Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research


Polish Polar Research | 2014 | No 4 |

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The Fleming Fjord Formation (Jameson Land, East Greenland) documents a diverse assemblage of terrestrial vertebrates of Late Triassic age. Expeditions from the turn of the 21st century have discovered many important fossils that form the basis of our current knowledge of Late Triassic Greenlandic faunas. However, due to the scarcity and incompleteness of the fossils and their insufficient study, our understanding of the taxonomic diversity of the Fleming Fjord Formation is hindered. Here, we report the preliminary findings of a Polish−Danish expedition to the Fleming Fjord Formation that took place in 2014. Three areas were visited – the fairly well known MacKnight Bjerg and Wood Bjerg and the virtually unexplored Liasryggen. MacKnigth Bjerg and Liasryggen yielded fossils which promise to significantly broaden our knowledge of vertebrate evolution in the Late Triassic. Stem−mammal remains were discovered at Liasryggen. Other fossils found at both sites include remains of actinopterygians, sarcopterygians, temnospondyl amphibians and various archosaurs (including early dinosaurs). Numerous vertebrate trace fossils, including coprolites, pseudosuchian footprints, theropod and sauropodomorph dinosaur tracks, were also discovered. Newly discovered skeletal remains as well as abundant trace fossils indicate higher tetrapod diversity in the Late Triassic of Greenland than previously thought. Trace fossils also allow inferences of early theropod and sauropodomorph dinosaur behaviour.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Sulej
Andrzej Wolniewicz
Niels Bonde
Błażej Błażejowski
Grzegorz Niedźwiedzki
Mateusz Tałanda
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Palaeomagnetic−petrographic−structural analyses of Proterozoic–Lower Palaeozoic metamorphosed carbonates from 12 locations within Oscar II Land (Western Spitsbergen) have been carried out to determine their usefulness in palaeogeographic reconstructions for Caledonian time. Structural analyses confirm that metacarbonates record several stages of deformation: D1, D2 ductile phases related to Caledonian metamorphism and a D3 brittle phase related to Late Cretaceous–Paleogene evolution of the West Spitsbergen Fold Belt. The latter is represented by thrust faults, localized folds with strain slip cleavages and late extensional collapse. Petrographic investigations reveal that Caledonian greenschist facies metamorphism was characterized by the high activity of H 2 O−CO 2 −rich fluids which promoted extensive recrystallization and within−rock spatial reorganization of sampled meta carbonates. Microscopic, SEM and microprobe analyses exclude the existence of any primary pre−metamorphic ferromagnetic minerals (primary−related to sedimentation and or early diagenesis) and point to metamorphic 4C superstructure (Fe 7 S 8 ) pyrrhotite as the main ferromagnetic carrier in investigated rocks. This is confirmed by the three−component isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) procedures and the results of thermal demagnetizations. In 12 sites a total number of 72 independently oriented palaeomagnetic samples were collected from which 181 specimens were drilled and thermally demagnetized. Sampled metacarbonates are weakly magnetized (NRM <0.2mA/m). The statistically significant palaeomagnetic results were achieved only from 1 of 12 investigated sites. In one site situated in the Western overturned limb of the Holmesletfjellet Syncline intermediate unblocking temperatures – “pyrrhotite related” component WTSJ5M superimposed on the S1 Caledonian schistosity was recognized (D = 100.7 ° , I = −21.4 °a 95% = 5.5 ° , k = 58.23). Coincidence of WTSJ5M with Silurian–Devonian sector of the Baltica reference path after unfolding of the syncline by the angle of 130 ° suggests synfolding origin of this direction. Further, this suggests that Holmesletfjellet Syncline originated as an open fold and has been transformed into an overturned syncline during the Late Caledonian shortening or in the Late Cretaceous–Palaeogene time.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Michalski
Justyna Domańska-Siuda
Krzysztof Nejbert
Geoffrey Manby
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In this study, selected heavy metals resistant heterotrophic bacteria isolated from soil samples at the Windmill Islands region, Wilkes Land (East Antarctica), were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed affiliation of isolates to genera Bacillus , Lysinibacillus , Micrococcus and Stenotrophomonas . The strains were found to be psychrotolerant and halotolerant, able to tolerate up to 10% NaCl in the growth medium. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the seven heavy metals Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, Zn, and Pb was deter − mined in solid media for each bacterial strain. Gram−positive Vi−2 strain and Gram−negative Vi−4 strain showed highest multiply heavy metals resistance, and Vi−3 and Vi−4 strains showed multi−antibiotic resistance to more than a half of the 13 used antibiotics. Plasmids were detected only in Gram−negative Vi−4 strain. The bacteria were able to produce different hydrolytic enzymes including industrially important proteases, xylanases, cellulases, and b −glucosidases. High heavy metals resistance of the Antarctic bacteria suggests their potential application for wastewater treatment in cold and temperate climates. Highly sensitive to Cd and Co ions Vi−1, Vi−5 and Vi−7 strains would be promising for developing biosensors to detect these most toxic heavy metals in environmental samples.
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Authors and Affiliations

Iva Tomova
Evgenia Vasileva-Tonkova
Margarita Stoilova-Disheva
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This paper presents a complex study on ciliates from the different species of mosses of King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic. Samples of ciliates were collected from Polytrichastrum alpinum , Sanionia georgico−uncinata , Sanionia uncinata and Brachythecium austrosalebrosum . The highest species richness (19 taxa) occurred in habitats from Brachythecium austrosalebrosum . The lowest number of taxa (5) was observed in Polytrichastrum alpinum . The greatest abundance of ciliates was found in samples from Brachythecium austrosalebrosum (25–30 ind. g −1 ), while the lowest was found in samples from Polytrichastrum (4–6 ind. g −1 ). In each species of mosses, vertical differentiation of these protozoa assemblages was found. The number of species and abundance significantly increased in the lower samples. The upper samples of mosses were dominated by mixotrophic taxa, whereas samples from the lower part the proportions of bacterivore species increases. The RDA performed to specify the direct relationships between the abundance of ciliate taxa and environmental variables showed obvious differences between habitats studied. However, variables that significantly explained the variance in ciliate communities were: dissolved oxygen, pH, and nutrients.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Mieczan
Monika Tarkowska-Kukuryk
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This study investigated leaf mesophyll cells of Caryophyllaceae plants growing in polar regions – Cerastium alpinum and Silene involucrata from the Hornsund region of Spitsbergen island (Svalbard Archipelago, Arctic), and Colobanthus quitensis from the Admiralty Bay region on King George Island (South Shetland Islands, West Antarctic). Ultra− structural changes were analyzed in mesophyll protoplasts of plants growing in natural Arctic and Antarctic habitats and plants grown in a greenhouse, including plants exposed to short−term cold stress under se mi−controlled conditions. Cell organelles of plants growing in natural polar habitats and greenhouse−grown plants were characterized by significant morphological plasticity. Chloroplasts of plants studied in this work formed variously shaped protrusions and invaginations that visibly increased the contact area between adjacent cell compartments and reduced the distance between organelles. S. involucrata plants grown under greenhouse conditions, tested by us in this wor k, were characterized by highly dynamic cell nuclei with single or multiple invaginations of the nuclear membrane and the presence of channels and cisternae filled with cytoplasm and organelles. Crystalline inclusion proteins were observed in the cell nuclei of C. quitensis between nuclear membranes and in the direct proximity of heterochromatin. Our study revealed significant conformational dynamics of organelles, manifested by variations in the optical density of matrices, membranes and envelopes, in particular in C. quitensis , which could suggest that the analyzed Caryophyllaceae taxa are well adapted to severe climate and changing conditions in polar regions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Irena Giełwanowska
Michał Węgrzyn
Maja Lisowska
Marta Pastorczyk
Ryszard J. Górecki

Editorial office


Magdalena BŁAŻEWICZ (Life Sciences), University of Łódź, Poland

Wojciech MAJEWSKI (Geosciences), Institute of Paleobiology PAS, Poland

Michał ŁUSZCZUK (Social Science and Hummanities), UMCS, Poland

Associate Editors

Piotr JADWISZCZAK (Białystok),


Krzysztof JAŻDŻEWSKI (Łódź),


Monika KĘDRA (Sopot)


Ewa ŁUPIKASZA (Sosnowiec)


Piotr PABIS (Łódź),


Editorial Advisory Board

Angelika BRANDT (Hamburg),

Claude DE BROYER (Bruxelles),

Peter CONVEY (Cambridge, UK),

J. Alistair CRAME (Cambridge, UK),

Rodney M. FELDMANN (Kent, OH),

Jane E. FRANCIS (Cambridge, UK),

Andrzej GAŹDZICKI (Warszawa)

Aleksander GUTERCH (Warszawa),

Jacek JANIA (Sosnowiec),

Jiří KOMÁREK (Třeboň),

Wiesława KRAWCZYK (Sosnowiec),

German L. LEITCHENKOV (Sankt Petersburg),

Jerónimo LÓPEZ-MARTINEZ (Madrid),

Sergio A. MARENSSI (Buenos Aires),

Jerzy NAWROCKI (Warszawa),

Ryszard OCHYRA (Kraków),

Maria OLECH (Kraków)

Sandra PASSCHIER (Montclair, NJ),

Jan PAWŁOWSKI (Genève),

Gerhard SCHMIEDL (Hamburg),

Jacek SICIŃSKI (Łódź),

Michael STODDART (Hobart),

Witold SZCZUCIŃSKI (Poznań),

Andrzej TATUR (Warszawa),

Wim VADER (Tromsø),

Tony R. WALKER (Halifax, Nova Scotia),

Jan Marcin WĘSŁAWSKI (Sopot) - President.



phone: (48 22) 697 88 53

Instytut Paleobiologii PAN
ul. Twarda 51/55
00-818 Warszawa, POLAND

Life Sciences
phone: (48 22) 635 42 97

Zakład Biologii Polarnej i Oceanobiologii Uniwersytet Łódzki
ul. S. Banacha 12/16
90-237 Łódź, POLAND

Social Science and Hummanities
phone: (48 81) 537 68 99

Instytut Geografii Społeczno-Ekonomicznej i Gospodarki Przestrzennej UMCS
Al. Kraśnicka 2D
20-718 Lublin, POLAND

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The quarterly Polish Polar Research invites original scientific papers dealing with all aspects of polar research. The journal aims to provide a forum for publication of high-quality research papers, which are of international interest.

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Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic citations lies entirely with the authors. The inline references to published papers should consist of the surname of the author(s) followed by the year of publication. More than two authors should be cited with the first author’s surname, followed by et al. (Dingle et al. 1998) but in full in the References.

ANDERSON J.B. 1999. Antarctic Marine Geology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
BIRKENMAJER K. 1991. Tertiary glaciation in the South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica: evaluation of data. In: M.R.A. Thomson, J.A. Crame and J.W. Thomson (eds) Geological Evolution of Antarctica. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 629–632.
DINGLE S.A., MARENSSI S.A. and LAVELLE M. 1998. High latitude Eocene climate deterioration: evidence from the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 11: 571–579.
SEDOV R.V. 1997. Glaciers of the Chukotka. Materialy Glyatsiologicheskikh Issledovaniy 82: 213–217 (in Russian).
SOBOTA I. and GRZEŚ M. 2006. Characteristic of snow cover on Kaffioyra’s glaciers, NW Spitsbergen in 2005. Problemy Klimatologii Polarnej 16: 147–159 (in Polish).
WARD B.L. 1984. Distribution of modern benthic foraminifera of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. M.Sc. Thesis. Victoria University, Wellington (unpublished).

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Polish Polar Research jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 3.0.

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