Nauki Biologiczne i Rolnicze

Journal of Water and Land Development


Journal of Water and Land Development | 2015 | No 26 |


A strategic vision to ensure an adequate, safe and secure drinking water supply presents a challenge, particularly for such a small country as Jordan, faced with a critical supply-demand imbalance and a high risk of water quality deterioration. In order to provide sustainable and equitable long-term water management plans for the future, current and future demands, along with available adaptation options should be assessed through community engagement. An analysis of available water resources, existing demands and use per sector served to assess the nation’s historic water status. Taking into account the effect of both population growth and rainfall reduction, future per sector demands were predicted by linear temporal trend analysis. Water sector vulnerability and adaptation options were assessed by engaging thirty five stakeholders. A set of weighed-criterions were selected, adopted, modified, and then framed into comprehensive guidelines. A quantitative ratio-level approach was used to quantify the magnitude and likelihood of risks and opportunities associated with each proposed adaptation measure using the level of effectiveness and severity status. Prioritization indicated that public awareness and training programs were the most feasible and effective adaptation measures, while building new infrastructure was of low priority. Associated barriers were related to a lack of financial resources, institutional arrangements, and data collection, sharing, availability, consistency and transparency, as well as willingness to adapt. Independent community-based watershed-vulnerability analyses to address water integrity at watershed scale are recommended.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Nezar Hammouri
Mohammad Al-Qinna
Mohammad Salahat
Jan Adamowski
Shiv O. Prasher


Satellite remote sensing provides a synoptic view of the land and a spatial context for measuring drought impacts, which have proved to be a valuable source of spatially continuous data with improved information for monitoring vegetation dynamics. Many studies have focused on detecting drought effects over large areas, given the wide availability of low-resolution images. In this study, however, the objective was to focus on a smaller area (1085 km2) using Landsat ETM+ images (multispectral resolution of 30 m and 15 m panchromatic), and to process very accurate Land Use Land Cover (LULC) classification to determine with great precision the effects of drought in specific classes. The study area was the Tortugas-Tepezata sub watershed (Moctezuma River), located in the state of Hidalgo in central Mexico. The LULC classification was processed using a new method based on available ancillary information plus analysis of three single date satellite images. The newly developed LULC methodology developed produced overall accuracies ranging from 87.88% to 92.42%. Spectral indices for vegetation and soil/vegetation moisture were used to detect anomalies in vegetation development caused by drought; furthermore, the area of water bodies was measured and compared to detect changes in water availability for irrigated crops. The proposed methodology has the potential to be used as a tool to identify, in detail, the effects of drought in rainfed agricultural lands in developing regions, and it can also be used as a mechanism to prevent and provide relief in the event of droughts.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Andres Sierra-Soler
Jan Adamowski
Zhiming Qi
Hossein Saadat
Santosh Pingale


While assessing the effects of climate change at global or regional scales, local factors responsible for climate change are generalized, which results in the averaging of effects. However, climate change assessment is required at a micro-scale to determine the severity of climate change. To ascertain the impact of spatial scales on climate change assessments, trends and shifts in annual and seasonal (monsoon and non-monsoon), rainfall and temperature (minimum, average and maximum) were determined at three different spatial resolutions in India (Ajmer city, Ajmer District and Rajasthan State). The Mann–Kendall (MK), MK test with pre-whitening of series (MK–PW), and Modified Mann–Kendall (MMK) test, along with other statistical techniques were used for the trend analysis. The Pettitt–Mann–Whitney (PMW) test was applied to detect the temporal shift in climatic parameters. The Sen’s slope and % change in rainfall and temperature were also estimated over the study period (35 years). The annual and seasonal average temperature indicates significant warming trends, when assessed at a fine spatial resolution (Ajmer city) compared to a coarser spatial resolution (Ajmer District and Rajasthan State resolutions). Increasing trend was observed in minimum, mean and maximum temperature at all spatial scales; however, trends were more pronounced at a finer spatial resolution (Ajmer city). The PMW test indicates only the significant shift in non-monsoon season rainfall, which shows an increase in rainfall after 1995 in Ajmer city. The Kurtosis and coefficient of variation also revealed significant climate change, when assessed at a finer spatial resolution (Ajmer city) compared to a coarser resolution. This shows the contribution of land use/land cover change and several other local anthropogenic activities on climate change. The results of this study can be useful for the identification of optimum climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies based on the severity of climate change at different spatial scales.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Santosh Pingale
Jan Adamowski
Mahesh Jat
Deepak Khare


CropSyst (Cropping Systems Simulation) is used as an analytic tool for studying irrigation water management to increase wheat productivity. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted to 1) calibrate CropSyst model for wheat grown under sprinkler and drip irrigation systems, 2) to use the simulation results to analyse the relationship between applied irrigation amount and the resulted yield and 3) to simulate the effect of saving irrigation water on wheat yield. Drip irrigation system in three treatments (100%, 75% and 50% of crop evapotranspiration – ETc) and under sprinkler irrigation system in five treatments (100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20% of ETc) were imposed on these experiments. Results using CropSyst calibration revealed-that results of using CropSyst calibration revealed that the model was able to predict wheat grain and biological yield, with high degree of accuracy. Using 100% ETc under drip system resulted in very low water stress index (WSI = 0.008), whereas using 100% ETc sprinkler system resulted in WSI = 0.1, which proved that application of 100% ETc enough to ensure high yield. The rest of deficit irrigation treatments resulted in high yield losses. Simulation of application of 90% ETc not only reduced yield losses to either irrigation system, but also increased land and water productivity. Thus, it can be recommended to apply irrigation water to wheat equal to 90% ETc to save on the applied water and increase water productivity.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tahany Noreldin
Samiha Ouda
Oussama Mounzer
Magdi T. Abdelhamid


According to the Nitrate Directive it is necessary to established a protective belt (ecotones) around lakes. Inside these belts, it is forbidden to use fertilize for agricultural purposes. It is believed that it is the most imported measure to protect water quality in the lake. The analysis were conducted to estimate the sources of nitrogen entering the waters of the lake. Some analysis were conducted to estimate the sources of nitrogen entering waters of the lake. It was proved that the biggest load (more than 80%) of contamination is entering the lake with water flowing in streams and ditches. Only 10% of the chemicals are entering the lake with the groundwater filtrating to the lake. It is very important to use a proper methods of agriculture with proper methods of fertilization in the whole area of river basin flowing to the lakes.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Waldemar Mioduszewski


Imotsko-Bekijsko Polje has an area of 9 500 ha and is one of the biggest karst fields (polje) in the Dinaric Mountains, extending over the territory of two states: Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Many hydraulic structures (reservoirs, retentions, tunnels, etc.) have been built since the middle of 20th century in order to protect polje against floods. Therefore, the security from flooding has increased substantially. However, there is still periodical flooding in the southeastern lowest part of the polje. The largest flood in recent times was in January 2010, when 2676 ha (28% of the area) was flooded. The polje is a typical karst with very complex hydrological and hydrogeological relations. In this paper two hydrological stations, Nuga at the lowest part and Kamenmost in the central part of the polje with respectable hydrological series, are statistically analysed. In particular, the efficiency of existing hydraulic structures for flood mitigation is estimated. The research points out that floods in Imotsko-Bekijsko Polje are largely influenced by water management objects (reservoir, retention, tunnel) and only indirectly by precipitation.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Igor Ljubenkov


Professor Dr. Hab. Mohamed Hazem Kalaji
Managing Editor
Dr Adam Brysiewicz
English Language Editor
Charlotte Aldred (English Native Speaker)
Associate Editors
Szczepan L. DĄBKOWSKI (environmental engineering, hydrology, hydraulics) - Institute of Technology and Life Sciences, Falenty, Poland
Magdalena BORYS (hydraulic engineering, environmental geotechnics) - Institute of Technology and Life Sciences, Falenty, Poland
Piotr BUGAJSKI (water and wastewater management) – Agriculture Univeristy in Kraków, Poland
Tomasz GNATOWSKI (soil water management) - Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Poland
Krzysztof JÓŹWIAKOWSKI (water and wastewater management) - University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
Lech KUFEL (language editor) - Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities (UPH) , Poland
Josephine MAES-SMOLARSKI (language editor) - Golf Etc., Zielona, Poland
Mariusz SOJKA - Poznań University of Life Science, Poland
Lech Wojciech SZAJDAK (environmental chemistry, chemistry and biochemistry of soils) - Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment (IAFE) of Polish Academy of Sciences
Tomasz SZYMCZAK (statistics editor) - Institute of Technology and Life Sciences, Falenty, Poland
Szymon SZEWRAŃSKI (landscape architecture, spatial economy) - Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
Romuald ŻMUDA (irrigation and drainage, land reclamation) - Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
Andrzej ŻYROMSKI (agrometeorology, hydrometeorology) - Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
Editorial Board
Jan ADAMOWSKI – McGill University, Quebec, Canada
Okke BATELAAN – Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
Narayan R. BIRASAL – KLE Society’s G H College, Haveri, India
Nicholas CLARKE – Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Ås, Norway
Dušan HUSKA – Agricultural University, Nitra, Slovak
Arvo IITAL – Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia
Edmund KACA – Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Poland
Stanisław KOSTRZEWA – Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
Pyotr I. KOVALENKO – Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Engineering and Land Reclamation, Kiev, Ukraine
Irena KRISCIUKAITIENE – Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics, Vilnius, Lithuania
Anatolyi P. LICHACEWICZ – Institute of Melioration, Minsk, Belarus
Ferenc LIGETVARI – Agriculture University, Debrecen, Hungary
Hanna OBARSKA-PEMPKOWIAK – University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland
Ola PALM – Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala, Sweden
Edward PIERZGALSKI – Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Poland
Czesław PRZYBYŁA – Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland
Joachim QUAST – Zentrum für Hydrologie ZALF, Müncheberg, Germany
Erik P. QUERNER – Alterra, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Antanas S. SILEIKA – Water Research Institute of the ASU, Kedainiai, Lithuania
Martin J. WASSEN – University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Ingrid WESSTRÖM – Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Muhammad AQEEL ASHRAF – University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Editorial Department
Institute of Technology and Life Sciences
Falenty, al. Hrabska 3
05-090 Raszyn

phone +48 22 720 05 98
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Instrukcje dla autorów

Authors should submit manuscripts via the Editorial Board (Editorial system - Submit Your Manuscript )

1. "Journal of Water and Land Development” is published four times a year in English, articles are followed by a short (not exceeding 200 words) summary in Polish.
2. Conciseness of style is a prequisite, avoid verbose phrases and abvious statements. Manuscript should not exceed 1 printing sheet (20 standard pages of 1800 characters per page). Tables, figures and short summary should be typed at the end of the paper on separate pages.
3. Each article should contain the following elements: title, name and surname of the author(s), authors' affiliation, short abstract no longer than 150–200 words, key words, text of the paper divided into Introduction, Material and Methods, Results and Discussion, References (arranged in alphabetic order as shown below) and summary in Polish BENCALA K.E., WALTERS R.A. 1983. Simulation of solute transport in mountain pool-and riffle stream: a transient storage model. Water Resources Research. Vol. 19 p. 718–724. GÓRECKI A. 1987. Rozpoznanie i opis sztucznych pól odniesień przestrzennych [Recognition and description of the artificial plots of spatial relations]. Manuscript. Wrocław. Uniwersytet Wrocławski pp. 18. JANKOWSKI M. 2006. Elementy grafiki komputerowej [Elements of the computer graphics]. Warszawa. WNT. ISBN 8320431638 pp. 220. STRZELECKI T. 1994. Rola systemów informacji geograficznej w zarządzaniu państwem, województwem i gminą. W: Komputerowe wspomaganie badań naukowych [The role of GIS in the management of the state, voivodship and community. In: Computer aided research]. I Konferencja Środowiskowa. Wrocław. Wrocławskie Towarzystwo Naukowe p. 19–25. Papers referred to should be quoted in the text as KOWALSKI [1997], [KOWALSKI, NOWAK 1997]. If there are more than two authors, please add et al. after the first name i.e. NOWAK et al. [1997]. English version of the non-congress language title should be added in brackets.
4. Figures should be draw on tracing paper or delivered as laser printouts. Legends in the graphs should be restricted to numerical and letter descriptions, other explanations should be placed in the figure caption. Descriptions remaining within the graph should be in English and of the proportional size (i.e. they must ensure readability after graph size reduction).
5. Tables should fit to the width (16 cm) and height (24 cm) of the column.
6. Data illustrated in Figures should not appear in Tables and vice versa.
7. All variables in equations and in the text should be written in italic. Use SI units in the form g·cm–3 and not g/ml.
8. Manuscript should be sent in three copies with tables, graphs and English abstract and Polish summary with title and key words on separate pages. Enclose a floppy disc with the text written in Word for Windows with tables and figures saved in separate files.

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Journal of Water and Land Development jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 3.0.

Journal of Water and Land Development is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 3.0

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