Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Acoustics

Zawartość

Archives of Acoustics | 2014 | vol. 39 | No 4 |

Abstrakt

In the paper the concept of synthetic aperture used for high resolution/high frame rate ultrasonic imaging is reviewed. The synthetic aperture technique allows building extended “virtual” apertures, synthesized from smaller real aperture resulting in improved lateral resolution along full penetration depth without sacrificing the frame rate. Especially, four methods, synthetic aperture focusing (SAF), multi-element synthetic aperture focusing (M-SAF), synthetic receive aperture (SRA) and synthetic transmit aperture (STA) are addressed. The effective aperture function, describing two-way, far field radiation is a useful tool in beam pattern analysis. Some basic notations, which are used to calculate the effective aperture are introduced in Appendix.
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Acoustic waves are a carrier of information mainly in environments where the use of other types of waves, for example electromagnetic waves, is limited. The term acoustical imaging is widely used in the ultrasonic engineering to imaging areas in which the acoustic waves propagate. In particular, ultrasound is widely used in the visualization of human organs-ultrasonography (Nowicki, 2010). Expanding the concept, acoustical imaging can also be used to presentation (monitoring) the current state of sound intensity distribution leading to characterization of sources in observed underwater region. This can be represented in the form of an acoustic characteristic of the area, for example as a spectrogram. Knowledge of the underwater world which is built by analogy to the perception of the space on the Earth's surface is to be systematize in the form of images. Those images arise as a result of graphical representation of processed acoustic signals. In this paper, it is explained why acoustic waves are used in underwater imaging. Furthermore, the passive and active systems for underwater observation are presented. The paper is illustrated by acoustic images, most of them originated from our own investigation.
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This paper presents an overview of basic concepts, features and difficulties of the boundary element method (BEM) and examples of its application to exterior and interior problems. The basic concepts of the BEM are explained firstly, and different methods for treating the non-uniqueness problem are described. The application of the BEM to half-space problems is feasible by considering a Green's Function that satisfies the boundary condition on the infinite plane. As a special interior problem, the sound field in an ultrasonic homogenizer is computed. A combination of the BEM and the finite element method (FEM) for treating the problem of acoustic-structure interaction is also described. Finally, variants of the BEM are presented, which can be applied to problems arising in flow acoustics.
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Dynamic Time Warping is a standard algorithm used for matching time series irrespective of local tempo variations. Its application in the context of Query-by-Humming interface to multimedia databases requires providing the transposition independence, which involves some additional, sometimes computationally expensive processing and may not guarantee the success, e.g., in the presence of a pitch trend or accidental key changes. The method of tune following, proposed in this paper, enables solving the pitch alignment problem in an adaptive way inspired by the human ability of ignoring typical errors occurring in sung melodies. The experimental validation performed on the database containing 4431 queries and over 5000 templates confirmed the enhancement introduced by the proposed algorithm in terms of the global recognition rate.
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Principal components analysis (PCA) is frequently used for modelling the magnitude of the head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). Assuming that the HRTFs are minimum phase systems, the phase is obtained from the Hilbert transform of the log-magnitude. In recent years, the PCA applied to HRTFs is also used to model individual HRTFs relating the PCA weights with anthropometric measurements of the head, torso and pinnae. The HRTF log-magnitude is the most used format of input data to the PCA, but it has been shown that if the input data is HRTF linear magnitude, the cumulative variance converges faster, and the mean square error (MSE) is smaller. This study demonstrates that PCA applied directly on HRTF complex values is even better than the two formats mentioned above, that is, the MSE is the smallest and the cumulative variance converges faster after the 8th principal component. Different objective experiments around all the median plane put in evidence the differences which, although small, seem to be perceptually detectable. To elucidate this point, psychoacoustic discrimination tests are done between measured and reconstructed HRTFs from the three types of input data mentioned, in the median plane between -45°. and +9°.
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Chinese is a tonal language, which differentiates it from non-tonal languages in the Western countries. A Chinese character consists of an initial, a final, and a tone. In the present study, the effects of noise and reverberation on the Chinese syllable, initial, final, and tone identification in rooms were investigated by using simulated binaural impulse responses through auralization method. The results show that the syllable identification score is the lowest, the tone identification score is the highest, and the initial identification scores are lower than those of the final identification under the same reverberation time and signal-to-noise ratio condition. The Chinese syllable, initial, and final identification scores increase with the increase of signal-to-noise ratio and decrease of the reverberation time. The noise and reverberation have insignificant effects on the Chinese tone identification scores under most room acoustical environments. The statistical relationship between the Chinese syllable articulation and phoneme articulation had been experimentally proved under different noise and reverberation conditions in simulated rooms.
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A substantial quantity of research on muffler design has been restricted to a low frequency range using the plane wave theory. Based on this theory, which is a one-dimensional wave, no higher order wave has been considered. This has resulted in underestimating acoustical performances at higher frequencies when doing muffler analysis via the plane wave model. To overcome the above drawbacks, researchers have assessed a three-dimensional wave propagating for a simple expansion chamber muffler. Therefore, the acoustic effect of a higher order wave (a high frequency wave) is considered here. Unfortunately, there has been scant research on expansion chamber mufflers equipped with baffle plates that enhance noise elimination using a higher-order-mode analysis. Also, space-constrained conditions of industrial muffler designs have never been properly addressed. So, in order to improve the acoustical performance of an expansion chamber muffler within a constrained space, the optimization of an expansion chamber muffler hybridized with multiple baffle plates will be assessed. In this paper, the acoustical model of the expansion chamber muffler will be established by assuming that it is a rigid rectangular tube driven by a piston along the tube wall. Using an eigenfunction (higher-order-mode analysis), a four-pole system matrix for evaluating acoustic performance (STL) is derived. To improve the acoustic performance of the expansion chamber muffler, three kinds of expansion chamber mufflers (KA-KC) with different acoustic mechanisms are introduced and optimized for a targeted tone using a genetic algorithm (GA). Before the optimization process is performed, the higher-order-mode mathematical models of three expansion chamber mufflers (A-C) with various allocations of inlets/outlets and various chambers are also confirmed for accuracy. Results reveal that the STL of the expansion chamber mufflers at the targeted tone has been largely improved and the acoustic performance of a reverse expansion chamber muffler is more efficient than that of a straight expansion chamber muffler. Moreover, the STL of the expansion chamber mufflers will increase as the number of the chambers that separate with baffles increases.
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Abstrakt

This paper describes research behind a Large-Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition (LVCSR) system for the transcription of Senate speeches for the Polish language. The system utilizes severalcomponents: a phonetic transcription system, language and acoustic model training systems, a Voice Activity Detector (VAD), a LVCSR decoder, and a subtitle generator and presentation system. Some of the modules relied on already available tools and some had to be made from the beginning but the authors ensured that they used the most advanced techniques they had available at the time. Finally, several experiments were performed to compare the performance of both more modern and more conventional technologies.
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This paper deals with the problem of the effect of discretization level and certain other parameters characterizing the measurement setup on accuracy of the process of determination of the sound radiation efficiency by means of the Discrete Calculation Method (DCM) described by Hashimoto (2001). The idea behind DCM consists in virtual division of an examined sound radiating structure into rectangular elements each of which is further assumed to contribute to the total radiation effect in the same way as a rigid circular piston having the surface area equal to this of the corresponding virtual element and vibrating in an infinite rigid baffle. The advantage of the method over conventional sound radiation efficiency measurement techniques consists in the fact that instead of acoustic pressure values, source (plate) vibration velocity amplitude values are measured in a selected number of regularly distributed points. In many cases, this allows to determine the sound radiation efficiency with sufficient accuracy, especially for the low frequency regime. The key part of the paper is an analysis of the effect of discretization level (i.e. the choice of the number of points at which vibration amplitude measurements are to be taken with the use of accelerometers) on results obtained with the use of the method and their accuracy. The problem of determining an optimum level of discretization for given excitation frequency range is a very important issue as the labor intensity (time-consuming aspect) of the method is one of its main flaws. As far as the technical aspect of the method is concerned, two different geometrical configurations of the measurement setup were tested.
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The soft tissue attenuation is an interesting parameter from medical point of view, because the value of attenuation coefficient is often related to the state of the tissue. Thus, the imaging of the attenuation coefficient distribution within the tissue could be a useful tool for ultrasonic medical diagnosis. The method of attenuation estimation based on tracking of the mean frequency changes in a backscattered signal is presented in this paper. The attenuation estimates are characterized by high variance due to stochastic character of the backscattered ultrasonic signal and some special methods must be added to data processing to improve the resulting images. The following paper presents the application of Spatial Compounding (SC), Frequency Compounding (FC) and the combination of both. The resulting parametric images are compared by means of root-mean-square errors. The results show that combined SC and FC techniques significantly improve the quality and accuracy of parametric images of attenuation distribution.
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In this paper, a robust and perceptually transparent single-level and multi-level blind audio watermarking scheme using wavelets is proposed. A randomly generated binary sequence is used as a watermark, and wavelet function coding is used to embed the watermark sequence in audio signals. Multi-level watermarking is used to enhance payload capacity and can be used for a different level of security. The robustness of the scheme is evaluated by applying different attacks such as filtering, sampling rate alteration, compression, noise addition, amplitude scaling, and cropping. The simulation results obtained show that the proposed watermarking scheme is resilient to various attacks except cropping. Perceptual transparency of watermark is measured by using Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality (PEAQ) basic model of ITU-R (PEAQ ITU-R BS.1387) on Speech Quality Assessing Material (SQAM) given by European Broadcasting Union (EBU). Average Objective Difference Grade (ODG) measured for this method is -0.067 and -0.080 for single-level and multi-level watermarked audio signals, respectively. In the proposed single-level digital audio watermarking scheme, the payload capacity is increased by 19.05% as compared to the single-level Chirp-Based Digital Audio Watermarking (CB-DAWM) scheme.
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The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the noninvasive method of estimating the actual volume of the blood chamber of the POLVAD-EXT type ventricular assist device (VAD) during its operation. The proposed method is based on the principle of Helmholtz's acoustic resonance. Both the theory, main stages of the development of the measurement method as well as the practical implementation of the proposed method in the physical model of the POLVAD-EXT device are dealt with. The paper contains the results of static measurements by means of the proposed method (conducted at the Department of Optoelectronics, Silesian University of Technology) as well as the dynamic measurements taken at the Foundation of Cardiac Surgery Development (Zabrze, Poland) with the professional model of the human cardiovascular system. The results of these measurements prove that the proposed method allows to estimate the actual blood chamber volume with uncertainties below 10%.
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The paper presents the verification of a solution to the narrow sound frequency range problem of flat reflective panels. The analytical, numerical and experimental studies concerned flat panels, panels with curved edges and also semicircular elements. There were compared the characteristics of sound reflected from the studied elements in order to verify which panel will provide effective sound reflection and also scattering in the required band of higher frequencies, i.e. above the upper limit frequency. Based on the conducted analyzes, it was found that among some presented solutions to narrow sound frequency range problem, the array composed of panels with curved edges is the most preferred one. Nevertheless, its reflection characteristic does not meet all of the requirements, therefore, it is necessary to search for another solution of canopy which is effective over a wide frequency range.
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Abstrakt

Ultrasonic projection imaging is similar to X-ray radiography. Nowadays, ultrasonic projection methods have been developed in the set-up of multi-element flat arrays with miniature transducers, where one of the array acts as a transmitter and the other one is a receiver. In the paper, a new method of the projection imaging using a 1024-element circular ultrasonic transducer array is presented. It allows the choice of a projection scanning plane for any angle around a studied object submerged in water. Fast acquisition of measurement data is achieved as a result of parallel switching of opposite transmitting and receiving transducers in the circular array and vertical movement of the array. The algorithm equalizing the length of measurement rays and the distances between them was elaborated for the reconstruction of projection images. Projection research results of breast phantom obtained by means of the elaborated measurement set-up and compared with mammography simulations (acquired through overlapping of X-ray tomographic images) show that ultrasonic projection method presented in this paper (so-called ultrasonic mammogra-phy) can be applied to the woman's breast and be used as a diagnosis for an early detection of cancerous lesions. It can, most of all, be used as an alternative or complementary method to standard mammography, which is harmful because of ionizing radiation and invasive due to the mechanical compression of tissue.
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Abstrakt

The paper presents an overview of theoretical aspects of ultrasound image reconstruction techniques based on the circular Radon transform inversion. Their potential application in ultrasonography in a similar way as it was successfully done in the x-ray computer tomography is demonstrated. The methods employing Radon transform were previously extensively explored in the synthetic aperture radars, geophysics, and medical imaging using x-ray computer tomography. In this paper the main attention is paid to the ultrasound imaging employing monostatic transmit-receive configuration. Specifically, a single transmit and receive omnidirectional source placed at the same spatial location is used for generation of a wide-band ultrasound pulse and detection of back-scattered waves. The paper presents derivation of the closed-form solution of the CRT inversion algorithms by two different approaches: the range-migration algorithm (RMA) and the deconvolution algorithm (DA). Experimentally determined data of ultrasound phantom obtained using a 32-element 5 MHz linear transducer array with 0.48 mm element pitch and 0.36 mm element width and 5 mm height, excited by a 2 sine cycles burst pulse are used for comparison of images reconstructed by the RMA, DA, and conventional synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). It is demonstrated that both the RMA and SAFT allow better lateral resolution and visualization depth to be achieved as compared to the DA approach. Comparison of the results obtained by the RMA method and the SAFT indicates slight improvement of the lateral resolution for the SAFT of approximately 1.5 and 1.6% at the depth of 12 and 32 mm, respectively. Concurrently, however, the visualization depth increase for the RMA is shown in comparison with the SAFT. Specifically, the scattered echo amplitude increase by the factor of 1.36 and 1.12 at the depth of 22 and 32 mm is demonstrated. It is also shown that the RMA runs about 30% faster than the SAFT and about 12% faster than the DA method
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Abstrakt

A hybrid method is presented for the integration of low-, mid-, and high-frequency driver filters in loud-speaker crossovers. The Pascal matrix is exploited to calculate denominators; the locations of minimum values in frequency magnitude responses are associated with the forms of numerators; the maximum values are used to compute gain factors. The forms of the resulting filters are based on the physical meanings of low-pass, band-pass, and high-pass filters, an intuitive idea which is easy to be understood. Moreover, each coefficient is believed to be simply calculated, an advantage which keeps the software-implemented crossover running smoothly even if crossover frequencies are being changed in real time. This characteristic allows users to efficiently adjust the bandwidths of the driver filters by subjective listening tests if objective measurements of loudspeaker parameters are unavailable. Instead of designing separate structures for a low-, mid-, and high-frequency driver filter, by using the proposed techniques we can implement one structure which merges three types of digital filters. Not only does the integration architecture operate with low computational cost, but its size is also compact. Design examples are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the presented methodology
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In this paper an active multimodal beam vibration reduction via one actuator is considered. The optimal actuator distribution is analyzed with two methods: an exact mathematical principles and the LQ problem idea. It turned out that the same mathematical expressions are derived. Thus, these methods are equivalent.
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Abstrakt

The paper presents a study of a possible application of structure embedded piezoelectric actuators to enhance the performance of a rotating composite beam exhibiting the coupled flexural-flexural vibrations. The discussed transversal and lateral bending modal coupling results from the directional properties of the beam's laminate and ply stacking distribution. The mathematical model of the beam is based on an assumption of cross-sectional non-deformability and it incorporates a number of non-classical effects. The final 1-D governing equations of an active composite beam include both orthotropic properties of the laminate and transversely isotropic properties of piezoelectric layers. The system's control capabilities resulting from embedded Macro Fiber Composite piezoelectric actuators are represented by the boundary bending moment. To enhance the dynamic properties of the composite specimen under consideration a combination of linear proportional control strategies has been used. Comparison studies have been performed, including the impact on modal coupling magnitude and cross-over frequency shift.
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In vibration control with piezoceramics, a high coupling of the piezoelement with the structure is desired. A high coupling improves the damping performance of passive techniques like shunt damping. The coupling can be influenced by a the material properties of the piezoceramics, but also by the placement within the structure and the size of the transducer. Detailed knowlegde about the vibration behavior of the structure is required for this. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the optimal shape of piezoelectric elements. General results for one-dimensional, but inhomogeneos strain distribution are provided. These results are applied to the case of a longitudinal transducer and a bending bimorph. It is obtained that for maximum coupling, only a certain fracture of the volume should be made of piezoelectric material&
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One-dimensional experimental modal analysis of an unvarnished trapezoidal violin built after the description of F. Savart and an anonymous trapezoidal violin on display in the Music Instrument Museum of Brussels is described. The analysis has revealed ten prominent modes. A mode that may potentially play a role of the “tonal barometer” of the instrument is pointed out. The mode shapes are symmetric and of high amplitude, due to the construction of the instrument. Subjective evaluation of the sound quality demonstrated no pronounced difference between the trapezoidal violin and normal violin.
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This article presents a study on music genre classification based on music separation into harmonic and drum components. For this purpose, audio signal separation is executed to extend the overall vector of parameters by new descriptors extracted from harmonic and/or drum music content. The study is performed using the ISMIS database of music files represented by vectors of parameters containing music features. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier and co-training method adapted for the standard SVM are involved in genre classification. Also, some additional experiments are performed using reduced feature vectors, which improved the overall result. Finally, results and conclusions drawn from the study are presented, and suggestions for further work are outlined.
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Beams with rectangular cross-section, with large length-to-width ratio, can be excited to torsional vibrations. If the piezoelectric elements are mounted to the beam in pairs at the same cross-section with two separated elements positioned on the same side of the beam, and the voltages applied to them are in the opposite phase, they produce twisting moments which can be applied to reduce the torsional vibrations. Results of FEM simulations are presented and analysed in the paper. All analyses are performed for a steel free-clamped beam. The piezoelectric elements made of PZT material are mounted in pairs on one side of the beam. The analyses are done for separated natural modes.
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The paper is another step in discussion concerning the method of determining the distributions of pulses forcing vibrations of a system. Solving a stochastic problem for systems subjected to random series of pulses requires determining the distribution for a linear oscillator with damping. The goal of the study is to minimize the error issuing from the finite time interval. The applied model of investigations is supposed to answer the question how to select the parameters of a vibrating system so that the difference between the actual distribution of random pulses and that determined from the waveform is as small as possible.
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The aim of the study was to identify acoustic and structural modes in the spectrum obtained exper-imentally inside an operator's cab in a bulldozer. Measurements were taken inside the operator's cab in a caterpillar-track bulldozer Polremaco TD12NPH2E-2000, designed for work in underground mine enclosures. The acoustic pressure spectrum was obtained for varied rotational speeds of the engine during the free run of the machine. The reverberation time of the cab was determined basing on the pulse-type excited pressure response, followed by identification of the spectral components registered by measurements. Thus, identified frequencies were compared with natural acoustic frequencies registered inside the operator's cab and with frequencies associated with the valves and ignition frequencies due to rotational speed and natural frequencies of structural vibrations of the cab's walls. This study was conducted in an attempt to reduce the noise inside the operator's cab using passive methods
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It is with great sadness that we inform our readers about the recent death of Professor Stefan Ernst. Stefan Ernst was born in Piaśniki, Upper Silesia, on November 03, 1934, to parents of Polish-German descent. His primary education started during the war at a German-speaking school in Wirek and continued in Olesno, where he also got his secondary education. As chemistry studies were not yet available at the University ofWrocław in 1953, he started studying biology and switched to chemistry a year later. He received his master’s degree in chemistry in 1959, as one of the first graduates in that major. Then, he started his work on application of thermodynamics and molecular acoustics in investigation of liquid phases under the guidance of the Prof. Bogusława Jeżowska-Trzebiatowska. On 28 November 1967, he defended his PhD thesis entitled “Association-Dissociation Equilibria and the Structure of Uranyl Compounds in Organic Solvents” at the University of Wrocław. Professor Stefan Ernst was a linguist, a polyglot, a renowned thermodynamisist and a researcher of molecular acoustics. With great regret and shock we have learned of his sudden and unexpected death on August 03, 2014, in a hospital in Kraków.
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Redakcja

Editorial Board
Editor-in-Chief
Andrzej Nowicki (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
Deputy Editor-in-Chief
Barbara Gambin (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
Associate Editors
Genaral linear acoustics and physical acoustics
• Wojciech P. Rdzanek (University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów)
• Anna Snakowska (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
Architectural acoustics
• Tadeusz Kamisiński (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
Musical acoustics and psychological acoustics
• Andrzej Miśkiewicz (The Fryderyk Chopin University of Music, Warszawa)
• Anna Preis (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań)
Underwater acoustics and nonlinear acoustics
• Grażyna Grelowska (Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk)
Speech, Computational acoustics and signal processing
• Ryszard Gubrynowicz (Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Warszawa)
Ultrasonics, transducers and instrumentation
• Krzysztof Opieliński (Wrocław University of Technology, Wrocław)
Electroacoustics
• Jan Żera (Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa)
Noise control and environmental acoustics
• Jan Adamczyk (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
• Mirosław Meissner (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
• Janusz Kompała (Central Mining Institute, Katowice)
Secretary
• Izabela Ewa Mika

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