Applied sciences

Archives of Civil Engineering

Content

Archives of Civil Engineering | 2016 | No 4 / I |

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Abstract

In recent years adverse processes of suburbanization have been observed in cities. It has become a serious challenge for urban and transport planners, as it influences largely the quality of space, the quality of life, and the cost of running the city. This paper is dedicated to travel models in areas serviced by a railway system, and is based on a real-life survey example of the Błonie community, a district belonging to the Warsaw metropolitan area. Research carried out in 2014 focused on combined travels behaviors recorded using GPS locators as well as quantitative research (volumes of users across various transport systems).

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Brzeziński
K. Jesionkiewicz-Niedzińska
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Abstract

Hallmark professionalism in probabilistic analysis is to quantify the uncertainties involved in construction materials subject to intrinsic randomness in its physical and mechanical properties and is now gaining popularity in civil engineering arena. As well, knowledge of behaviour of materials is continuously evolving and its statistical descriptors are also changing when more and more data collected or even data updated and hence reliability analysis has to be carried out with the updated data as a continuous process. As per the committee report ACI 544.2R, it is found that there is no attempt made for probabilistic relation between cube compressive strength and cylinder compressive strength for fiber reinforced concrete. In consequence of this report, a robust relation between cube and cylinder of experimentally conducted compressive strength was established by Monte-Carlo simulation technique for different types of fibrous concrete like steel, alkali resistant glass and polyester fibrous concrete before and after thermoshock considering various uncertainties. Nevertheless simulated probabilistic modals, characteristic modals, optimized factor of safety and allowable designed cylinder compressive strength have been developed from the drawn probability of failure graph, which exhibits robust performance in realistic Civil Engineering materials and structures.

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Authors and Affiliations

G. Elangovan
V.M. Rajanandhini
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Abstract

The paper analyses the influence of seasonal temperature variations on fatigue strength of flexible and semi-rigid pavement structures chosen for KR4 traffic flow category. The durability of pavement determined assuming a yearly equivalent temperature of 10˚C and assuming season-dependent equivalent temperatures was compared. Durability of pavement was determined with the use of Asphalt Institute Method and French Method. Finite Element Method was applied in order to obtain the strain and stress states by the means of ANSYS Mechanical software. Obtained results indicate a considerable drop in pavement durability if seasonal temperature variations are considered (up to 64% for flexible pavements and up to 80% for semi-rigid pavements). Durability obtained by the French Method presents lower dependence on the analysed aspect.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Haponiuk
A. Zbiciak
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Abstract

Transportation networks respond differently to applied policies. The Tehran Metropolitan Area has one of the most complex networks with complex users, which has experienced many of these policies change within the past decades. In this study, some of these policies and their effect on air pollution is investigated. The goal is to pinpoint the variables which have the most effect on various transportation models and investigate how new policies should be focused. In order to do so, long-term variations of air pollution monitoring stations were analyzed. Results show that the most significant parameter that may affect air pollution is users' behavior due to the lack of a public transportation network and its level of comfort. The results of this study will be useful in developing new policies and evaluating their long-term consequences in appropriate models.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mansour Hadji Hosseinlou
Shahab Kabiri
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Abstract

This paper presents an evaluation of the Hypoplastic Clay constitutive model for finite element analysis of deep excavations and displacements induced by excavations in the influence zone. A detailed description and formulation of the Hypoplastic Clay soil model is included. A parametric case study of a deep excavation executed in Pliocene clays is presented. FE analysis was performed using several soil models (Mohr-Coulomb, Modified Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager, Modified Cam-Clay, Hypoplastic Clay) and the results were compared to in-situ displacements measurements taken during construction. Final conclusions concerning the suitability of the Hypoplastic Clay model for deep excavation modelling in terms of accurate determination of horizontal displacements of the excavation wall, the uplift of the bottom of excavation, and, most importantly,vertical displacements of the terrain in the vicinity of the excavation are presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Mitew-Czajewska
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Abstract

This paper brings up the issue of population aging and its influence on designing and construction of buildings in Poland. It also touches the problem of adaptation of existing facilities to the needs of the elderly and the disabled. Moreover, current trends in Polish demographics and possible outlook for the next 45 years has been presented. The author presents the current legal state concerning rules and regulations on the aspects of adjusting the buildings and their parts to the needs of the disabled. Additionally, the dimensions and the areas of movement for the disabled as well as the primary functional and requirements for bathrooms have been described. In the next paragraph, a concept of Ambient Assisted Living with examples of sanitary equipment for use in residential buildings has been propose.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. K. Nicał
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Abstract

Modern regulations concerning railway bridges are based on the approach of structural dynamics, which is described in PN-EN standards. This paper presents the results of theoretical dynamic analysis of the HSLM-A train set loading on the structure of a pre-stressed concrete arch bridge - the first railway bridge of its type which was built in Poland (completed in 1959). The recommendations of PN-EN have been followed and modal analysis was carried out to define the sensitivity of the structure to chosen eigenforms. Additionally the paper presents a course of calculations and the conclusions obtained from the analysis of displacements, accelerations, and bending moments induced in the structure through a simulated passage of a high-speed train in the context of the requirements of PN-EN Standards. The conclusions from the current calculations can be used for dynamic analysis of bridges of similar structural solutions.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Oleszek
W. Radomski
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Abstract

The article raised issues related to the design and execution of low-energy objects in Polish conditions. Based on the designed single-family house, adapted to the requirements of the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management ("NF40" standard), the tools to assist investment decisions by investors were shown. An economic analysis and a multi-criteria analysis were performed using AHP method which had provided an answer to the question whether it is worthwhile to bear higher investment costs in order to adjust to the standards of energy-efficient buildings that fulfil a minimal energy consumption's requirements contained in Polish law. In addition, the variant of object that had optimal characteristics due to the different preferences of investors was indicated. This paper includes analysis and observations on the attempts to unify that part of the building sector, which so far is considered to be personalized, and objects in accordance with the corresponding idea are designed as "custom-made".

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Tomczak
O. Kinash
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Abstract

The article presents research results of the strength parameters of HPC achieved in various research conditions. The research was carried out on substantially different samples, both as to the size as the slenderness ratio. Moreover, the assessment of the effect of speed of a load on strength parameters as well as other factors which in a significant way show the difference in the strength values was made. For comparison, the results were also applied to the relations known in ordinary concrete.

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Authors and Affiliations

Daniel Wałach
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Abstract

This study was carried out on the background of Sutong Bridge project based on fracture mechanics, aiming at analyzing the growth mechanism of fatigue cracks of a bridge under the load of vehicles. Stress intensity factor (SIF) can be calculated by various methods. Three steel plates with different kinds of cracks were taken as the samples in this study. With the combination of finite element analysis software ABAQUS and the J integral method, SIF values of the samples were calculated. After that, the extended finite element method in the simulation of fatigue crack growth was introduced, and the simulation of crack growth paths under different external loads was analyzed. At last, we took a partial model from the Sutong Bridge and supposed its two dangerous parts already had fine cracks; then simulative vehicle load was added onto the U-rib to predict crack growth paths using the extended finite element method.

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Authors and Affiliations

H. Zhu
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Abstract

On the 14th of February, 2015, a huge fire broke out on Łazienkowski Bridge; a five span bridge, 423 m long and 28 m wide, built in the years 1972-74. It was a fully steel structure with four plate girders and orthotropic deck. The fire started under the first span during the replacement of wooden service decks. The next day, the Department of Bridges of the Warsaw University of Technology was designated to conduct an expertise material investigation, geometrical verification, and FEM model analysis. The subject of this paper concentrates on geometrical issues. The main difficulty of this task was the lack of full reference data regarding the bridge's original structure. The old design was incomplete and there was no actual surveying results for the undamaged structure. As a conclusion, some remarks focused on surveying measurements and on the final decision regarding this bridge are given. It was eventually exchanged into a brand new one and put into public use on the 28th of October, 2015.

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Authors and Affiliations

H. Zobel
W. Karwowski
M. Wróbel
P. Mossakowski
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Abstract

This article deals with the problem of determining the resistance of end-plate connections. A nonlinear FEM model of the joint was constructed in order to predict its carrying capacity. A standard code procedure was done as well. The analyses have been done to assess atypical end-plate joints designed and constructed as a part of roof structures.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Żółtowski
P. Kalitowski

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Werner Brilon (Germany)
Jacek Chróścielewski
Luc Courard (Belgium)
Andrzej Garbacz
Andrzej Garstecki
Wojciech Gilewski
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Marian Kwietniewski
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Jan Szwabowski
Waldemar Świdziński
Andrew P. Tarko (USA)
Marian Tracz
Edmundas K. Zavadskas (Lithuania)
Jerzy Ziółko

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