

The article attempts to differentiate, on the basis of selected words recorded in the Polish-East Slavic borderland, whether we are dealing with language loans or old references. The analysis takes into account e.g. ethymological, morphological and geographical criteria. The study focuses on the following words: cot ‘an even number’, czapigi, czepigi ‘plough handle’, had ‘an abominable animal’ and hydzić się ‘loathe’, ‘abhor’, ‘denigrate’, kosiec ‘scyther’, liszka ‘an odd number’, liszny/liszni ‘superfluous’, ‘supernumerary’, przewiąsło ‘a straw belt to tie sheaths siewiec ‘sower’, śloza ‘tear’, żeniec ‘harvester’, żenich, żeniuch ‘bridegroom’, ‘fiancé’, żnieja ‘female harvester’. Recognition as borrowings may be based on those word forms where phonetic elements characteristic of other languages, unknown in Polish, occur. Analysis of certain words has revealed the occurrence of Proto-Slavic and all- -Slavic words, preserved in the Polish language as relics, in peripheral areas. In some cases, it is difficult to make clear-cut decisions, because, for example, the stem of the word is a continuation of the Proto-Slavic forms, to be found in the Polish language, while the derivatives are borrowings.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Dorota Krystyna Rembiszewska
Janusz Siatkowski

Abstrakt

The origin of Proto-Slavic palatal(ized) consonants has interested many linguists. Some of them have tried to connect palatality and velarity of Slavic consonants with the influence of Turkic consonant palatalization or velarization dependent on vowel harmony. This paper is a first study allowing for Turkological point of view and striving to show that there still are many doubts about the Proto- -Turkic influence on Proto-Slavic.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marek Stachowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Jagiellonian University, Institute of Slavonic Studies, Kraków, Poland

Abstrakt

The origin of Proto-Slavic palatal(ized) consonants has interested many linguists. Some of them have tried to connect palatality and velarity of Slavic consonants with the influence of Turkic consonant palatalization or velarization dependent on vowel harmony. This paper is a first study allowing for Turkological point of view and striving to show that there still are many doubts about the Proto- -Turkic influence on Proto-Slavic.
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Marek Stachowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Slavic Studies, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland

Abstrakt

The Electronic System «Archival Card Index» (АСI) represents the digital format of lexical and illustrative materials of the Commission of the Dictionary Living Ukrainian language (All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences), which created the «Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary» by ed. A. Krymsky and S. Yefremov, today recognized as the superlative of Ukrainian lexicography of the 20-30’s of the 20th century, and which is becoming even more relevant today. The value of the АСI consists in the fact that it contains materials IV volume of the «Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary» destroyed in 1933. For the first time since the 1930’s ACI became the object of scientific attention precisely as materials of the repressed Commission, for more than half a century they were considered lost. ACI digital format is needed in order to prevent its physical decay, to return to the linguistic-cultural process, to optimize research work. After all, ACI contains professionally processed linguistic sources of general dictionaries first half XXth century, which are of great value for the restoration of the authenticity of Ukrainian language thinking, to eliminate the prolonged russification of Ukrainian vocabulary and the creation of dictionaries of the Ukrainian language of the 21th century.

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Оксана М. Тищенко

Abstrakt

The author, following the concept of E. Benveniste, considers complex words as a product not only of word-formation derivation, but also of syntactic trans-formation (condensation) of phrases. The object of the transformation is phrases as composite syntactic and semantic constructions, but the derivation itself, i.e. the formation of complex words is carried out in the language according to the same rules as the derivation of simple (not complex) words, and with the same formal techniques as word formation in general, i.e. by affixation and transformation of components of complex words (truncation, interfixation, accent shifts, etc.). At the same time, the syntactic and semantic relations between components that are characteristic of generating phrases retain their meaning in the structure of derived complex words, no matter what models of derivation (semantic and word-forming) they may relate to. Complex words of the same type in their word-formation structure can have completely different semantics, depending on the syntactic and semantic relations that link the components of the original phrases.

The article offers a typology of complex words in the Russian language in terms of their "internal" syntactic and semantic structure. In composites derived from predicative phrases, there are subject, object, locative, temporal, and other semantic models of relations between a predicate and a dependent word. Composites with a supporting noun can be derived both from phrases with a com-positional connection, and from phrases with a subordinate connection (with relations of functional, comparative, and attributive dependence in a broad sense). Similarly, composites with a reference adjective, numeral, and counting words are analyzed. The article contains a criticism of some provisions of the academic "Russian grammar" (1980).

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Светлана М. Толстая

Abstrakt

The author presents basic lines of semantic derivation from Proto-Slavic root *ži-/*živ- in Polish. Working on her theme she discovers an interesting old Slavic isogloss: while in West-Slavic languages the names for concepts ‘life/live’ and ‘animal’ have different etymology, in South- and East-Slavic, with the exception of the Ukrainian language – they have common origin.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Zuzanna Topolińska

Abstrakt

The author analyses the structure of the predicative expression, i.e. a mor-phosyntactic construction functioning as the so-called constitutive predicate of the proposition in question. She illustrates her analysis with examples from Polish and from Macedonian – two languages whose grammatical systems are maximally typologicaly opposed in the frame of the Slavic linguistic group. She states that the predicative expression is composed of 1) constitutive form of verbum finitum and 2) its adjuncts formalized as adverbia and/or adverbialia responding to the questions: when? how long? how? in which mood? in which way? and carrying supplementary information from the semantic domains of the grammatical categories characteristic of the finite verb, such as ‘time’, ‘aspect’, or ‘mood’; most numerous are those informing (a) on the location of the referred to event on the time-axis or (b) on the procedure leading to the realization of that event.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Zuzanna Topolińska

Abstrakt

The author defines the semantic category of diathesis as grammaticalized information about the hierarchy of arguments inscribed into the semantic structure of a predicate. She demonstrates that we can perceive an event from different perspectives depending on which argument is for the moment in the center of our interest. Thus, unlike aspect, mood or tense, diathesis is not an inflectional category of the constitutive predicate of a proposition, but a category of a pro-position as such, notwithstanding the fact that there are oppositions as active ~ passive, or possession ~ appertainance/belonging to which affect directly the surface form of the constitutive predicate. There is also something as a natural diathesis depending on the semantic role of the top argument - it is characteristic of propositions with argument referring to the agens at the top of the hierarchy. Understood this way diathetical hierarchy can serve as a criterion for a fun-ctional classification of propositions and the place of an argument in that hiararchy as a criterion for a functional classification of arguments.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Zuzanna Topolińska

Abstrakt

The article presents another volume “Slavic Linguistic Atlas”, “Personal Characteristics”. The majority of works on this topic have often been atomic – both in the reflection of some aspects and in terms of linguistic geography. In contrast to them the Atlas materials allow to expand its research and to come into cultural dialectology which aims at the reconstruction of the Slavic “living antiquity”. The author pays attention to the fact that the Atlas maps reflect lexical synonymy in various ways: some of them show unity in comprehension of these or those nominated features whereas others demonstrate the high grade of variability. As a result the semantic density of maps is different. Using the criteria of word number per meaning item, the author reveals the areas of “high language voltage” and proves that they have come from different cultural development of the concrete meanings in different Slavic dialects. The author thinks that the difference in map lexical density proves different cultural socialization of human being in different Slavic dialects which has leaded to their differentiation. Thus the maps of “Slavic Linguistic Atlas” along with dialect differentiation illustrate cultural differentiation of the Slavic dialects.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Татьяна И. Вендина

Abstrakt

The discussed and reviewed book may be considered not merely a collection of word studies, but also a monograph dealing with lexical language contacts in the Polish-Eastern Slavic linguistic borderland. The authors examine more than 30 dialect words against the background of imposing Polish and East Slavic linguistic material, utilise the extensive subject literature, and apply modern dialectological research and language contact theory methods. Their main academic achievements include a precise delineation of the extent of East Slavic lexical borrowings in Polish dialect and a convincing verification of the criteria used to determine them. These efforts also allowed them to discover relict Polish-East Slavic references, previously considered borrowings from Ruthenian languages, in the examined lexical material. The publication, due to its advantages in material, theory and methodology, should serve as a model of research on dialectal linguistic borderlands for Slavic language studies. I believe that the book of Dorota Krystyna Rembiszewska and Janusz Siatkowski should deserves to be rated highly.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tadeusz Lewaszkiewicz

Abstrakt

The authors analyze the new book The place of the Macedonian phonetics within the Slavic and Balkan linguistic area from Irena Sawicka and Anna Cychnerska. The book is trying to shed new light on the place of Macedonian phonetics regarding its Slavic heritage and also regarding the contact changes that appeared during development of the Macedonian language in the Balkan linguistic league. Their research is conducted on Macedonian dialects represented in Common linguistic atlas (OLA) and in Phonological bases of the Macedonian dialects from B. Vidoeski. In their book, Sawicka and Cychnerska state that they use diachronic data, but their main goal is to present selected synchronic features from the Macedonian phonetics. They explain most of the phonetic features in Macedonian from an areal-typological aspect with special emphasis on the Balkan convergences. The authors of the book state that the Macedonian phonetic should be included in southwest type of Slavic phonetics. They conclude that the modern form of Macedonian phonetic, to large extent, was influenced by areal position of the Macedonian language and to its development in the Balkan multilingual territory.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Марјан Марковиќ
Веселинка Лаброска

Abstrakt

This publication begins a series of works devoted to the analysis of the semantic derivation of selected Proto-Slavic roots in Macedonian and Polish. The aim of this work is to capture the parallels and differences in the evolution of the two confronted – though rather distant – languages. We obtain Macedonian and Polish visualizations of the world.

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Kazimiera Maria Solecka

Abstrakt

The next issue of the Dictionary of folk stereotypes and symbols, published in Lublin under the editorship of Prof. E. Bartminski, is dedicated to the theme Flowers. Unlike many types of plants, whose cultural semantics "superimpose" on their practical significance in human life, flowers have an almost exclusively symbolic function – they serve as a decoration of the home space and a means of marking persons and objects that perform special ceremonial roles.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Светлана М. Толстая

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