Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Water and Land Development

Content

Journal of Water and Land Development | 2021 | No 48 |

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Abstract

A computer model EUSS (Emission Uniformity on Sloping Surfaces) has been developed to design and evaluate the system capacity under operating conditions for drip irrigation system. And achieve the desired value of emission uniformity that is not significantly different according to the recommended values by applying it in field experiment located at Al- -Slahia city, Egypt. The model has the ability to design the system by all of the common design techniques and have ability to customize any of them.

EUSS model includes two main parts: crop water requirements, and hydraulic calculations of the system using metric unit system. It developed in graphical user interface of the programming language C-sharp (C#) by using Microsoft Visual Studio. The model database is containing the equations, tables and reference values to get more rapid and accurate results, and gives the opportunity for selecting some parameters such as: soil properties, characteristics of the corresponding crop, and climatic data. EUSS model allows the user to assume or set definite values, for example plot layout, land slopes and topography, the emitter characteristics and operating conditions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Wafaa Abo Zied
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohammed Hanafy
1
Ehab Mostafa
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ahmed Abo Habssa
2

  1. Cairo University, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering Department, Gamaa Street 1, Giza, 12613, Egypt
  2. Helwan University, Mataria Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical Power Department, Helwan, Egypt
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Abstract

Arsenic is one of the most harmful pollutants in groundwater. In this paper, the Nepali bio sand filter (BSF) was modi-fied with different bio-adsorbents, and proved to be an efficient method for arsenic removal from groundwater. Three dif-ferent bio-adsorbents were used to modify the Nepali BSF. Iron nails and biochar BSF, ~96% and ~93% arsenic removal was achieved, within the range of WHO guidelines. In iron nails, BSF and biochar BSF ~15 dm3∙h–1 arsenic content water was treated. In the other two BSFs, rice-husk and banana peel were used, the arsenic removal efficiency was ~83% of both BSFs. Furthermore, the efficiency of rice-husk and banana peel BSFs can be increased by increasing the surface area of the adsorbent or by reducing the flow rate.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ghulam S. Keerio
1
Hareef A. Keerio
2
ORCID: ORCID
Khalil A. Ibuphoto
3
Mahmood Laghari
1
Sallahuddin Panhwar
4
Mashooque A. Talpur
5

  1. Sindh Agriculture University, Department of Energy and Environment, Tandojam, Pakistan
  2. Hanyang University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul, South Korea
  3. Sindh Agriculture University, Department of Farm Structures, Tandojam, Pakistan
  4. Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, US-Pakistan Centers for Advanced Studies in Water, Jamshoro, Pakistan
  5. Sindh Agriculture University, Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Tandojam, Pakistan
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Abstract

Mining is an important economic activity in Kosovo. Artana and Kishnica mines are a part of the Trepça industrial complex and the increased exploitation of deposits has resulted in undesirable impact on the environment around the min-ing sites. More specifically, the mining activity caused water pollution. The aim of the study was to assess the physico- -chemical parameters and presence of heavy metals (Ni, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe) in water samples of the Graçanka Riv-er and household wells in the area. The Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) was used to determine metal concentrations. Samples were collected from five sites along the Graçanka River and from four private water wells during a period from September to November 2019. Concentrations of heavy metals in the Graçanka River were as follows Mn (24–1203 μg∙dm–3), Fe (11–785 μg∙dm–3), Ni (4–299 μg∙dm–3), Pb (2–22 μg∙dm–3), As (1–5 μg∙dm–3), Zn (344–1646 μg∙dm–3), Cr (1–2 μg∙dm–3) and Cd (<1 μg∙dm–3). The well waters were polluted by multiple metals (Mn > Fe > Ni > Pb) with concentrations of Mn 1834–36089 μg∙dm–3, Fe 158–3535 μg∙dm–3, Ni 82–1882 μg∙dm–3, Pb 5–45 μg∙dm–3, As 2–19 μg∙dm–3, Cd 1–12 μg∙dm–3, Zn 979–23474 μg∙dm–3 and Cr 1–2 μg∙dm–3. The pollution has been caused by industrial (min-ing-related) and urban discharges. The contamination originates from the release of flotation process waste and from the leaching of the tailings dam. Most probably, rainwater has washed contaminants into the aquifers and the Graçanka River. River water is not suitable for irrigation and well water is not suitable for consumption or irrigation. Wastewater should be treated before discharge and the tailings area should be remediated in order to stop the pollution.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sadija Kadriu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Milaim Sadiku
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mensur Kelmendi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mehush Aliu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ismet Mulliqi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Arbër Hyseni
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Mitrovica “Isa Boletini”, Faculty of Food Technology, Mitrovica, Kosovo
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Abstract

The main purpose of river system is to renovate its old processes. This article represents the results of two numerical models and a field site screening results for the river renovation in Idaho, U.S.A and some restoration methodologies that have been used to better understand possible renovating strategy. Ecological recovery methods using a degraded stream ecosystem have been found after estimating a channel design's capability. Despite these representing methods it is hard to present the most effective method to get efficient renovative outcomes. Two hydrodynamics modelling (MIKE 11-GIS and HEC-RAS5) and field site screening are used to evaluate pre- and post-renovation modifies in 35 laboratory experiments and biological performance indicators. Movement formed between 1994 and 2014 have been considered in this research. Ecosystem improvements have been evaluated to compare the pre-post renovation situations by considering the parameters such as water surface elevation, lower slope, shear stress, depth, wet perimeter, and velocities. The numerical model results for all mentioned parameters show that after the completion of phase I, II, III and IV, the sinuosity of the channel will be very close to the 1986 condition. The sediment carrying capacity and potential use of MIKE 11-GIS, hydrodynamic model for scour has been reduced throughout the lower reaches of the project site, where the channel slope is at its steepest posi-tion, and a close match with the field site screening and have been shown and presented as graphs.
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Authors and Affiliations

Abolfazl Nazari Giglou
1 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Islamic Azad University, Department of Civil Engineering, Parsabad Moghan Branch, Parsabad Moghan, Iran
  2. University of Idaho, Center for Ecohydraulics Research, Department of Civil Engineering, 322 E. Front St., Suite 340 Boise, ID 83702, 83712, Boise, USA
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Abstract

The study shows the biodiversity of Utricularia australis from western to northern regions of Ukraine. The environ-mental conditions of Ukraine are favourable for the spread and formation of phytocenosis involving U. australis, especially on thermoclimatic, cryothermal and continental scale. A broader range of the species’ relation to humidity has been record-ed. The research outcome shows the existence of the species in conditions from shallow, parched reservoirs to deep water habitats which allows the species to withstand temporary drying of reservoirs in summer periods. The resilience of U. australis to some water quality parameters, including nitrogen, phosphorus, iron content, colour, pH and organic contamination was higher than in previous studies and Tsyganov’s ecological scales. Thus, due to its wide range of tolerance to the majority of environmental factors, U. australis tends to spread in contemporary climatic conditions in Ukraine. Considering that the species has category “vulnerable” in the country and is listed in the red data book of Ukraine, its conservation status is likely to be revised further.
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Authors and Affiliations

Oleksandr O. Orlov
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tetiana P. Fedoniuk
2
ORCID: ORCID
Dmytro M. Iakushenko
3
ORCID: ORCID
Ivan M. Danylyk
4
ORCID: ORCID
Roman Ya. Kish
5
ORCID: ORCID
Anastasiia A. Zimaroieva
2
ORCID: ORCID
Galyna А. Khant
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Polyskiy Branch of Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration named after G.M. Vysotsky of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and State Agency of Forestry of Ukraine, Dovzhik, 10004 Ukraine
  2. Polissia National University, Staryi Blvd, 7, Zhytomyr, Zhytomyrs'ka oblast, 10008 Ukraine
  3. University of Zielona Góra, Department of Biological Sciences, Zielona Góra, Poland
  4. Institute of Ecology of the Carpathians of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine
  5. Uzhhorod National University, Laboratory of Environmental Protection, Uzhhorod, Ukraine
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Abstract

The article focuses on the actual scientific and practical problem of accounting for the influence of meteorological and climatic factors in the technical and economic calculations in the field of environmental management. It has been proven that the introduction of scientifically sound and effective methods of using meteorological and cli-matic information in economic calculations significantly reduces the loss caused by weather conditions and improves the implementation of an optimal strategy for agricultural production on reclaimed lands. Such calculations are based on economic and statistical modelling of different variants that accounting for standard hy-drometeorological information in the implementation of design, management and economic decisions. This increases the validity and reliability of calculations, as well as their compliance with the actual operating conditions of environmental and economic facilities. Consequently, this attracts increased interest of both public and private investors. Not only under such conditions is a sustainable development of environmental management sectors possible but also the adaptation to global climate change and additional benefits from the efficient economic activity in the new environmen-tal conditions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anatoliy Rokochinskiy
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nadia Frolenkova
1
ORCID: ORCID
Vasyl Turcheniuk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Pavlo Volk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nataliіa Prykhodko
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ruslan Tykhenko
2
ORCID: ORCID
Ivan Openko
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. National University of Water and Environmental Engineering, Str. Soborna, 11, 33000, Rivne, Ukraine
  2. National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Str. Vasylkivska, 17, 03040, Kyiv, Ukraine
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Abstract

Under conditions of gravity flow, the performance of a distribution pipe network for drinking water supply can be measured by investment cost and the difference in real and target pressures at each node to ensure fairness of the service. Therefore, the objective function for the optimization in the design of a complex gravity flow pipe network is a multi-purpose equation system set up to minimize the above-mentioned two parameters. This article presents a new model as an alternative solution to solving the optimization equation system by combining the Newton–Raphson and genetic algorithm (GA) methods into a single unit so that the resulting model can work effectively. The Newton–Raphson method is used to solve the hydraulic equation system in pipelines and the GA is used to find the optimal pipe diameter combination in a net-work. Among application models in a complex pipe network consisting of 12 elements and 10 nodes, this model is able to show satisfactory performance. Considering variations in the value of the weighting factor in the objective function, opti-mal conditions can be achieved at the investment cost factor (ω1) = 0.75 and the relative energy equalization factor at the service node (ω2) = 0.25. With relevant GA input parameters, optimal conditions are achieved at the best fitness value of 1.016 which is equivalent to the investment cost of USD 56.67 thous. with an average relative energy deviation of 1.925 m.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sulianto
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ernawan Setiono
1
ORCID: ORCID
I Wayan Yasa
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Muhammadiyah Malang, Faculty of Engineering, Jl. Raya Tlogomas No. 246, 65114, Malang, Indonesia
  2. Mataram University, Faculty of Engineering, Mataram, Indonesia
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Abstract

In recent times there have been many changes on Earth, which have appeared after anthropogenic impact. Finding solu-tions to problems in the environment requires studying the problems quickly, make proper conclusions and creating safe and useful measures. Humanity has always had an effect on the environment. There can be many changes on the Earth be-cause of direct and indirect effects of humans on nature. Determining these changes at the right time and organizing meas-urements of them requires the creation of quick analysing methods. This development has improved specialists’ interest for remote sensing (RS) imagery. Moreover, in accordance with analysis of literature sources, agriculture, irrigation and ecolo-gy have the most demand for RS imagery. This article is about using geographic information system (GIS) and RS technol-ogies in cadastre and urban construction branches. This article covers a newly created automated method for the calculation of artificial surface area based on satellite images. Accuracy of the analysis is verified according to the field experiments. Accuracy of analysis is 95%. According to the analysis from 1972 to 2019 artificial area enlargement is 13.44%. This method is very simple and easy to use. Using this data, the analysis method can decrease economical costs for field measures. Using this method and these tools in branches also allows for greater efficiency in time and resources.
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Authors and Affiliations

Aybek M. Arifjanov
1
ORCID: ORCID
Shamshodbek B. Akmalov
1
ORCID: ORCID
Luqmon N. Samiev
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Agricultural Mechanization Engineers, 39 Kari Niyazov Str. Tashkent 100000, Uzbekistan
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Abstract

As part of the study, world fuel and energy were analysed. A model for the development of state tax audit in the framework of innovative economic development is proposed. As a methodological base, general scientific research methods were used, first of all, systems and integrated analysis methods to substantiate the essence of the state tax audit, to develop approaches to the analysis of its results, and also to determine development trends. The importance of modernizing the system based on the identified relationship between the level of innovative development and the volume of tax revenues is substantiated. The developed model is based on the assumption that the tax gap will be minimized by encouraging tax-payers to voluntarily fulfil their tax obligations. The necessity of creating a supranational body of state audit within the framework of integration processes is substantiated. The prospects for the development of Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs) in the context of globalization have been outlined, including the creation of territorial standards for a state audit of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) countries.
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Authors and Affiliations

Lyazzat Sembiyeva
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Madina Serikova
2
ORCID: ORCID
Katira Satymbekova
3
ORCID: ORCID
Zhanat Tulegenova
4
ORCID: ORCID
Begzat Nurmaganbetova
5
Aida Zhagyparova
2

  1. South Ural State University, prosp. Lenina, 76, Chelyabinsk 454080, Russia
  2. L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Nur-Sultan (Astana), Kazakhstan
  3. M. Auezov South Kazakhstan State University, Shymkent, Kazakhstan
  4. Turan-Astana University, Nur-Sultan (Astana), Kazakhstan
  5. Korkyt Ata Kyzylorda State University, Kyzylorda, Kazakhstan
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Abstract

The article is devoted to the actual scientific and practical problem of improving methodological and methodical ap-proaches to the evaluation of design solutions in the water management and land reclamation industry based on the ecolog-ical and economic principles in conditions of uncertainty. The current stage of the development of the water management sector in Ukraine is characterized by a combination of past negligence and the present energy, food and water crises, as well as global climate change. To solve these problems, it is necessary to reform organizational-economic relations in the industry, including new sources and forms of financing for water management and land reclamation projects, introduction of new environmentally advanced technologies, and the im-provement of the existing ecological and economic evaluation of investments. Based on scientific and methodological recommendations used for evaluating the effectiveness of investment in vari-ous spheres of economic activity, the authors developed and implemented an improved methodology for the evaluation of water management and land reclamation projects. It is based on methodological approaches that cover such elements as the variety of options, changes in the value of money over time, specific project implementation environment, including the impact of weather, climate and environmental factors on project performance, multilevel and gradual evaluation of a pro-ject against specific criteria and according to stages of the project cycle. The method was tested during the reconstruction of a rice irrigation system in the steppe zone of about 3000 ha in Ukraine. Economic results, namely the deterministic payback period and investment return index confirm that the proposed mechanism, unlike the traditional one, increases the economic and environmental feasibility of water management and land reclamation projects. Therefore, it stimulates investment in the land reclamation sector.
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Authors and Affiliations

Pyotr Kovalenko
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anatoliy Rokochinskiy
2
ORCID: ORCID
Pavlo Volk
2
ORCID: ORCID
Vasyl Turcheniuk
2
ORCID: ORCID
Nadia Frolenkova
2
ORCID: ORCID
Ruslan Tykhenko
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Water Problems and Land Reclamation of NAAS of Ukraine, Chapaeva Str., 14, fl. 6, 01030, Kyiv, Ukraine
  2. National University of Water and Environmental Engineering, Rivne, Ukraine
  3. National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
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Abstract

The Bay of Cartagena (Colombia) is a site of commercial interest owing to its privileged location for maritime opera-tions; however, the discharge of wastewaters from industrial activities and domestic sewage are affecting the water quality, and consequently, the biodiversity of coastal ecosystems. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found in sedi-ments and water of main ports, causing severe damage to the ecosystem. Thus, alternatives for the treatment of the Bay of Cartagena’s water and sediments are needed. In this paper, we performed the exergetic analysis of removing PAHs from water and sediments in the Bay of Cartagena using an adsorption-based treatment process with chitosan microbeads and magnetic nanoparticles (CM-TiO2/Fe3O4). The outcomes of exergy of utilities, irreversibilities and exergy losses were calculated us-ing process data and exergy of substances. The Aspen plus V10 software provided the physical exergies, while chemical exergies were gathered from the literature. Overall exergy efficiency of 0.3% was determined for the seawater and sediment treatment facility. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the impact and viability of different design alternatives.
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Authors and Affiliations

Maileth Cantillo-Figueroa
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kariana A. Moreno-Sader
1
ORCID: ORCID
Angel D. Gonzalez-Delgado
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Cartagena, Ave. del Consulado #Calle 30 No. 48 152, Cartagena, Bolívar, Colombia
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Abstract

Water quality is an environmental priority for irrigation in rainfed agriculture. Recently, water quality has been affect-ed by the uncontrolled disposal of wastewater, the use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture and, most significantly, by the excessive exploitation of water resources during the low season. The basin of the Maffragh in the Algerian north-east real is fed by two main rivers: Wadi El Kebir East and Bounnamoussa. From its source, the stream is continually contaminated with domestic and agricultural discharges through the tributaries causing a significant deterioration in water quality. In or-der to know the current state of water quality in the Maffragh basin and to determine its suitability for irrigation without any prior treatment, research has been conducted in the two streams at representative sampling points in catchment areas used for irrigating crops. To assess the quality of water and detectable compounds monitoring, laboratory methods are used. The various volumetric and colorimetric assays were carried out according to Jean Rodier. Organic parameters such as ni-trites, ammonium and phosphates, were measured using a UV/VIS 6705 JENWAY spectrophotometer, at wavelengths of 543 nm, 630 nm and 880 nm respectively for nitrites, ammonium and phosphates. The BOD5 and COD parameter was measured using a DIN EN 1899-1-H51 spectrophotometer and DIN ISO15705: 2002 spectrophotometer. The performed analyses on conductivity shows oscillating values ranging between 425 and 495 μS∙cm–1 for January 2018, while for the low water level of July 2018 the conductivity varies between 433 and 796 μS∙cm–1; this parameter is determinant for water quality assessment and its use for irrigation. Beside the conductivity test, the Riverside–Wilcox diagram was applied, to combine conductivity and sodium absorption rate (SAR). The obtained results of the two seasons show satisfactory results in the applicability of the water to irrigate in the basin.
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Authors and Affiliations

Selwa Boubguira
1
ORCID: ORCID
Derradji Zouini
1
Sayad Lamine
1
Nawel Dali
2

  1. University of Badji Mokhtar, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Geological Research Laboratory (LRG), BP 12 / 23000 Annaba, Algeria
  2. University Abess Laghrour Khenchela, Department of Ecology, Khenchela, Algeria
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Abstract

The process of sorption of chromium(III) ions with a stationary sorbent layer of bentonite clays was investigated. The main advantages of using bentonites in water purification technologies are described: powerful geological reserves, cheap process of rock extraction, easy preparation for transportation and use, possibility of using waste sorbents in other technol-ogies that is why there is no need in costly regeneration. The influence of various factors (process duration, an adsorbent layer) on the degree of wastewater purification from chromium ions, the effect of pumping speed on the dynamic capacity of the sorbent was studied and the effective volume was determined. The adsorption efficacy increases with the increase of the adsorbent layer, what can be explained by the development of the active sorption surface. As the initial concentration of chromium ions increases, the time of appearance of the first traces of the contaminant at the exit of the column increases, as well as the total time to channeling. The results of the studies indicate a higher adsorption capacity of modified bentonite with respect to Cr3+ ions compared to its natural formula. The cleaning efficacy of the solution with a concentration of chromium ions of 0.5 g∙dm–3 is increased by 5% when using 15 g of modified bentonite and 6,5% in the case one uses 20 g compared to the natural form.
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Authors and Affiliations

Christina Soloviy
1
ORCID: ORCID
Myroslav Malovanyy
1
ORCID: ORCID
Olga Palamarchuk
2
ORCID: ORCID
Iryna Trach
3
ORCID: ORCID
Halyna Petruk
4
ORCID: ORCID
Halyna Sakalova
4
ORCID: ORCID
Tamara Vasylinych
4
ORCID: ORCID
Nataliya Vronska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Lviv Polytechnic National University, Viacheslav Chornovil Institute of Sustainable Development, Department of Ecology and Sustainable Environmental Management, Lviv, Ukraine
  2. Vinnytsia Mykhajlo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University, Educational and Scientific Institute of Pedagogy, Psychology, Department of Psychology and Social Work, Vinnitsa, Ukraine
  3. Vinnytsia National Technical University, Institute for Environmental Safety and Environmental Monitoring, Department of Ecology and Environmental Safety, Vinnitsa, Ukraine
  4. Vinnytsia Mykhajlo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University, Faculty of Natural and Geography, Department of Chemistry, Vinnitsa, Ukraine
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Abstract

Nigeria has abundant surface and ground water resources many of which are polluted and can be detrimental to human health when consumed. This study investigated the effects of effluents discharged by industries into streams on the health of people who depend on stream water for domestic purposes in the Onitsha urban area of eastern Nigeria. Water samples collected from eleven discharge locations underwent physico-chemical and microbiological analyses. Data on the effects of industrial effluents on health were obtained from records in the public hospitals located in Onitsha as well as through ques-tionnaire surveys and field observations. The results of the analyses revealed that the effluents grossly degrade surface wa-ter bodies; several parameters (temperature, iron, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, lead, magnesium, total heterotrophic counts, total coliform group, pH) had values which were higher than the WHO (2011) safety limits for drinking water. The contamination of investigated streams by effluents had negative impact on the health of stream users. The discussion included health effects of polluted water and the prevalence of water borne or related diseases in the area. Implications of these findings were also discussed. Management measures capable of minimiz-ing contamination of surface water in the study area were suggested.
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Authors and Affiliations

Uchenna P. Okafor
1
ORCID: ORCID
Michael C. Obeta
1
Romanus U. Ayadiuno
1
Anthony C. Onyekwelu
1
Godson C. Asuoha
1
Eberechukwu J. Eze
1
Chetachi E. Orji-Okafor
2
Emeka E. Igboeli
1

  1. University of Nigeria, Faculty of the Social Sciences, Department of Geography, Nsukka Road, 410001, Nsukka, Nigeria
  2. University of Nigeria, Nursing Services Division, Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria

Instructions for authors

Authors should submit manuscripts via the Editorial Board (Editorial system - Submit Your Manuscript )

1. "Journal of Water and Land Development” is published four times a year in English, articles are followed by a short (not exceeding 200 words) summary in Polish.
2. Conciseness of style is a prequisite, avoid verbose phrases and abvious statements. Manuscript should not exceed 1 printing sheet (20 standard pages of 1800 characters per page). Tables, figures and short summary should be typed at the end of the paper on separate pages.
3. Each article should contain the following elements: title, name and surname of the author(s), authors' affiliation, short abstract no longer than 150–200 words, key words, text of the paper divided into Introduction, Material and Methods, Results and Discussion, References (arranged in alphabetic order as shown below) and summary in Polish BENCALA K.E., WALTERS R.A. 1983. Simulation of solute transport in mountain pool-and riffle stream: a transient storage model. Water Resources Research. Vol. 19 p. 718–724. GÓRECKI A. 1987. Rozpoznanie i opis sztucznych pól odniesień przestrzennych [Recognition and description of the artificial plots of spatial relations]. Manuscript. Wrocław. Uniwersytet Wrocławski pp. 18. JANKOWSKI M. 2006. Elementy grafiki komputerowej [Elements of the computer graphics]. Warszawa. WNT. ISBN 8320431638 pp. 220. STRZELECKI T. 1994. Rola systemów informacji geograficznej w zarządzaniu państwem, województwem i gminą. W: Komputerowe wspomaganie badań naukowych [The role of GIS in the management of the state, voivodship and community. In: Computer aided research]. I Konferencja Środowiskowa. Wrocław. Wrocławskie Towarzystwo Naukowe p. 19–25. Papers referred to should be quoted in the text as KOWALSKI [1997], [KOWALSKI, NOWAK 1997]. If there are more than two authors, please add et al. after the first name i.e. NOWAK et al. [1997]. English version of the non-congress language title should be added in brackets.
4. Figures should be draw on tracing paper or delivered as laser printouts. Legends in the graphs should be restricted to numerical and letter descriptions, other explanations should be placed in the figure caption. Descriptions remaining within the graph should be in English and of the proportional size (i.e. they must ensure readability after graph size reduction).
5. Tables should fit to the width (16 cm) and height (24 cm) of the column.
6. Data illustrated in Figures should not appear in Tables and vice versa.
7. All variables in equations and in the text should be written in italic. Use SI units in the form g·cm–3 and not g/ml.
8. Manuscript should be sent in three copies with tables, graphs and English abstract and Polish summary with title and key words on separate pages. Enclose a floppy disc with the text written in Word for Windows with tables and figures saved in separate files.

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