Applied sciences

Archives of Civil Engineering

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Archives of Civil Engineering | 2022 | vol. 68 | No 1 |

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Abstract

Idea to travel faster and faster is as old as human civilization. Different ways were used to move from point to point over centuries. The railways, cars, air-plains and rockets were invented. Each of them have limitations and advantages. Therefore, people always look for other, better solutions. One of them is “vacuum rail” moving inside a tube, known also as a Hyperloop. The number of problems to be solved is extremely high. This paper is devoted to civil engineering problems only e.g. viaducts, tunnels, stations. It is necessary to consider the kind of sub- and superstructure supporting the tube, influence of changes of ambient temperature and solar radiation, the way to ensure safety and structural integrity of the structures in case of fire, decompression of a structural tube and air-tightening, occurrence of accidents etc. Taking into account the fact that bridge and tunnel standards do not include information relating to above mentioned problems it is interesting to determine rules for design, construction and maintenance of such structures.
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Bibliography

[1] Z. Malecha, P. Krukowski, P. Pyrka, K. Skrzynecki, P. Prycinski, M. Palka, Analysis of technological rediness transportation system using high speed vehicles in limited space with reducted air preassure. Report for National research and Development Centre – Poland, 06.2018 (in Polish).
[2] M. Pawlik, M. Kycko, K. Zakrzewski, “Hyperloop vehicles spacing control challenges and possible solutions”, Archives of Civil Engineering, 2021, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 261–274, DOI: 10.24425/ace.2021.137167.
[3] J. Piechna, Report on Conceptual Design of Hyperloop, internal material,Warsaw University of Technology, Poland, 2020 (in Polish).
[4] K. Polak, “Hyperloop technology and perspective of implementation”, Prace Instytutu Kolejnictwa, 2017, vol. 156, pp. 28–32 (in Polish).
[5] M. Rudowski, “Intermodal Transport of Hyperloop Capsules – Concept, Requirements, Benefits”, Problemy Kolejnictwa (Railway Reports), 2018, vol. 62, no. 178, pp. 55–62.
[6] R. Sabarinath, “Warsaw Hyperloop Station – Technical Challenges and Opportunities Overview”, MSc. Diploma, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland, 2020.
[7] K. Trzonski, A. Ostenda, “High speed railways – technical and social aspects – Hyperloop One”, Nowoczesne Budownictwo Inzynieryjne, 2017, no.6, pp. 86–90 (in Polish).
[8] J. Tamarit, Evacuated Tube Transportation. Sponsored by CEN/CENELEC, NEN, UNE, 12.2018.
[9] Report “Potential for the development and implementation of the vacuum rail technology in Poland in the social, technical, economic and legal context”, GOSPOSTRATEG, September 2020.
[10] Hyperloop – International Development Overview, Prepared by HARDT, HYPER POLAND, TRANSPOD, ZELEROS, 10.2018.
[11] Hyperloop Alpha by SpaceX, 2017.
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Authors and Affiliations

Henryk Zobel
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anna Pawlak
2
Marek Pawlik
3
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Żółtowski
2
Radosław Czubacki
1
Thakaa Al-Khafaji
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. YLE Inzynierowie Co., Warsaw, Poland
  3. Railways Institute, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Modern construction standards, both from the ACI, EN, ISO, as well as EC group, introduced numerous statistical procedures for the interpretation of concrete compressive strength results obtained on an ongoing basis (in the course of structure implementation), the values of which are subject to various impacts, e.g., arising from climatic conditions, manufacturing variability and component property variability, which are also described by specific random variables. Such an approach is a consequence of introducing the method of limit states in the calculations of building structures, which takes into account a set of various factors influencing structural safety. The term “concrete family” was also introduced, however, the principle of distributing the result or, even more so, the statistically significant size of results within a family was not specified. Deficiencies in the procedures were partially supplemented by the authors of the article, who published papers in the field of distributing results of strength test time series using the Pearson, ��-Student, and Mann–Whitney U tests. However, the publications of the authors define neither the size of obtained subset and their distribution nor the probability of their occurrence. This study fills this gap by showing the size of a statistically determined concrete family, with a defined distribution of the probability of its isolation.
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Bibliography

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[11] J. Jasiczak, M. Kanoniczak, “Justified adoption of normative values ������ and ������ in the estimation of concrete classification for small samples”, Journal of Civil Engineering, Environment and Architecture, JCEEA, 2017, vol. XXXIV, no. 64 (3/I/17), pp. 203–212, DOI: 10.7862/rb.2017.115.
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[22] PN–EN 206–1: 2003 Concrete. Part 1: Requirements, properties, production and conformity.
[23] PN-EN 206¸A1:2016-12. Concrete. English version.
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Authors and Affiliations

Józef Jasiczak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Kanoniczak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Łukasz Smaga
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Transport Engineering, Piotrowo 5, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
  2. Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, 61-614 Poznan, Poland
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Abstract

This paper is a continuation of part I – Theory and verification and presents some examples of application of the Extended Force Density Method. This method allows for form-finding of cable nets under self-weight and is based on the catenary cable element which assures high accuracy of the results and enables solving wide range of problems. Some essentials of the method are highlighted in this article. A computer program UC-Form was developed in order to perform the calculations and graphically present the results. Main advantages and features of the program are presented in this paper. Subsequently the program is used to perform calculations for a few practical examples with taut and slack cables. Input data is provided in order to enable reproducing calculations by other researchers. The outcomes are shown in the paper and prove that EFDM is an efficient tool for analysis of behaviour of cable nets under self-weight in different configurations.
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Bibliography

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[2] H. Deng, Q.F. Jiang, A.S.K. Kwan, “Shape finding of incomplete cable-strut assemblies containing slack and prestressed elements”, Computers and structures, 2005, vol. 83, pp. 1767–1779, DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruc.2005.02.022.
[3] Eurocode 3 – Design of steel structures – Part 1–11: Design of structures with tension components EN 1993-1-1:2006.
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[6] H.-J. Schek, “The Force Density Method for Form Finding and Computation of General Networks”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 1974, vol. 3, pp. 115–134, DOI: 10.1016/0045-7825(74)90045-0.
[7] I.Wójcik-Grzaba, “Extended Force Density Method for cable nets under self-weight. Part I – Theory and verification”, Archives of Civil Engineering, 2021, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 139–157, DOI: 10.24425/ace.2021.138491.
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Authors and Affiliations

Izabela Wójcik-Grząba
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The article discusses a new mathematical method for comparing the consistency of two particle size distribution curves. The proposed method was based on the concept of the distance between two graining curves. In order to investigate whether the distances between the particle size distribution curves are statistically significant, it was proposed to use the statistical test modulus-chi. As an example, the compliance of three sieve curves taken from the earth dam in Pieczyska on the Brda River in Poland was examined. In this way, it was established from which point of the dam the soil was washed away. However, it should be remembered that the size of the soil grains built into the dam does not have to be identical to the grain size of the washed out soil, because the fine fractions will be washed away first, while the larger ones may remain in the body of the earth structure.
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Bibliography

[1] J. Guevara, “Review of particle size distribution analysis methods”, 2018. University of Florida Soil and Water Sciences Department. [Online], Available: https://soils.ifas.ufl.edu/media/soilsifasufledu/sws-mainsite/pdf/technical-papers/Guevara_Jorge_One_Year_Embargo.pdf [Accessed: 28.04.2021].
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[9] L. Opyrchał, “Applying the chi-modulus distribution to test the consistency of measurements”, Metrology and Measurement Systems, 1999, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 135–142.
[10] A. Bak, R. Chmielewski, “The influence of fine fractions content in non-cohesive soils on their compactibility and the CBR value”, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 2019, vol. 25, no. 4, DOI: 10.3846/jcem.2019.9687.
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Authors and Affiliations

Leszek Opyrchał
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ryszard Chmielewski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Aleksandra Bąk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy, ul. gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2, 00–908 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Traditional methods of restoring historical buildings typically consisted in replacing the damaged elements or additional steel and reinforced concrete elements were inserted into the old structure. They significantly interfered with the statics and aesthetics of buildings. Current composite materials used in restoration damage the old structure only slightly and can usually be removed in the future. Due to these advantages they comply with the conservation lawin force. This paper presents a few examples of practical applications of composites the authors have designed for structural reinforcement and protection of historical buildings. Repairs of columns, vaults, masonry walls, stone facades and wooden beams with the use of steel screw-shaped bars and high strength fibres in epoxy resin or cement matrix were presented. Problems of ensuring the proper bond of the composite to the old substrate and insufficient coverage of the fibers with the cement matrix were considered. Although the threats and structural damages which occur in most historical buildings tend to be similar, individual design solutions are required in each case. Historical investigation and detailed measurement of geometry and deflections have to be made before choosing the appropriate method of reinforcing the old structure. It can be predicted that prestressing composite materials used for historical structures will also be applied.
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Authors and Affiliations

Stanisław Jurczakiewicz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Stanisław Karczmarczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, ul. Podchorazych 1, 30-084 Cracow
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Abstract

The paper presents detailed comparisons for numerical simulations of fire development along the facade, with particular emphasis on the so-called “leap frog effect”, for different variations of window opening sizes and storey heights. A total of 9 models were subjected to numerical analysis. The problem occurred in most of the analyzed models – i.e., the fire penetrated through the facade to the higher storey. It should be noted that the adopted hearth was identified by standard parameters, and materials on the facade were non-combustible – as a single-layer wall. In the case of real fires, the parameters of the release rate can also vary greatly, but the values are usually higher. It has been shown that the most dangerous situation is with small size windows, where the discharge of warm gases and flames, causes a fairly easy fire jump between floors. The leap frog effect can be limited by increasing windows and storey height – this changes the shape of the flames escaping from the interior of the building and limits the possibility of fire entering the storeys above. In addition, increasing the size of windows results in a reduction of fire power per unit window dimension [KW/m2] at constant fire power (fuel-controlled fire), which is also of key importance for the fire to penetrate with the leap frog effect.
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Bibliography

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[10] BS 8414-1:2015¸A1:2017 Fire performance of external cladding systems. Test method for non-loadbearing external cladding systems applied to the masonry face of a building, Building Research Establishment.
[11] PN-90/B-02867:1990¸Az1:2001 Fire protection of buildings. The method of testing the degree of fire spread through walls (in Polish).
[12] EOTA No 761/PP/GRO/IMA/19/1133/11140, European Commision, 2019.
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[14] M. Smolka, E. Anselmi, T. Crimi, B. Le Madec, I.F. Moder, K.W. Park, R. Rupp, Y.-H. Yoo, H. Yoshioka, “Semi-natural test methods to evaluate fire safety ofwall claddings:Update”, inMATECWeb of Conferences, 2016, vol. 46, DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/20164601003.
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[21] ISO 13785-2:2002 Reaction-to-fire tests for façades – Part 2: Large-scale test, International Organization for Standardization.
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[25] F. Incropera, D. DeWitt, T. Bergman, A. Lavine, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 6th ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Schabowicz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Sulik
2
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Gorzelańczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Łukasz Zawiślak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Construction Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
  2. Instytut Techniki Budowlanej, Filtrowa 1, 00-611 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

In this study, the uniaxial compression test and the numerical simulation of the twodimensional particle flow code (PFC2D) were used to study the mechanical properties and failure laws of rock masses with parallel cracks. The experiment considers the influences of crack length (��º, crack angle (��1, ��2), and numerical changes in the rock bridge length (ℎ) and bridge angle (��) on failures of rock-like specimens. The results indicate that the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of the rock-like specimens with parallel cracks decreases with increasing �� under different �� values. The smaller angle between the preset crack and the loadinging direction (��) resulting in higher UCS. In addition, a larger ℎ results in higher UCS in the specimen. When ��1 or ��2 is fixed, the UCS and elastic modulus of the specimen show an ‘M’ shape with an increase in ��. Moreover, the crack growth or failure mode of samples with different �� values is similar. When ��1 or ��2 is small, the failure of the specimen is affected by the development and expansion of wing cracks. If one of ��1 and ��2 is large, the failure of the specimen is dominated by the expansion and development of the secondary cracks which is generated at the tip of the prefabricated crack. Furthermore, when the angle between the prefabricated crack and the loading direction is ��1 = 0°, the rock bridge is less likely to reach penetration failure as ℎ increases. Secondary crack connections between the prefabricated cracks occur only when �� is small.
When �� ¡ 30°, the failure mode of the specimen is crack tip cracking which leads to penetration failure of the specimen, or the overall splitting failure.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jie Yang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Haijun Chen
2
ORCID: ORCID
Xiong Liangxiao
3 4
ORCID: ORCID
Zhongyuan Xu
5
Tao Zhou
1
ORCID: ORCID
Changheng Yang
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. College of Environment and Civil Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, 610059, PR China
  2. Geotechnical Engineering Department, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 210029, PR China
  3. School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013, PR China
  4. Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Hydropower Development Key Technology, HydroChina Zhongnan Engineering Corporation, Changsha 410014, PR China
  5. Department of Earth Sciences, University of Delaware, Delaware 19716, United States
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Abstract

This article engages in detailed discussion of the material properties of water pipes made of polyethylene (PE). It describes the influence of properties of the material (including its geometric dimensions) on the level of reliability of pipelines made from PE 100. Values for the index of reliability obtained from analyses carried out using probabilistic methodswere compared with those recommended for the index in regard to a reference period of 50 years and different Reliability Classes (RCs). The fully probabilistic (3rd level) method – Monte Carlo simulation method was used to analyze the reliability. The probabilistic calculations were carried out with account taken of different values for the coefficient of variation describing material parameters, adopted as random variables; as well as the correlations between them. The work detailed here reports an influence of material geometry on the reliability index reported for the analysed pipeline made from PE. Where the analysed PE pipe was associated with a coefficient of variation for wall thickness at or over 0.07, this denoted non-compliance with standard PN-EN 1990:2002 as regards the minimum level of reliability recommended for a reference period of 50 years and Reliability Class RC2.
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Bibliography

[1] European Standard. EN 1990: Eurocode – Basis of structural design. 2004.
[2] International Standard. ISO 2394: General principles on reliability for structures. 2015.
[3] ASTM International Standard. D 3350: Standard Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Pipe and Fittings Materials. 2014.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Studzinski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Vlasta Ondrejka Harbulakova
2
ORCID: ORCID
Izabela Skrzypczak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Rzeszow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, ul. Poznanska 2, 35-084 Rzeszów, Poland
  2. Technical University of Kosice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Vysokoskolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovak Republic
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Abstract

Construction contracts are susceptible to disputes as they regulate very complex multi-party relationships. Previous studies not only fail to aptly outline the distinction between “conflict” and “dispute”, but also fail to adequately study the causes of construction disputes in-light of project delivery systems. The present research aims at assessing the causes and settlement mechanisms of construction disputes in Design-Bid-Build (DBB) and Design-Build (DB) delivery systems with a view to add evidence to the existing knowledge. Accordingly, four most relevant causes of construction disputes identified from previous works of literature were incorporated in a questionnaire survey to determine their frequency of occurrence in the two delivery systems. The Relative Important Index (RII) of the four direct causes of construction disputes computed by SPSS software revealed that, in DBB contracts, the frequency of occurrence of disputable claims (unsettled claims for money/extension of time) has RII = 0.794969/0.777358, project delay has RII = 0.708176, and poor quality of work has RII = 0.469182. In DB contracts, the frequency of occurrence of disputable claims has RII = 0.533333/0.515723, project delay has RII = 0.495597, and poor quality of work has RII = 0.465409. The RII values proved that, DBB projects are significantly prone to disputes than DB projects. Furthermore, qualitative data obtained from road and building project reports exposed that DBB projects are exceedingly prone to disputes because they are frequently vulnerable to an increase in the volume of work due to frequent change orders and design deficiencies. The research further found out that, despite a clear proscription in the laws of the land, there is a routine out of court settlement of public construction disputes in Ethiopia.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sintayehu Kebede
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Heilongjiang University, College of Law, Heilongjiang Province, Harbin City, People’s Republic of China
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Abstract

The paper concerns the computations of mast guys taking into account both geometric and physical nonlinearities. Experimental studies have been conducted, the aim of which was to determine σ - ε (stress – deformation) relation for steel rope and to determine the value of modulus of elasticity after its pre-stretching. Results of the research were used to create appropriate computational cable models within the elastic and inelastic range in SOFiSTiK software, based on FEM. The computational cable models were then used to perform parametric analyses of single cables with horizontal and diagonal chords and computations of a lattice guyed mast. The computational single cables results obtained in the SOFiSTiK software were confronted with the results obtained by the analytical method, based on the cable equation. The FEM analyses performed for single cables have proven usefulness of presented analytical procedure for computation of structures with cable elements (e.g. guyed masts) taking into account both the geometric and physical nonlinearity of the cables. It has been shown that while using steel ropes without pre-stretching, permanent deformations in the cables may occur, which affect the shape of the cable and may significantly reduce values of forces in the cables. This phenomenon can be particularly dangerous in the case of guyed masts, as it may affect the reduction in rigidity of the mast structure.
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Authors and Affiliations

Monika Matuszkiewicz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Renata Pigoń
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Koszalin University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Environmental and Geodetic Sciences, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin, Poland
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Abstract

In this paper, the author proposed a new method for determination of vertical displacements with the use of hydrostatic levelling systems. The traditional method of hydrostatic levelling uses a rule in which a position of reference sensor is stable. This assumption was not adapted in the proposed method. Regarding the issue mentioned above, the reference sensor is treated in the same way as the others sensors that measure the liquid level. As a consequence of this approach there is a possibility of vertical displacement determination of both the reference sensor as well as the remaining controlled sensors. A theoretical considerations were supplemented with the practical examples. The possibility of calculating the vertical displacement of reference sensor is an undoubted advantage of the submitted proposal. This information enables more detailed interpretation of the vertical displacements results obtained from hydrostatic levelling systems. Thus, wider knowledge about maintenance of the entire examined object treated as the rigid body is obtained. The tests that were carried out confirm the theoretical assumptions and encourage to perform further, more precise empirical analyses.
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Authors and Affiliations

Waldemar Kamiński
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, ul. Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
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Abstract

This article relates to optimization and assessment of railway polynomial transition curves. The search for the optimum shape meant here the evaluation of the transition curve properties based on chosen dynamical quantity and generation of such a curve shape. In the study, 2-axle rail vehicle was used. The rail model represented 2-axle freight car of the average values of parameters. Mathematically understood optimization methods were also applied. As the transition curve, the authors used polynomials of 9th and 11th degrees. As the criterion of the assessment, the integral of change of lateral acceleration along the route was also used. Wide range of the circular arc radii was applied by the authors. The mentioned radii were: 600 m, 900 m, 1200 m, 2000 m and 3000 m. In the work the results of the optimization – types of the curvatures of the optimum transition curves, as well as the vehicle dynamics were presented.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Zboinski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Woznica
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Transport, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents the effect of a viscosity modifying admixture (VMA) on the air permeability, sorptivity and strength parameters (compressive and tensile strength) of concrete. The Atlas VM-500 admixture used in the research is a well-known additive that is commonly applied in concrete technology. Air permeability tests were carried out using the Torrent method. It was found that viscosity modifying admixtures (VMAs) have a significant impact on the permeability of concrete. The lowest values of the ���� coefficient were obtained for specimens that matured in a water environment, and which contained 0.5% of VMA. This amount of additive reduced permeability by 34% when compared to the reference series of concrete. For air-conditioned specimens with 1.2% of VMA, the maximum decrease was 28% when compared to the reference samples. In the case of samples conditioned in an environment with an increased humidity, the maximum decrease occurred with a lower VMA content of 0.5% and amounted to 27% when compared to the reference samples. In addition, it was shown that the addition of 1.2% of VMA improved the compressive strength of concrete by 2.3% during its curing in water. In turn, this amount of VMA deteriorated its strength by 10.4% when the specimens were conditioned in air, and by 8.1% when they were conditioned in high humidity.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Kubissa
1
ORCID: ORCID
Karol Prałat
1
ORCID: ORCID
Szymon Kania
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Mechanics and Petrochemistry, ul. Łukasiewicza 17, 09-400 Płock, Poland
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Abstract

The list of potential hazards related to concrete elements and structures prestressed with the use of unbonded tendons, including the flat slabs, is long and fairly well recognized. In addition to the standard accidental events this list includes: mishandling during construction, small fire, local corrosion, loss of bond at the anchorage, second order effects, brittle fracture of elements, etc. Despite of these hazards related to unbonded post-tensioning, this type of structures are extensively promoted and used in practice thanks to the possibility of the large span floors and innovative character of this technology. The paper presents a proposal for the application of risk analysis to assess the robustness of structures with flat slabs prestressed with unbonded tendons. The adoption of variables that determine risk and robustness as fuzzy numbers assigned to linguistic variables are proposed. Numerical example is presented to demonstrate risk and robustness assessment of building structure with unbonded posttensioned slabs supported directly on columns.
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Bibliography

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[26] A. Setareh, H. Saffari, J. Mashhadi, “Assessment of dynamic increase factor for progressive collapse analysis of RC structures”, Engineering Failure Analysis, 2018, vol. 84, pp. 300–310, DOI: 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2017.11.011.
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Authors and Affiliations

Szczepan Woliński
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Pytlowany
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Rzeszów University of Technology, The Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Powstanców Warszawy 12, 35-084 Rzeszów, Poland
  2. Carpathian State College in Krosno, Politechnik Institutution, Dmochowskiego 12, 38-400 Krosno, Poland
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Abstract

The internal forces in stiffeningwalls are usually determining by numerical methods. Extreme values of forces and displacements can be achieved without significant problems. The numerical model is always labour-intensive; therefore, it is not used for single-family or multi-family buildings with a simple wall layout. To calculate efficiently internal forces in such walls uses an analytical model. Eurocode 6 (prEN 1996-1-1: 2019) does not provide specific guidelines for determining geometrical characteristics and procedures for calculating the values of internal forces in the stiffening walls. The use of numerical methods and other reliable methods was allowed. The paper presents the adaptation of the total stiffness method to determine internal forces in a building with a simple wall system. The method was based on dividing the masonry wall with openings into pillars, lintels, bottom sprandels and flanged walls. The analytical results were compared with linear-elastic FEM calculations. It has been demonstrated that flexural stiffness, shear stiffness and localization of rotation centre (RC) had a crucial impact on masonry structure.
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Authors and Affiliations

Radosław Jasiński
1
ORCID: ORCID
Krzysztof Grzyb
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Akademicka 5, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  2. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Akademicka 5, 44-100 Gliwice,Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents selected issues related to the load carrying capacity of joints between concretes cast at different times. The most important factors affecting the shear resistance, such as: surface roughness (profile), shear reinforcement ratio, concrete strength as well as the aggregate composition are discussed, including results of previous experimental studies conducted on push-off specimens and composite reinforced concrete beams. The differences in behaviour and shear resistance of contacts between ordinary concretes, lightweight aggregate concretes and recycled aggregate concretes are presented. Principles of interface design in the light of codes of practise: AASHTO-LRFD, ACI 318-19, EN 1992-1-1 and prEN 1992-1-1 were described. The theoretical predictions were compared with 184 results of experimental tests on push-off specimens. It has been found that most of the procedures allow for a safe estimation of the load carrying capacity of interfaces – with and without shear reinforcement. However, the obtained results were mostly conservative (depending on the considered design procedure, ratio of the experimental to theoretical load carrying capacity lies in range 1.51÷2.68). This may indicate that the description of shear transfer mechanism between concretes cast at different times is still imperfect and need to be improved.
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Authors and Affiliations

Michał Gołdyn
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Lodz University of Technology, Department of Concrete Structures, al. Politechniki 6, 93-590 Łódz, Poland
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Abstract

Mathematical package Matlab is a very convenient programming language, used for calculations in the field of linear algebra for scientists and engineers. Its main advantage for civil engineers is the simplicity of the language and the wide range of application in the field of linear statics. This mathematical platformwas used for programming of static calculations of multi-span, continuous, beam bridge structures. In the formulated theoretical approach, the internal forces were calculated using the method of forces. Knowing the influence matrix and load values in the unit states, the envelope of internal forces can be determined. The first step is entering the vector of loads and the second is calculating an envelope using special function. Obtaining the results from individual loads in a variety of operating conditions, it is possible to calculate the global envelope of internal forces and proceed with modifications of the model. The theoretical approach was computationally tested on the example of an alternative design concept of the MA-46 bridge along the A4 motorway. One of the biggest advantages of the discussed computational approach is the wide access to the results of intermediate calculations. Another benefits of working with mathematical packages are improving insight in the field of static calculations and getting used to working with code like in some programs for structural analysis (e.g. SOFiSTiK). The discussed computational approach is a good way to pre-design due to the little time required to compare several variants of solution, so it can be helpful in optimizing the structure.
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Bibliography

[1] P.I. Kattan, Matlab for Beginners: A Gentle Approach. Petra Books, 2008.
[2] W.Wunderlich,W.D. Pilkey, Mechanics of Structures. Variational and Computational Methods. CRC Press, 2002.
[3] A. Guerra, P.D. Kiousis, “Design optimization of reinforced concrete structures”, Computers and Concrete, 2006, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 313-334.
[4] R.F. Kale, N.G. Gore, P.J. Salunke, “Applications of Matlab in optimization of bridge superstructures”, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 2014, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 34-39.
[5] A. Martins, L. Simões, J. Negrão, “Optimum design of concrete cable-stayed bridges”, Engineering Optimization, 2016, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 772-791, DOI: 10.1080/0305215X.2015.1057057.
[6] A. Martins, L. Simões, J. Negrão, “Optimization of cable forces on concrete cable-stayed bridges including geometrical nonlinearities”, Computers and Structures, 2015, vol. 155, pp. 18-27, DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruc.2015.02.032.
[7] B. Czaplewski, “Projekt mostu drogowego MA-46 w ciagu autostrady A4”. Opiekun: dr inz. Paweł Hawryszków, Politechnika Wrocławska, 2015 (in Polish).
[8] E.C. Hambly, Bridge Deck Behaviour. CRC Press, 1991.
[9] J. Hołowaty, “Numerical Approach for the Live Load Distribution in Road Bridges”, Computer Technology and Application, 2015, vol. 6, pp. 101-106, DOI: 10.17265/1934-7332/2015.02.007.
[10] R. Bareš, Ch.E. Massonnet, Analysis of Beam Grids and Orthotropic Plates by the Guyon–Massonnet-Bareš Method. Lockwood; SNTL, 1968.
[11] J. Biliszczuk, P. Hawryszków, M. Sułkowski, “Kładka Wezowisko w Jadwisinie koło Zegrza”, Inzynieria i Budownictwo, 2009, no. 1/2, pp. 46-48 (in Polish).
[12] J. Biliszczuk, P. Hawryszków, M. Sułkowski, “The design of Snake Footbridge in Jadwisin”, in Concrete structures in Poland 2000-2005. Polish Cement Association, 2006, pp. 12-13.
[13] J. Biliszczuk, P. Hawryszków, M.Wegrzyniak, A. Maury, M. Sułkowski, “Podwieszona kładka dla pieszych z drewna klejonego w Sromowcach Niznych”, Inzynieria i Budownictwo, 2008, no. 1/2, pp. 5-8 (in Polish).
[14] J. Biliszczuk, P. Hawryszków, “Foot and cycling bridge over the Dunajec River in Sromowce Nizne”, in Engineering structures (Inženýrské stavby V4). CKAIT, 2012, pp. 136-143.
[15] H. Zobel, T. Alkhafaji, Mosty drewniane. Warszawa: WKŁ, 2006 (in Polish).
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Hawryszków
1
Bronisław Czaplewski
1

  1. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

Improper disposal of waste tires will not only bring environmental impact and safety risks but also cause a serious waste of resources. In the field of civil engineering materials, waste tire particles are used as a substitute for non-renewable aggregates to produce flexible rubber-cement composites (RCC). To explore the high-speed slicing stability of RCC, this test took normal cement mortar (NCM) and rubber cement mortar (RCM) as research objects. The SHPB tests with the same impact energy level and the high-speed slicing tests with a slice thickness range of about 1.4 mm ~ 4.4 mm were carried out. The results showed that NCM and RCM showed different stability differences in the process of high-speed slicing. In the case of ensuring the integrity of the slice, the minimum thickness of the slice can be better decreased with the increase of the rubber content. Finally, from the perspectives of split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test results and mesoscopic structure states, the essential reason for ensuring the stability of high-speed slicing lied in the improvement of rubber particles (dominant role) and pores on material deformation and flexible energy dissipation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rongzhou Yang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ying Xu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Pei Yuan Chen
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. State Key Laboratory of Mining Response and Disaster Prevention and Control in Deep Coal Mines, School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001, China
  2. School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001, China
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Abstract

Planning maintenance costs is not an easy task. The amount of costs depends on many factors, such as value, age, condition of the property, availability of necessary resources and adopted maintenance strategy. The paper presents a selection of models which allow to estimate the costs of building maintenance, which are then applied to an exemplary office building. The two of the models allow a quick estimation of the budget for the maintenance of the building, following only indicative values. Two other methods take into account the change in the value of money over time and allow to estimate, assuming the adopted strategy and assumed costs, the value of the current amount allocated to the maintenance of the building. The final model is based on the assumptions provided for in Polish legislation. Due to significant simplifications in the models, the obtained results are characterized by a considerable discrepancy. However, they may form the basis for the initial budget planning related to the maintenance of the building. The choice of the method is left to the decision makers, but it is important what input data the decision maker has and the purpose for which he performs the cost calculation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Edyta Plebankiewicz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Agnieszka Leśniak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Eva Vitkova
2
ORCID: ORCID
Vit Hromadka
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
  2. Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Veverí 331/95, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republik
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Abstract

Malaysia’s construction industry is experiencing rapid growth, translating into increased demand for cement. However, cement production pollutes the air to the detriment of the climate via CO2 emission, making research into a cementitious replacement in concrete a necessity. This paper details an experimental study of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with partial replacement of cement by rice straw ash (RSA), which is expected to result in environmental preservation due to the green materials being used in cement production. The physicomechanical properties of the SCC with RSA replacement were determined via its compressive strength, water absorption, self-workability, and fire resistance (residual strength after exposure to high temperatures). The proportion of RSA replacement used were 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%, and all passed the slump flow test, except the 20% and 25% samples. The SCC samples with 15% of RSA replacement reported the highest compressive strength at 7 and 28 curing days and the highest residual strength post-exposure to high temperatures. The lowest percentage of water absorption was reported by the 15% of RSA replacement, with a density of 2370 kg/m3.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rafiza Abd Razak
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Yi Qin Chin
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
3 2
ORCID: ORCID
Zarina Yahya
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mokhzani Khair Ishak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sebastian Garus
4
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Nabiałek
5
ORCID: ORCID
Warid Wazien Ahmad Zailani
6
ORCID: ORCID
Khairil Azman Masri
7
ORCID: ORCID
Andrei Victor Sandu
8
ORCID: ORCID
Agata Śliwa
9
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Faculty of Civil Engineering Technology, 02100 Padang Besar, Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Centre of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech)
  3. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, 01000, Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia
  4. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Czestochowa University of Technology, Czestochowa, Poland
  5. Department of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Czestochowa, Poland
  6. UniversitiTeknologi MARA, School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, 40450 ShahAlam, Selangor, Malaysia
  7. 1 Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang Kuantan Pahang, Malaysia
  8. Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, 71 D. Man-geron Blv., 700050 Iasi, Romania
  9. Division of Materials Processing Technology and Computer Techniques in Materials Science, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

Due to urbanization, the population in the major cities in Malaysia is approximately 72.8% of its total population. The increase of population density has directly increased the amount of sewerage sludge waste that poses threat to the environment. In line with the green initiatives, alternative method to develop good quality concrete material from sewerage sludge waste can be further explored. Traditionally, sewerage sludge waste is processed using incinerator that require high energy and it is time consuming. In this study, microwave heating which require less energy consumption and less time consuming is used for sewerage sludge preparation. Prior to heating process, sewerage sludge waste is over dried at 105°C for 24 hours. Three types of microwave heating namely medium heating, medium high heating and high heating has been used. The chemical and physical properties microwaved sewerage sludge ash (MSSA) was tested using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Based on the result, the recommended temperature for the MSSA production for the concrete is High Mode Temperature. This is due to the result of MSSA for X-Ray Fluorescent test as its shows the highest in the content for pozzolanic element which are SiO2 and Fe2O3 that produce after the microwave burning process. The mineralogical composition and the crystalline phase of the High temperature MSSA due to X-Ray Diffraction test also shows high content of SiO2 as the major component as it is good for pozzolanic reaction in concrete. From the Scanning Electron Microscope test, it is observed that particle of High heated MSSAare slightly smaller than other temperature. Also, the densification occurs at High temperature MSSA. Hence, the optimal burning temperature mode for MSSA is High Mode temperature.
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Authors and Affiliations

Doh Shu Ing
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya
1
ORCID: ORCID
Chia Min Ho
1
ORCID: ORCID
Siew Choo Chin
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Nabiałek
2
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
3
ORCID: ORCID
Sebastian Garus
4
ORCID: ORCID
Agata Śliwa
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. College of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang Kuantan Pahang, Malaysia
  2. Department of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
  3. Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, University Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia
  4. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
  5. Division of Materials Processing Technology and Computer Techniques in Materials Science, Silesian 21 University of Technology, Poland
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Abstract

Porous asphalt mixture (PA), known as open-graded surfaces over a stone bed underneath, allows water to go through. These factors can affect the porous asphalt mixture adhesive strength. The high amount of course aggregate promotes the structure of air voids have certain impacts on the acoustic properties of porous asphalt. The materials properties are consisting of both aggregate and bitumen tests. This study also details out the aggregates sieve analysis test to develop new aggregate gradation for PA. According to five ASEAN countries’ specifications, the sieve analysis test was done. The countries included are Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. The test for the binder includes the softening point, penetration, and ductility. This study also investigates the addition of kenaf fiber in the mixture as an additive. Mechanical performance test for PA using Marshall Stability test to identify the strength and the properties of the conventional PA with the addition of kenaf fiber compared to the new gradation of PA incorporating kenaf fiber. From the results, the addition of 0.3% kenaf modified PA improved the performance of PA in terms of Marshall Stability and volumetric properties.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nur Ezreen Jasni
1
ORCID: ORCID
Khairi Azman Masri
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
2
ORCID: ORCID
Rafiza Abd Razak
3
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Nabiałek
4
ORCID: ORCID
Katarzyna Błoch
4
ORCID: ORCID
Agata Śliwa
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
  2. Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia
  4. Department of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
  5. Division of Materials Processing Technology and Computer Techniques in Materials Science, Silesian21 University of Technology, Poland
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Abstract

The aim of the paper was to analyse the possibility to use waste material which is created during the production of mineral-asphalt mixes as a side effect of the process of drying and dedusting diabase aggregate in high temperature. Experimental studies included the analysis of the influence of the addition of diabase dust on the improvement of the properties of cement concrete destined for the construction of local roads. The mineral additive in the form of diabase dust, which constitutes natural waste, was inserted into the concrete mix as a mineral additive substituting a part of the aggregate with the constant amount of cement and water, and additionally as the substitute for cement. The performed studies resulted in the conclusion that adding diabase dust significantly increased the tightness and density of concrete, which impacts the increase of compressive strength by 7, 21 and 28% in reference to model concrete. The insertion of the waste diabase dust into the concrete mix significantly improved the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete after 150 cycles of testing and reduced the water absorption by 6, 15 and 21%. Using diabase dust as a substitute in the following amount: 50, 100 and 150 kg/m3 did not cause significant changes in the scope of density and water absorption, whereas the reduction of the compressive strength was from 8, 23 and 33% in reference to the model concrete. The application of dust as the substitute for cement resulted in the reduction of the costs of concrete by 6, 12 and 18% and resulted in the possibility to fully apply waste material, which confirms the justness of undertaking implementation research. Concrete with the use of waste rock dusts may be qualified as concrete that is environmentally friendly and compliant with the sustainable development of modern construction materials.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Rudnicki
1
ORCID: ORCID
Robert Jurczak
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy, Military University of Technology in Warsaw, ul. Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 01-476 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, al. Piastów 50a, 70-311 Szczecin, Poland
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Abstract

The article presents the process of structural diagnostics of the Dominican monastery in Lublin. In order to establish the underlying cause of cracks, not only in situ investigations but also detailed analyses of documents were executed. Inventory drawings were examined in order to identify the building’s structural system. The query of historical documents and city archives was carried out to understand the structure’s performance. Conclusions were confronted with the crack pattern. It was established that the damage resulted from the original conditions of the structural system in place. These conditions were created in past, when the monastery incorporated sections of the medieval town wall into its structure.
The article details structural remedies applied in the course of rehabilitation. The introduction of supporting structures was the effect of a compromise between the necessity of ensuring structural safety and the demand for the minimum impact on the heritage site. The article aims to highlight that the structural assessment of the heritage asset is an investigative process. The work also emphasizes that in spite of numerous up-to-date methods helpful in the structural diagnostics of building structure, the conceptual analyses of the structural system still remain of vital importance. The query of historical documents helps in determining the structural system of a historic building, and vice versa, structural analyses assist in recognizing and supplementing the knowledge of the asset’s history.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Halicka
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anna Ostańska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Lublin University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ul. Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin
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Abstract

Tunnel construction survey must be necessary to be very quick so that the results can be known as soon as possible. This aim can be achieved through the intelligent positioning method of tunnel excavation face. In this study, the plane parameters of the tunnel cross-section were transformed into the coordinates of the points on the cross-section to realize the automatic transformation of graphic data. According to the theoretical calculation of the lofting point accuracy, the appropriate measurement control network level and measurement accuracy and the appropriate measurement instruments were selected. The fast and intelligent positioning and setting out of tunnel excavation face was realized base on the technology of data communication between computer and measuring instruments. The intelligent positioning method of tunnel excavation face could greatly reduce the time of measurement and positioning, speed up the project progress, reduce the project risk, shorten the construction period and reduce the project cost.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Jiesheng Zhang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yongzheng Qi
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. The First Engineering Co., LTD. of CTCE Group, No. 434 Fuyang North Road, Hefei 230041, China
  2. Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, No. 2 Mengxi Road, Zhenjiang 212003, China
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Abstract

Currently, more and more investments are carried out in areas with difficult ground conditions, where in addition there may be a high level of groundwater. Therefore, it is necessary to use technologies which ensure the safety of the building in the exploitation phase by, among others, ensuring appropriate leak-tightness of its underground part. The article focuses on presenting the application of watertight concrete system (WCS), also known as "white tub" technology, which is an effective way to protect the underground part of the building against the destructive effects of water. The aim of this paper is to present and analyze selected methods of securing the underground parts of erected buildings using the "white tub" technology. In this paper, the authors analyze and select the solution using a multi-criteria analysis. The presented method will be used on a selected object.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Aleksandra Radziejowska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kazimierz Linczowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Resource Management, Department of Geomechanics, Civil Engineering and Geotechnics, Av. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow, Poland
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Abstract

This paper discusses the use of the Casagrande Cup and Cone Penetrometer Methods for determining the liquid limit of selected organic soils in in the south-eastern region of Poland in laboratory conditions in accordance with the latest standard guidelines. 10 methods established on the basis of literature materials were used to interpret the test results: 4 for test in the Casagrande Cup and 6 for the Cone Penetrometer. The results were compared and used to determine the parameters necessary to assessment of consistency of all type of soils, e.g.: plasticity index ���� (%), consistency index ���� (–) or liquidity index ���� (–). The knowledge of these parameters makes it possible to determine the degree of plasticity of the tested soils using the Cassagrande chart. The conducted research and analyses have shown that the results of determining the liquid limit using the selected methods are not always comparable. The application of calculation methods based on the results of laboratory tests organic soils carried out in accordance with the procedures of the one standard (PN-B-04481: 1988), in the case of interpretation with Method No. 5 and Method No. 7, generated results with the widest range and the highest values in relation to the reference values (Method No. 1). In terms of the suitability of a given method, the type of tested soil, extremely complicated, diverse and heterogeneous structure turned out to be important, and most importantly, the content of organic parts, as evidenced by the results of consistency determination.
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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Straż
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Rzeszow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture Civil Engineering, Powstanców Warszawy 12 Av., 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
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Abstract

Pavements are layered systems from both the geometrical and physical points of view. Flexible pavements most often include a sequence of asphalt layers, typically composed of the wearing course, binder course and base course. So far, there is no definite analytical solution of such a layered system in relation to the temperature distribution that would consider different thermal properties of the respective layers and follow the physical laws of the thermal wave nature of heat propagation. This being so, we are unable to assess the effect of the thermal properties of the respective pavement courses on the overall temperature distribution in the asphalt portion. In multi-layer pavement systems also important are the phenomena taking place at the interfaces between the pavement courses which have a bearing on the service life of pavement. This article presents a newanalytical solution to the problem of heat conduction and refraction in a multi-layer pavement. The solution was used to investigate and determine the effect of wave mode of heat propagation on the vertical temperature distribution, this considering that the pavement system is a sequence of layers comprising the soil subgrade, the base course and the wearing course. Moreover, the classical heat conduction equation is compared with the wave mode equation for a multi-layer pavement system and the temperature distribution in a layered system is compared with the temperature distribution in its homogenized equivalent. The solution of the heat conduction problem in a layered system showed a considerable effect of the thermal compatibility coefficients introduced by the authors and of the thermal refraction of the respective layers on the temperature distribution throughout the multi-layer pavement system. The output of this research includes prediction of the vertical temperature distribution in the pavement and definition of guidelines for reducing the effect of changing climatic conditions on the operation of layered flexible road and airfield pavements. In addition, the research results expand the toolkit for assessing the thermal effect on the actual pavements.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mirosław Graczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Józef Rafa
2
ORCID: ORCID
Adam Zofka
1
ORCID: ORCID
Leszek Rafalski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Road and Bridge Research Institute, Instytutowa 1, 03-302 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Institute of Mathematics and Cryptology, Cybernetics Faculty, Military University of Technology, S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents the approach for optimization of preventive/technological measures increasing the safety of tailings pond dams. It is based on the combined use of monitoring results as well as advanced 3D finite element (FE) modeling. Under consideration was the eastern dam of Zelazny Most Tailings Storage Facility (TSF). As part of the work, four numerical models of the dam and the subsoil, differing in the spatial arrangement of the soil layers, were created. For this purpose, the kriging technique was used. The numerical models were calibrated against the measurements from the monitoring system. In particular the readings acquired from benchmarks, piezometers and inclinometers were used. The optimization of preventive measures was performed for the model that showed the best general fit to the monitoring data. The spatial distribution and installation time of relief wells were both optimized. It was shown that the optimized system of relief wells provides the required safety margin.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dariusz Łydżba
1
ORCID: ORCID
Adrian Różański
1
ORCID: ORCID
Maciej Sobótka
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Stefanek
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
  2. KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. Hydrotechnical Unit, ul. Polkowicka 52, 59-305 Rudna, Poland
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Abstract

Concrete-filled hollow steel (CFHS) has become more popular due to its advantages and benefits compared to reinforced concrete. This paper presents the experimental investigation on the performance of rubberized pozzolanic concrete-filled hollowsteel column (RuPCFHS) under monotonic and cyclic lateral load in comparison to bare hollow steel column and normal concrete-filled hollow steel column (NCFHS). The test parameters included the type of concrete infill and the level of axial load. Modified rubberized pozzolanic concrete with comparable compressive strength to that of normal concrete was used. Two types of axial load conditions: no axial load and 20% axial load were considered in the testing. The test results indicate that the performance of the columns improved when concrete infill was introduced in the hollow steel. The application of axial loading also increased the capacity of the column specimens. RuPCFHS behaved with comparable performance with NCFHS in both monotonic and cyclic testing. RuPCFHS recorded the highest increment in the energy dissipation capability when 20% axial load was applied to the column when compared to the other specimens. The comparable performance indicated the possibility ofRuPC as an infill material of CFHS andRuPCFHS as a structural component.
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Authors and Affiliations

Muhammad Najmi Mohamad Ali Mastor
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mariyana Aida Ab Kadir
2 3
ORCID: ORCID
Nurizaty Zuhan
2
ORCID: ORCID
Kasali Adebayo Mujedu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Zamri Ramli
4
ORCID: ORCID
Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya
5
ORCID: ORCID
Norhazilan Md Noor
2
ORCID: ORCID
Mohamad Syazwan Ahmad Shah
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Candidate, School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  2. School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  3. Institute of Noise and Vibration, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  4. Candidate, School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor,Malaysia
  5. Faculty of Civil Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
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Abstract

A fast reduction of a reservoir level may result in instability of an earth dam caused by the high pore water pressures that remain relatively high in the embankment. Moreover, the dissipation of the accumulated pore water pressures is highly dependent on the permeability of the materials used for the embankment and the storage characteristics of the reservoir. Therefore, in the design of embankment dams, the stability analysis under rapid drawdown loading conditions is an important design case. In this study, the influence of different permeability rates on dam stability under different cases of rapid drawdownwas investigated using the finite element method in SEEP/W and SLOPE/W of the GeoStudio with a case of the Lugoda dam in Ndembera catchment, Tanzania. The modeling process considers the time-dependent hydraulic conditions and the transient flow conditions using different water levels during rapid drawdown for evaluation of the factor of safety. From the 1m per day drawdown rate; the lowest minimum factor of safety value (0.90) was obtained from the 10 -7 m/s material permeability of the upstream zone of the dam. It means that, at a drawdown rate of 1m per day, there is a potential for failure of the embankment if the hydraulic conductivity value will be somewhere below 10 -6 m/s.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yelbek Utepov
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zbigniew Lechowicz
2
ORCID: ORCID
Askar Zhussupbekov
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zdzisław Skutnik
3
ORCID: ORCID
Aliya Aldungarova
4
ORCID: ORCID
Timoth Mkilima
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Civil Engineering, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, 2 Satpayev Str., 010008 Nur-Sultan, Republic of Kazakhstan
  2. Institute of Civil Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 166 Nowoursynowska Str., 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
  3. Institute of Civil Engineering,Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 166 Nowoursynowska Str., 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
  4. CSI Research&Lab, LLP, 010000 Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
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Abstract

Structural solutions in terms of fish ladders and the use of natural materials to construct them often raise concerns regarding the possibility of using the standard calculation methods. The fish ladder being designed on the Wisłok river consists of three pools, separated from each other by baffles made of rock boulders. The purpose of this study was to analyze water surface profiles for fish ladder at specific values of flow rates. The paper presents the results of hydraulic calculations under the conditions of constant flow rate based on the concept of a minimum specific energy. According to this method, water flow through boulders is critical. Thus, it does not take into account head losses, which are hard to estimate and which are the integral part of typical calculation methods, e.g. the use of equations to determine the flow rate of a weir. An additional advantage of this method is that there is no need to assume the flow pattern of one specific weir. Verification calculations of the water depths were conducted using the HEC–RAS software, under an assumption of an one-dimensional steady water flow. Water depths in the fish ladder, calculated using both methods, were similar, despite the adopted different calculation concepts, and can be used in ichthyologic analyses.
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Authors and Affiliations

Michał Kubrak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Błażej Smoliński
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jaromír Riha
2
ORCID: ORCID
Apoloniusz Kodura
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Popielski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kamil Jabłoński
3

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering, ul. Nowowiejska 20, 00-653 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Veverí 331/95, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic
  3. Energoprojekt-Warszawa SA, Al. Niepodległosci 58, 02-626 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Safety of dams and other hydraulic structures is a complex procedure that must consider the individual characteristics of each structure and provide an insight in the structural health at every stage of the structure’s life cycle. Failures of structures permanently or temporarily retaining water may cause large economic damage, environmental disasters, and loss of lives. An engineering design should, therefore, guarantee maximum security of such structures or maximize their reliability not only in ordinary operating conditions but also under extreme hydrological load. By performing structural heath monitoring (SHM), the safety can be optimized, including the performance and life expectancy of a structure by adopting an appropriate methodology to observe the identified failure modes for a selected dam type. To adopt SHM to hydraulic structures it is important to broaden the knowledge and understanding of the ageing processes on hydraulic structures, which can be achieved by laboratory testing and application and development of novel monitoring techniques, e.g., vibration monitoring. In Slovenia, we are increasingly faced with the problem of ageing of dam structures. At the same time, we are also faced with changes in the environment, especially with the variability in time-dependent loads and with new patterns of operation on dams used for hydropower, with several starts and stops of turbines happening on a daily basis. These changes can lead to a decrease in structural and operational safety of dams. In this paper we propose a methodology where the dynamic response of concrete dams is continuously monitored in few locations on the dam using accelerometers, while all significant structural members are measured in discrete time intervals using portable vibrometers. We focused on run-of-the-river dams, which are a common dam type in Slovenia. The pilot case for the system is lower Sava River with a cascade of 5 dams used for hydropower.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mateja Klun
1
ORCID: ORCID
Andrej Kryžanowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Jamova 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Abstract

The issue of assessing socio-economic impacts represent a key element of the decisionmaking process on the implementation of major public investment projects. The correctness of the decision depends both on the chosen principle of the socio-economic analysis and the input data. The presented article focuses on updating selected input values for the socio-economic assessment of railway infrastructure projects. Specifically, the simplified values of the estimated rail accidents costs. Accident costs are used for considering the change in the safety. At present, these values, which are also stated in the national methodological resources, are based on statistical data of the entire European Union and thus do not reflect the possible national specifics of projects implemented in the territory of individual Member States. The principle of updating values is from a methodological point of view based on the original calculation principles, however, involves a set of information items on the occurrences that emerged in the past in a specific area. The output of the article is a set of methodological steps considering national conditions when determining the average accident costs, subsequently verified on a case study of the railway network in the Czech Republic. The outputs of the presented article directly build on the results of the research project in which the team of article authors has been involved. The research results refer to different values of accident costs uniformly determined for the entire European Union territory and those determined individually for the conditions of the railway infrastructure in the Czech Republic.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomáš Funk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Vít Hromádka
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jana Korytárová
1
ORCID: ORCID
Eva Vítková
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Veverí 331/95, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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Abstract

Communication and information flowduring construction project execution is often discussed in the literature. Numerous scholars note the presence of problems with communication and information flow and highlight that these problems also affect construction project completion time and cost. The vast majority of studies on the impact of communication on construction project completion time and cost takes on a qualitative character and there is a lack of quantitative analyses of this subject. To address these deficiencies, the authors of this paper propose a quantitative approach to assessing communication between construction project participants in the aspect of its impact on said project’s completion time and cost. The authors used meta-network theory to model and analyse the problem, as it can fully depict the problem’s complexity. The method proposed allows for dynamic identification of key information flow paths between project participants, which determine its performance in an essential way. The proposed approach can support decision-makers in effective management of communication between a construction project’s participants, which has a positive carryover to achieving planned project goals. The method was tested on a real-world development project that featured the construction of a housing complex in Katowice, Poland.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ewelina Kania
1
ORCID: ORCID
Grzegorz Śladowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Elżbieta Radziszewska-Zielina
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bartłomiej Sroka
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Cracow, Poland
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Abstract

The occurrence of errors in publicworks tender documentation is an undesirable phenomenon which is unfortunately often encountered in construction practice. Errors may have various causes and also have varying levels of negative effects on the successful implementation of the investment project. Taking this fact into consideration, this paper aims to identify and assess errors in terms of the requirements laid down by the applicable legislation in the Czech Republic, especially the Public Procurement Act and the associated implementing decree. A total of 126 public tenders were analysed in detail from this perspective. The results show that the occurrence of particular errors is relatively high, especially with regard to the specification of the bill of quantities and the requirement to include references to openly accessible price systems. Furthermore, errors relating to the specification of the quantity of works, units of measurement and descriptions of cost items were identified as having the largest impact on a project. Findings presented in this paper aim to highlight common errors in public tender documents and raise awareness of the need to improve their quality to ensure legislative compliance.
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Authors and Affiliations

Michal Mikulík
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomas Hanák
1
ORCID: ORCID
Petr Aigel
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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Abstract

The digitalisation of the construction process is a phenomenon that has been significantly accelerated in recent years. BIM (Building Information Modeling) technology is becoming increasingly popular with designers, contractors and investors and is being used, mainly in relation to buildings. In communication objects, the application of BIM is much more difficult, as confirmed by the shifting schedules during implementation trials in road design. And yet, BIM is not only about the design or execution of construction works, it is worth taking advantage of the new possibilities especially at the stage of using the facility. BIM in transportation infrastructure is already used in other countries, mainly in Scandinavia, where work on its implementation began at the beginning of this century. The preparation of appropriate procedures and standards, adjusted to national realities, requires gathering experience on pilot investments. The paper presents an analysis of the necessary initial data which will make it possible to apply BIM in the Polish road construction industry. Moreover, the main risks occurring at various stages of the construction process are presented. The aim of the article is to indicate the necessary actions that will allow the advantages of BIM technology to be used more fully in road investments. The implementation of BIM in Polish road construction is not a distant future but rather "tomorrow", so it is worth knowing the limitations and preparing for the upcoming changes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Artur Juszczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Zielona Góra, Institute of Civil Engineering, St. prof. Z. Szafrana 1, 65-516 Zielona Góra, Poland
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Abstract

Full-length bonded bolts are widely used in deep mining engineering and an in-depth understanding of their mechanical characteristics under complex and high ground stress conditions is of great significance for deep roadway support systems. Based on a quantitative GSI rating system of surrounding rocks and rock nonlinear dilatancy angle model, a nonlinear dilatancy angle model suitable for jointed rocks was developed. The Hoek–Brown strain-softening model parameters were transformed into equivalent Mohr–Coulomb strength parameters, and a numerical model of the deep roadway was constructed using FLAC 3�� numerical simulation software as a tool. The force characteristics of fulllength bonded anchors under different constitutive model and dilatancy angle model conditions were analyzed, and the effects of different lengths of anchors on the stability of the surrounding rock were studied. The obtained results revealed a big difference between the axial forces of bolts calculated by strain-softening and ideal elastic-plastic models. It was also found that bolt shear force was less influenced by the strain-softening behaviors of surrounding rocks. Dilatancy angle greatly affected bolt axial force. Therefore, if the dilatancy angle was neglected, great errors would be created in the calculation results of supporting structure designs. The nonlinear dilatancy angle model of jointed rock masses more accurately captured the stress properties of bolts after field monitoring and analysis. The findings of the study can serve as a guide for calculating the stability of surrounding rocks in deep mining engineering.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zenghua Lin
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. School of Civil Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, China
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Abstract

Stone mastic asphalt is a gap-graded mix and is usually related to its high bitumen content and its skeleton-like constitution. Although famous for its durability, high resistance to fatigue and rutting, issues such as bleeding and premature aging do occur in the mix since it has a high bitumen content and voids due to its gap-graded structure. In order to encounter these problems from affecting the mix, some instances such as adding additives, rejuvenators and stabilizers into the mixture has been implemented. Nowadays, nano materials are being used in the asphalt mixtures and nano titanium is being introduced as a modifier to the asphalt binder in order to improve the mechanical properties of the stone mastic asphalt mix. The related tests done in order to access the improvement are resilient modulus, dynamic creep, moisture susceptibility and binder drain down. The content of nano titanium used in this research are 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%. This study is done to assess the mechanical performance of stone mastic asphalt with nano titanium modified binder.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nur Syafiqah Shamimi Mohd Zali
1
ORCID: ORCID
Khairil Azman Masri
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
2
ORCID: ORCID
Muzamir Hasan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan
3
ORCID: ORCID
Bartłomiej Jeż
4
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Nabiałek
4
ORCID: ORCID
Marek Sroka
5
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Pietrusiewicz
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
  2. Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  3. School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
  4. Department of Physics, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Czestochowa University of Technology, 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
  5. Division of Materials Processing Technology and Computer Techniques in Materials Science, Silesian 21 University of Technology, Poland
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Abstract

In order to study the dynamic mechanical properties of cement soil, uniaxial impact compression tests with different strain rates of cement soil with no fiber and with 0.2% basalt fiber were carried out by using a 50 mm steel split Hopkinson pressure bar device. The test results show that the impact compressive strength, dynamic increase factor and peak strain increase with the increase of strain rate under the same basalt fiber content, showing obvious strain rate effect. The dynamic stress-strain curve of basalt fiber cement soil underwent elastic deformation stage, plastic deformation stage and failure stage.With the increase of strain rate, the degree of fracture of cement soil samples gradually increases, which shows that the number of fragments increases, the size decreases and tends to be uniform. After adding basalt fiber in cement soil, the crack can be delayed, the degree of fracture is smaller than that without fiber and the plasticity of the samples is enhanced. It shows that basalt fiber can improve the impact compressive strength of cement soil.
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Authors and Affiliations

Hai Cao
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Xiangyang Zhang
2

  1. Huangshan University, School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, HuangShan 245041, China
  2. Key Laboratory of Safety and High-efficiency Coal Mining, Ministry of Education (Anhui University of Science and Technology), Huainan 232001, China

Publication Ethics Policy

ETHICS POLICY

”Archives of Civil Engineering” respects and promotes the principles of publishing ethics. Being guided by COPE’s Guidelines ( https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) we ensure that all participants of the publishing process comply with these rules, the journal pays special attention to:

Editor Responsibilities
1. Qualifying individual manuscripts for publication only on the basis of: (a) compliance with the guidelines provided to the authors, (b) substantive value, (c) originality, (d) transparency of presentation
2. Deciding whether the paper fulfills all requirements i.e. formal and scientific and which articles submitted to the journal should be published. In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism.
3. Evaluating manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s).
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5. Providing a fair and appropriate peer review process.
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Reviewer Responsibilities
1. Cooperating with the scientific editor and / or editorial office and the authors in the field of improving the reviewed material;
2. Being objective and expressing the views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.
3. Assessing of the entrusted works in a careful and objective manner, if possible with an assessment of their scientific reliability and with appropriate justification of the comments submitted;
4. identifying relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors
5. calling to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge
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8. Performing a review within the set time limit or accepting another solution jointly with ACE in the event of failure to meet this deadline.
9. Notifying the editor if the invited reviewer feels unqualified to review the manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible.
10. identifying relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors
11. Not considering evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission.

Author Responsibilities
1. Results of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.
2. The authors should follow the principle of originality, which is submitting only their own original works, and in the case of using the works of other authors, marking them in accordance with the rules of quotation, or obtaining consent for the publication of previously published materials from their owners or administrators;
3. An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Parallel submission of the same manuscript to more than one journal constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable.
4. Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study and phenomena such as ghostwriting or guest authorship in the event of their detection must be actively counteracted.
5. All authors should report in a Reliable manner the sources they used to create their own study and their inclusion in the attachment bibliography;
6. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be named in an Acknowledgement section.
7. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors (according to the above definition) and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the author list of the manuscript, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
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9. When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal’s editor or publisher and cooperate with them to either retract the paper or to publish an appropriate erratum.

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In cases of alleged or proven scientific misconduct, fraudulent publication or plagiarism the publisher, in close collaboration with the editors, will take all appropriate measures to clarify the situation and to amend the article in question. This includes the prompt publication of an erratum or, in the most severe cases, the complete retraction of the affected work.

Peer-review Procedure

Manuscript Peer-Review Procedure

”Archives of Civil Engineering” makes sure to provide transparent policies for peer-review, and reviewers have an obligation to conduct reviews in an ethical and accountable manner. There is clear communication between the journal and the reviewers which facilitates consistent, fair, and timely review.

-The model of peer-review is double-blind: the reviewers do not know the names of the authors, and the authors do not know who reviewed their manuscript (but if the research is published reviewers can eventually know the names of the authors). A complete list of reviewers is published in a traditional version of the journal: in-print.
-It is the editor who appoints two reviewers; however, if there are discrepancies in the assessment the third reviewer can be appointed.
-After having accepted to review the manuscript (one-week deadline), the reviewers have approximately 6 weeks to finish the process.
-The paper is published in ACE provided that the reviews are positive. All manuscripts receive grades from 1-5, 5 being positive, 1 negative, the authors receive reviews to read and consider the comments.
-Manuscript evaluations are assigned one of five outcomes: accept without changes, accept after changes suggested by the reviewer, rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review, reject, withdraw.
-Manuscripts requiring minor revision (accept after changes suggested by the reviewer) does not require a second review. All manuscripts receiving a "Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review " evaluation must be subjected to a second review. Rejected manuscripts are given no further consideration. There are cases when the article can be withdrawn, often upon the request of an author, technical reason (e.g. names of authors are placed in the text, lack of references, or inappropriate structure of the text), or plagiarism.
-The revised version of the manuscript should be uploaded to the Editorial System within six weeks. If the author(s) failed to make satisfactory changes, the manuscript is rejected.
-On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit house style.
-Paper publication requires the author's final approval.
- As soon as the publication appears in print and in electronic forms on the Internet there is no possibility to change the content of the article.

Editor’s responsibilities
-The editor decides whether the paper fulfills all requirements i.e. formal and scientific and which articles submitted to the journal should be published.
-In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism.
-The editor maintains the integrity of the academic record, precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, and is always willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.
-The editor evaluates manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s).
-The editor does not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

Reviewers' responsibilities
Any manuscripts received for review are treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review is kept confidential and not used for personal advantage Any invited reviewer who feels unqualified to review the manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should immediately notify the editor so that alternative reviewers can be contacted. Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is unacceptable. Referees should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments. All reviews must be carried out on a special form available in the Editorial System.

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