In this work, a mid infrared thermography was used to study thermal behavior of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a circular shape and a diameter of 90 mm. The emissivity of the anodic surface of the fuel cell was determined to be from 0.95 to 0.46 in the temperature range 550-1200 K and the profile and temperature distribution of the anodic surface of the unloaded cell was given. The surface temperature of the cell was determined during operation and the polarity changes from open circuit voltage (OCV) to 0.0 V. It was found that the cell self-heating effect decreases with increasing temperature of the cell.
Basing on experimental data, the possibility of consolidating side products of turning, milling and drilling of aluminum alloys into the form and properties of solids metals using low-temperature KoBo extrusion method has been assessed. Research regarding mechanical and structural properties of the final products revealed their total consolidation and proved their compatibility with requirements for products made of bulk billets. Importantly, the chips consolidation process does not require high or even raised temperature, which significantly reduces the unfavorable phenomenon of chips oxidation and its negative influence on the structure and mechanical properties of products. A very good effect of chips compaction has been proved by KoBo method, which has been confirmed by relatively slightly different mechanical properties of the material after recycling compared with the bulk one. Among currently applied techniques of consolidation of dispersed fractions in a solid state (leaving the melting stage out), the KoBo method seems an innovative way of utilizing metallic chips, as it enables a cold deformation process.
The paper presents investigations using 2024 and 7075 aluminum alloys chips from manufacturing process, formed into briquettes and deformed under conditions of KoBo extrusion process, which enables to obtain long product by cold forming. The final product characterized by good microstructures, mechanical features and low cost of production.
Al2Cu phase has been obtained by melting pure metals in the electric arc furnace. It has been found that the intermetallic phase undergoes selective corrosion in the H3PO4 aqueous solutions. Aluminium is dissolved, the surface becomes porous and enriched with copper. The corrosion rate equals to 371 ± 17 g·m–2·day–1 (aerated solution) and 284 ± 9 g·m–2·day–1 (deaerated solution). The surface of Al2Cu phase after selective corrosion was characterised by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the surface area of the specimens increases with temperature due to higher corrosion rate and is between 2137 and 3896 cm2.
Advanced vision method of analysis of the Erichsen cupping test based on laser speckle is presented in this work. This method proved to be useful for expanding the range of information on material formability for two commonly used grades of steel sheets: DC04 and DC01. The authors present a complex methodology and experimental procedure that allows not only to determine the standard Erichsen index but also to follow the material deformation stages immediately preceding the occurrence of the crack. Accurate determination of these characteristics in the sheet metal forming would be an important application, especially for automotive industry. However, the sheet metal forming is a very complex manufacturing process and its success depends on many factors. Therefore, attention is focused in this study on better understanding of the Erichsen index in combination with the material deformation history.
Thermodynamic descriptions of the ternary Fe-B-Si system and its binary sub-system, B-Si, are developed in the context of a new Fe-B-X (X = Cr, Ni, Mn, V, Si, Ti, C) database. The thermodynamic parameters of the other binary sub-systems, Fe-Si and Fe-B, are taken from earlier assessments. Experimental thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data available in the literature has been used for the optimization of the thermodynamic parameters of the Fe-B-Si and B-Si systems. The solution phases are described using substitutional solution model and the compounds (silicides and borides) are treated as stoichiometric phases. The calculated and experimental thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data were found to be in good agreement.
Thermodynamic optimizations of the ternary Fe-B-Ti system and its binary sub-system, B-Ti are presented. The thermodynamic descriptions of the other binaries, Fe-Ti and Fe-B, are taken from the earlier studies slightly modifying the Fe-Ti system assessment. The adjustable parameters of the Fe-B-Ti and B-Ti systems are optimized in this study using the experimental thermodynamic and the phase equilibrium data from the literature. The solution phases of the system are described using the substitutional solution model and the compounds (including borides) are treated as stoichiometric phases. The results show a good correlation between the calculated and measured thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data.
The sodium expansion and creep strain of semi-graphitic cathodes are investigated using a modified Rapoport apparatus. To further understanding of the sodium and bath penetration damage processes, the impact of external stress fluence on the carbon cathode microstructure has been defined with XRD analysis, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Graphite atoms fracture into smaller fragments that are less directional than the pristine platelets, which allows for a possible filling of the cracks that thus develop by the sodium and bath during aluminum electrolysis. The average microcrystalline size (calculated by Raman spectroscopy) is reduced by the deformation. The decreased intensity and widened ‘G’ and ‘D’ peaks in the analysis indicate the poor order of the sheets along the stacking direction while the consistent layered graphite structure is sustained.
To this day, most of the papers related to hybrid joints were focused on single and double lap joints in which shear deformation and degradation was the dominant phenomenon. However, in real constructions, complex state of loads can be created by: a) torsion with shear, b) bending with shear, c) torsion with tensile.
Analytical and numerical computation for simple mechanical joints is known, however, the introduction of an adhesive layer to this joint makes the load transferred both through: (1) the adhesive and (2) mechanical fasteners. There is also an interaction between the amount and stiffness of mechanical fasteners and the strength of the adhesive layer.
The paper presents the results of numerical calculations for the bending with shear type of load for the hybrid structural joint and corresponding simple joints by: (1) pure adhesion and (2) rivets with different quantity maintaining the same cross-sectional area. A total of 9 simulations were performed for: (1) 4 types of pure rivets connections, (2) pure adhesive joint and (3) 4 kinds of hybrid joints. The surface-based cohesive behavior was used for creation of the adhesive layer, whereas the rivets were modelled by connector type fasteners, which simplify complexity of the numerical model. The use of connectors allowed for effort assessment taking into account damage in both types of connections. Application of connector elements can be useful for larger structures modelling, e.g. aircraft fuselage, where the number of mechanical joints is significant and complex load conditions occur.
The paper presents the effect of manganese on the crystallization process, microstructure and selected properties: cast iron hardness as well as ferrite and pearlite microhardness. The compacted graphite was obtained by Inmold technology. The lack of significant effect on the temperature of the eutectic transformation was demonstrated. On the other hand, a significant reduction in the eutectoid transformation temperature with increasing manganese concentration has been shown. The effect of manganese on microstructure of cast iron with compacted graphite considering casting wall thickness was investigated and described. The nomograms describing the microstructure of compacted graphite iron versus manganese concentration were developed. The effect of manganese on the hardness of cast iron and microhardness of ferrite and pearlite were given.
Al2O3-Al2TiO5-TiO2 composites can be obtained by the infiltration of molecular titanium precursors into presintered α-Al2O3 (corundum) cylinders. Two titanium tetraalkoxides, and two dialkoxy titanium bis(acetylacetonates) serve as precursors for TiO2 (rutile) and Al2TiO5 (tialite). The precursors were infiltrated as ethanolic solutions. After sintering at 1550, 1600, and 1650°C, the prepared ceramics’ properties were investigated by SEM, in-situ HT-XRD, and conventional XRD. Titanium tetraisopropoxide leads to the highest content of Al2TiO5 in the composite. The more reactive the precursor, considering the Al2O3/precursor interface, the lower and more anisotropic the grain growth, the more homogeneous is the TiO2 contribution and the higher is the content of Al2TiO5. Raising the sintering temperature causes an increase of the crystalline Al2TiO5 content as well as of the grain growth. Moreover, the reactivity of the precursor molecule influences the Ti/(Al + Ti) ratio in the obtained tialite phase.
The temperature of liquid steel for continuous casting determines the casting speed and cooling conditions. The failure to meet the required casting process parameters may result in obtaining slabs of inconsistent quality. Numerical methods allow for real processes to be modelled. There are professional computer programs on the market, so the results of the simulations allow us to understand the processes that occur during casting and solidification of a slab. The study attempts to evaluate the impact of the superheat temperature on the slab structure based on the industrial operating parameters of the continuous casting machine.
The paper discusses experimental studies to determine the effect of the die working portion angle on the lubrication conditions, zinc coating thickness and the mechanical properties of medium-carbon steel wires. The test material was 5.5 mm-diameter wire rod which was drawn into 2.2 mm-diameter wire in seven draws at a drawing speed of v = 10 m/s. Conventional drawing dies of a working portion angle of α = 3, 4, 5, 6, 7°, respectively, were used for the drawing process. After the drawing process, the quantity of the lubricant on the wire surface and the thickness of the zinc coating were determined in individual draws. Testing the finished 2.2 mm-diameter wires for mechanical properties, on the other hand, determined the effect of the die working portion on the yield point, tensile strength, uniform and total elongation, reduction in area, the number of twists and the number of bends.
Mixture of nickel and titanium powders were milled in planetary mill under argon atmosphere for 100 hours at room temperature. Every 10 hours the structure, morphology and chemical composition was studied by X-ray diffraction method (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) as well as electron transmission microscope (TEM). Analysis revealed that elongation of milling time caused alloying of the elements. After 100 hours of milling the powders was in nanocrystalline and an amorphous state. Also extending of milling time affected the crystal size and microstrains of the alloying elements as well as the newly formed alloy. Crystallization of amorphous alloys proceeds above 600°C. In consequence, the alloy (at room temperature) consisted of mixture of the B2 parent phase and a small amount of the B19’ martensite. Dependently on the milling time and followed crystallization the NiTi alloy can be received in a form of the powder with average crystallite size from 1,5 up to 4 nm.
This paper presents the results of research of Ni/diamond composite coatings produced by electrochemical reduction method. Research was focused on composite coatings with nickel matrix and diamond as a disperse phase and for comparison purposes on nanocrystalline nickel coatings. Ni/diamond composite coatings were produced in baths with different content of nanodiamond powder. The structures of the dispersed phase and the composite coatings were analysed by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Measurements of selected properties of the coatings were performed, including roughness, microhardness, adhesion and abrasive wear resistance. The research results indicate that the produced coatings have a compact structure and good adherence to steel substrate. Moreover, nanocrystalline Ni/diamond composite coatings exhibit greater hardness and reduced abrasive wear resistance compared to nanocrystalline nickel coatings.
An attempt was made to determine phase composition of commercial aluminium alloys using X-ray diffraction. Samples for phase composition analysis were selected from the group of aluminium alloys covered by the EN 573-3:2013 standard . Representative samples were taken from eight groups of alloys with different chemical composition (at least one sample from each group). The diffraction intensity was measured with a standard X-ray diffractometer in Bragg-Brentano geometry in a way that allowed identification of the weakest diffraction peaks. As a results of the performed research it has been shown that X-ray phase analysis can be used to identify the matrix of aluminium alloys, Si and crystalline intermetallic phases such as Mg2Si, Al93.38Cu6.02Fe24Si16.27, Al4.01MnSi0.74, MgZn2, Al17(Fe3.2Mn0.8)Si2, Al65Cu20Fe15, and Cu3Mn2Al. The detectability limit of the above-mentioned phases is better than 0.5%. The research has also shown that X-ray phase analysis is applicable in the investigation of phase transformations taking place in aluminium alloys.
This article presents the research results on impact of the method of polycrystalline graphene layers separation from the growth substrate on the obtained carbon material quality. The studies were carried out on graphene sheets obtained by metallurgical method on a liquid metal substrate (HSMG® graphene). The graphene was separated using chemical etching method or the electrochemical delamination method, by separating by means of electrolysis. During electrolysis, hydrogen is emitted on a graphene-covered of cathode (metal growth substrate) as a result of the voltage applied. The graphene layer breaks away from metallic substrate by gas accumulation between them. The results from these separation processes were evaluated by means of different tools, such as SEM, TEM and AFM microscopy as well as Raman Spectroscopy. In summary, the majority of analyses indicate that the graphene obtained as a result of hydrogen delamination possesses higher purity, smaller size and number of defects, its surface is smooth and less developed after the transfer process to the target substrate.
The paper presents the results of the electrodeposition of nickel composite coatings reinforced with the ceramic SiC particles. A Watts type galvanic bath modified with various organic additives was used. These additives were: 2-sulfobenzoic acid imide (LSA), dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (DSS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (THAM) and hexamethyldisilizane (HMDS). The nickel composite coating was electrodeposited on a 2xxx aluminum alloy series substrate (EN-AW 2017) with zinc interlayer. Studies concerned the effect of the applied organic additives on properties of composite coatings such as: microstructure, microhardness, adhesion to the substrate, corrosion resistance and roughness. The structure of the coatings was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Based on the studies of zeta potential it was found that the bath modification had a significant impact on the amount of the ceramic phase embedded in metal matrix. The tests conducted in a model 0.01 M KCl solution were not fully representative of the true behavior of particles in a Watts bath.
The aim of this paper was to test currently available on the market products for sealing anodic oxide coatings as well as to test the use of other alternative substances improving the sealing process. The ability to seal in 10 different solutions and the quality of the seal has been tested. The influence of the applied preparations on corrosion resistance and resistance to strongly alkaline environment was also investigated.
Based on the results obtained, satisfactory results were archived for the sample sealed in a IMN-OML (Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals in Gliwice, Light Metals Division) solution sealant and in solution of nickel acetate in a medium-temperature process. Sealing by means of nickel acetate solutions is economically justified, and its use allows the process temperature to be lowered. When it comes to resistance to alkalis, samples sealed in IMN-OML sealant are the best. Commercial solutions have also achieved positive results in all tests.
In the article, the characterization of the microstructure, phase composition and distribution of elements in the Eu2O3-ZrO2 sintered materials obtained by four different ways of powders’ homogenization (mixing) process and different temperature of sintering process is shown. The feedstock powders with an average mole ratio of ZrO2 to Eu2O3 equal 74% to 26% were used as an initial material. The principal aim of the investigation was characterization of differences in the microstructure of the same type of ceramics, however, prepared via different mixing and manufacturing processes. The range of the investigation covered a characterization of these materials via phase identification of all samples by XRD (X-ray diffraction) and characterization of internal morphology of the specimens with detailed analysis of elements distributions by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and EDS (energy dispersive spectrometry). The aim of the following investigation is to characterize the possibilities of the solid state synthesis of the europium zirconate based materials, dedicated for TBC applications.
The paper discusses a theoretical and an experimental analyses of steel wire drawing in conical drawing dies with a varying length of the die sizing portion. The theoretical analysis was performed in the Drawing 2D, where the wire temperature and drawing stress were determined. The theoretical study was verified by the measurement of drawing force under laboratory conditions and by industrial multi-stage drawing tests carried out under commercial conditions. A relationship has been shown to exist between die sizing portion length and wire temperature and drawing stress.
The paper has presented the results of theoretical studies and experimental tests of the plastic deformation of multi-layered Ti/Al/Mg specimens. Theoretical studies were carried out using the Forge2011® computer program. Physical modeling, on the other hand, was performed using the Gleeble3800 simulator. Cuboidal specimens were cut off from the plates obtained in the explosive welding method. Based on the obtained investigation results it has been found non uniform deformation of the particular layer as a result their different value of flow stress.
The study presents the results of laboratory testing of the phenomenon of cracking in the process of cross rolling. A new method of determining the critical value of the damage function was developed, in which a disc-shaped sample is subjected to rotational compression in a channel. In this method the Mannesmann effect was used. The laboratory tests were conducted for C45, 50HS and R260 grade steel in the temperature range 950°C-1150°C. In order to research various methods of simulating the phenomenon of cracking in the process of cross rolling, physical modelling was also employed. The model material was commercial plasticine, cooled to the temperature 0°C-20°C. Comparing the test results for both the real and model material allowed one to determine the range of the forming temperature for the model material, in which the cracking process is similar to the case of the real material.
This paper presents the methodology for determining thermal strains and stresses during heating the charge in a rotary furnace. The calculations were made with the original software, which uses the finite element method. The heat transfer boundary conditions used for computing were verified on the basis of industrial tests. Good compatibility between the experimental data and numerical calculations was obtained. The possibility of the material cracking occurrence was checked for a set exhaust gas temperature distribution on the furnace length. As a result, it was possible to develop steel heating curves characterized by short process times.
The paper presents the results of research work on linear FSW (Friction Stir Welding) joining aluminum alloys AA2024-T3 of 0.5 mm in thickness. The study was conducted on properly adapted numerical controlled 3 axis milling machine using a ceramic tool and special designed fastening device. The tool dimensions have been estimated according to the algorithm shown in the literature . All joints were made of end-to end (butt) configuration under different welding speed. The rotational speed of the tool and tool offset was constant. The effect of selected technological parameters on the quality of the joint was analyzed. Produced butt joint have been subjected to a static tensile testing to identify mechanical features of the materials of joints compared to parent materials. Measurements of micro hardness HV in the plastically formed stir zone of joint and in the parent material have been carried out. Axial and radial welding forces in the joining region were recorded during the tests and their dependency from the welding parameters was studied. Based on the results of strength tests the efficiency of joints for sheets of 0.5 mm in thicknesses oscillated up to 96% compared to the parent material. It has been found that for given parameters the correct, free of defects joints were obtained. The paper also presents the results of low-cycle fatigue tests of obtained FSW joints. The use of a ceramic tool in the FSW process allows to obtain welds with higher strength than conventional tools. The results suggests that FSW can be potentially applied to joining aluminum alloys.
In hot forging process, tool life is an important factor which influences the economy of production. Wear mechanisms in these processes are dependent on each other, so modeling of them is a difficult problem. The present research is focused on development of a hybrid tool wear model for hot forging processes and evaluation of adding adhesive mechanism component to this model. Although adhesive wear is dominant in cases, in which sliding distances are large, there is a group of hot forging processes, in which adhesion is an important factor in specific tool parts. In the paper, a proposed hybrid tool wear model has been described and various adhesive wear models have been reviewed. The feasible model has been chosen, adapted and implemented. It has been shown that adding adhesive wear model increases predictive capabilities of the global hybrid tool wear model as far as characteristic hot forging processes is considered.
In the paper, verification of welding process parameters of overlap joints of aluminium alloys EN AW-6082 and EN AW-7075, determined on the grounds of a numerical FEM model and a mathematical model, is presented. A model was prepared in order to determine the range of process parameters, for that the risk of hot crack occurrence during welding the material with limited weldability (EN AW-7075) would be minimum and the joints will meet the quality criteria. Results of metallographic and mechanical examinations of overlap welded joints are presented. Indicated are different destruction mechanisms of overlap and butt joints, as well as significant differences in their tensile strength: 110 to 135 MPa for overlap joints and 258 MPa on average for butt joints.
This paper outlines issues associated with gas-shielded braze welding of CU-ETP copper with austenitic steel X5CrNi18-10 (1.4301) using a consumable electrode. The possibilities for producing joints of this type using innovative low-energy welding methods are discussed. The paper provides an overview of the results of metallographic and mechanical (static shear test, microhardness) tests for braze welded joints made on an automated station using the Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) method. Significant differences in the structure and mechanical properties are indicated, resulting from the joint configuration and the type of shielding gas (argon, helium).
The article presents an analysis of the multi-operation hot die forging process, performed on a press, of producing a lever forging used in the motorcycles of a renowned producer by means of numerical simulations. The investigations were carried out in order to improve (perfect) the currently applied production technology, mainly due to the presence of forging defects during the industrial production process. The defects result mainly from the complicated shape of the forging (bent main axis, deep and thin protrusions, high surface diversity in the cross section along the length of the detail), which, during the filling of the die by the deformed material, causes the presence of laps, wraps and underfills on the forging. Through the determination of the key parameters/quantities during the forging process, which are difficult to establish directly during the industrial process or experimentally, a detailed and complex analysis was performed with the use of FEM as well as through microstructure examinations. The results of the performed numerical modelling made it possible to determine: the manner of the material flow and the correctness of the impression filling, as well as the distributions of temperature fields and plastic deformations in the forging, and also to detect the forging defects often observed in the industrial process. On this basis, changes into the process were introduced, making it possible to improve the currently realized technology and obtain forgings of the proper quality as well as shape and dimensions.
The paper includes validation studies of the flow module of the NovaFlow&Solid simulation code. Experiments of ductile iron and gray iron casting in a spiral test of castability were carried out. Casting experiments were then carried out in industrial conditions in the Ferrex Foundry in Poznań and the results are the castability spiral length and local cast iron rate during mould cavity pouring. Simulation tests using NovaFlow&Solid Control Volume code were made. The technological castability test was used to determine thermal-physical data through simplified inversion problem. Influence of physical parameters in the database of simulation code on the spiral length obtained as the result of simulation was analyzed. It was found that critical fraction of capillary flow CLFdown has the biggest impact on cast iron castability in the simulation code. The simulations resulted in defining parameters of gray iron GJL 250 and ductile iron GJS-400-15. For the parameters set, the length of castability spiral in simulations was in accordance with casting experiments.
The aim of this paper is to present the procedure test for calibration and validation of the numerical model for X22CrMoV12-1 steel multilayer welding. On the real multilayer weld was described how to arrange the whole experiment in order to obtain not only relevant input data but also verification data. Tests on a specially prepared specimen, welded with 8 beads in 4 layers, allows to determine the actual geometry of the single welded beads, registration of welding thermal cycles and the hardness distribution in successively deposited beads together with determining the heat influence of subsequent layers. The results of the real welding tests were compared with the results obtained from the numerical simulations and extended by the calculated stresses and distortions distributions of the tested specimen. A new, improved hardness prediction algorithm for high-alloy martensitic and bainitic steels was also proposed.
The paper, which is a summary and supplement of previous works and research, presents the results of numerical and physical modeling of the GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3 duplex cast steel thin-walled castings production. To obtain thin-walled castings with wall in the thinnest place even below 1 mm was used the centrifugal casting technology and gravity casting. The analyzed technology (centrifugal casting) enables making elements with high surface quality with reduced consumption of batch materials and, as a result, reducing the costs of making a unitary casting. The idea behind the production of cast steel with the use of centrifugal technology was to find a remedy for the problems associated with unsatisfactory castability of the tested alloy.
The technological evaluation of the cast construction was carried out using the Nova Flow & Solid CV 4.3r8 software. Numerical simulations of crystallization and cooling were carried out for a casting without a gating system and sinkhead located in a mold in accordance with the pouring position. It was assumed that the analyzed cast will be made in the sand form with dimensions 250×250×120 mm.
New materials require the use of advanced technology in manufacturing parts of complex shape. One of the modern non-conventional technology of manufacturing difficult to cut materials is the wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). The article presents the results of theoretical and experimental research in the influence of the WEDM conditions and parameters on the shape deviation during a rough cut. A numerical model of the dielectric flow in the gap (ANSYS) was developed. The influence of the dielectric velocity field in the gap on the debris evacuation and stability of WEDM process was discussed. Furthermore, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to build empirical models for influence of the wire speed Vd, wire tension force Fn, the volume flow rate of the dielectric Qv on the flatness deviation after the WEDM.
The article presents the use of computer graphics methods and computational geometry for the analysis on changes of geometrical parameters for a mixed zone in resistance-heated samples. To perform the physical simulation series of resistance heating process, the Gleeble 3800 physical simulator, located in the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy in Gliwice, was used. The paper presents a description of the test stand and the method for performing the experiment. The numerical model is based on the Fourier-Kirchoff differential equation for unsteady heat flow with an internal volumetric heat source. In the case of direct heating of the sample, geometrical parameters of the remelting zone change rapidly. The described methodology of using shape descriptors to characterise the studied zone during the process allows to parametrise the heat influence zones. The shape descriptors were used for the chosen for characteristic timing steps of the simulation, which allowed the authors to describe the changes of the studied parameters as a function of temperature. Additionally, to determine the impact of external factors, the remelting zone parameters were estimated for two types of grips holding the sample, so-called hot grips of a shorter contact area with the sample, and so-called cold grips. Based on the collected data, conclusions were drawn on the impact of the process parameters on the localisation and shape of the mushy zone.
The article presents an analysis of stresses in the current tool system of the die during the implementation of the third forging operation of the screw M12 class 10.9 with cylinder head and hexagonal socket. It was assumed that the level of negative cracking due to stress can be reduced by using a mounting interference between the die and the tube blank. Due to the design of the tool system value of the die, the interference value cannot be too large. Therefore, an analysis of the influence of the interference between the die and the tube blank in a die tool system on the value and distribution of stresses in the individual components. An analysis of the assembly stresses and the stresses occurring during the process of deformation of the shaped head of the screw was done. The calculations were performed using a commercial software package MARC / Mentat.
The paper presents the results of research on nanocomposite nickel/graphene oxide (Ni / GO) coatings produced by electrochemical reduction method on a steel substrate. Discussed is the method of manufacturing composite coatings with nickel matrix and embedded graphene oxide flakes. For comparative purposes, the studies also included a nanocrystalline Ni coating without embedded graphene oxide flakes. Graphene oxide was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. Results of studies on the structure of nickel and composite Ni/GO coatings deposited in a bath containing different amount of graphene oxide are presented. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The adhesion of the prepared coatings to the substrate was examined by the scratch method. The microhardness of the coatings was measured using the Vickers method on perpendicular cross-sections to the surface. Corrosion tests of the coatings were investigated using the potentiodynamic method. The influence of graphene oxide on the structure and properties of composite coatings deposited from baths with different content of graphene oxide was determined.
Modern metal forming processes of non-ferrous metals, particularly aluminum and its alloys, are increasingly based on integrated technologies combining numerous operations in one process line. The subject of this paper focuses on the possibility of using materials after mould casting (simulating a continuous casting process between cylindrical crystallizers – Twin Roll Casting method) for the direct cold rolling process. As a part of this research a pilotage study on metallurgical synthesis and mould casting process of Al-Mg alloys with the magnesium contents of 5%-10%, testing their mechanical, electrical and structural properties as well as susceptibility to cold plastic deformation. This process was carried out with the measurement of strength parameters and confirmed the possibility of cold rolling alloys with a casting structure without prior hot deformation.
The paper presents research results on the selection of parameters for the asymmetric rolling process of bimetallic plates 10CrMo9-10 + X2CrNiMo17-12-2. They consisted in determining the optimum parameters of the process, which would be ensured to obtain straight bands. Such deformation method introduces in the band the deformations resulting from shear stress, which affect changes in the microstructure. But their effect on the structure is more complicated than in the case of homogeneous materials. It has been shown that the introduction of asymmetric conditions into the rolling process results in greater grain refinement in the so-called hard layer. There was no negative effect on the structural changes in the soft layer observed.
The present paper reports the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the process of die forging a bimetallic door handle intended for the production of a helicopter. The aim of the studies was to develop and implement a technology for die forging of a product with a specific mass similar to that of magnesium alloys which will have, however higher corrosion resistance. Numerical modelling and industrial tests were carried out based on the previously forging processes for an AZ31 alloy door handle. The material for the tests was a bimetallic bar produced by the explosive welding method, in which the core was of alloy AZ31, and the cladding layer was made of 1050A grade aluminium. The studies were conducted for two variants: Variant I – the forging process was mapped by numerical modelling and industrial tests for the die shape and parameters used in the forging of the AZ31 alloy door handle, Variant II – the tool shape was optimized and process parameters were selected so as to obtain a finished product characterized by a continuous Al layer.
From the theoretical studies and experimental tests carried out it has been found that the application of the Variant I does not assure that a finished door handle characterized by a continuous cladding layer will be produced. Within this study, a novel method of bimetallic door handle die forging (Variant II) has been developed, which limits the amount of the flash formed and assures the integrity of the cladding layer.
The present work has the objective of studying the effect of shot peening with glass microspheres on SAE 1020 steel in its resistance to fatigue. Fatigue tests were carried out by rotary bending with load control and loading on balance in specimens with and without shot peening. A rotation speed of approximately 750 rpm (12.5 Hz) was employed in the fatigue tests. Vickers microhardness tests were performed in order to verify the surface hardening produced by shot peening with glass microspheres. Analysis of the steel surface and fatigue fractures was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fatigue tests were performed in order to obtain S-N curves (Wöhler curves). It was observed that shot peening with glass microspheres improved the fatigue strength of the steel at high cycle.
In this work, the 316L austenitic steel based milled and sintered composites with 0.33 wt% and 1 wt% SiC ultra-fine particles addition have been prepared. The high efficient attrition milling provided an efficient size reduction of the 316L steel grains and homogeneous distribution of the SiC nanoparticles before sintering process. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used for compaction of milled powder mixtures. The effect of SiC addition on the milling efficiency and the structure of the composites have been studied. It was found that the amount of ceramic addition did not influence the efficiency of milling process, powder mixtures with flake like grains have been obtained. On the other hand, the intensive milling assured an optimal coverage of 316L stainless steel grains with submicron sized ceramic particles in both cases. The sintered composites showed high densities with the presence of small amount of closed porosities. Structural, mechanical and tribological examinations of 316L/SiC composites have been performed and presented.
In this paper, aluminium alloy of grade ADC-12 was considered as a base metal and chromium carbide (Cr3C2) particles were reinforced through friction stir process. A detailed analysis of mechanical property and metallurgical characterization studies were performed to evaluate the surface composite. Remarkable changes were observed in the developed composite due to the mechanical force produced by the stir tool with an increase in hardness. The metallurgical investigation infers that the presence of silica in ADC-12 alloys has undergone mechanical fracture and long needle structure changed to reduced size. On the other hand, at higher tool rotational speed, the uniform distribution of hard particles was confirmed through SEM micrographs. Thus the modified surface composite has produced good mechanical property with high metallurgical qualities.
Two strength-age hardening aluminum-lithium alloys: Al-2.3wt%Li and Al-2.2wt%Li-0.1wt%Zr in two different heat treatment conditions: solution state (S) and additionally in aging state (A) were severely plastically deformed by rolling with cyclic movement of rolls (RCMR) method to produce ultrafine – grained structure. Two thermo-mechanical treatments were used: (S+A+RCMR) and (S+RCMR+A+RCMR). To investigate the combined effect of plastic deformation and heat treatment, tensile tests were performed. Microstructural observations were undertaken using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with electron backscattering diffraction detector (EBSD). Based on the obtained results, it can be deduced that maximum mechanical properties as: yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) could be achieved when the microstructure of alloys is in (S+A+RCMR) state. For samples in (S+RCMR+A+RCMR) state, ductility is higher than for (S+A+RCMR) state. The microstructural results shows that the favourable conditions for decreasing grain size of alloys is (S+A+RCMR) state. Additionally, in this state is much greater dislocation density than for (S+RCMR+A+RCMR) state. The microstructure of alloys in (S+RCMR+A+RCMR) state is characterized by grains/subgrains with higher average diameter and with higher misorientation angles compared with (S+A+RCMR) state.
In this research work, Ti6Al4V alloy material was subjected to electric discharge machining (EDM) and its fatigue life was investigated at low cycle fatigue mode. In order to evaluate the influence of recast layer generated during the machining process on the fatigue life, samples prepared using end milling process were also subjected to similar tests and a comparative analysis is presented. Data were observed in the fully reversed fatigue mode at room temperature using samples fabricated as per ASTM standard E606. The specimen were machined on a spark electric discharge die sink machine which were subjected to fatigue, and the recorded fatigue lives were compared with the fatigue life of end milled specimen. The machined surfaces were examined through optical and scanning electron microscopes, and the roughness was measured with a standard profilometer. It was observed that when the discharge current is augmented, the recast layer formed was in the range of 20 to 70 µm thick. From the results, it is being concluded that fatigue life of the samples fabricated by EDM is less for various load conditions when compared with that of the end milled sample. The milled sample at 160 MPa load exhibited 2.71×105 cycles, which is 64% more when compared to EDM sample.
Multilayered composites based on light metals are promising materials in many applications. In the present work the 15-layered clad, composed of alternately stacked of Ti(Gr.1) and AA1050-H24 alloy sheets of 1 mm thick has been investigated with respect to determination of the kinetic of the Al3Ti phase growth. The defect-free multilayered composite was successfully formed by explosive welding technology. Then EXW samples were modified via annealing at the temperature of 600oC in closed die under pressure of 44 MPa for various times ranged between 1 and 10 h. Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy examinations were conducted in order to study the kinetic of the elements migration across the interfaces between the layers of the Al/Ti composite. The macro-scale observations of samples after EXW revealed that wavy interfaces were always formed in layers near the explosive charge. The increase of the distance from the top surface leads to flattening of the interface with very thin reaction layer between Al and Ti sheets. During annealing the kinetic of the Al3Ti phase growth is similar near all interfaces and coincides with data from other works. It was found that despite the loading after 10 h of annealing still only small part of Al-sheets undergoes dissolution and the width of the reaction layer does not exceed 5-8 µm.
Ladle plays an important role in the metallurgical industry whose maintenance directly affects the production efficiency of enterprises. In view of the problems such as low maintenance efficiency and untimely maintenance in the current ladle passive maintenance scheme, the life prediction mechanism for ladle composite structures is established which bases on the stress analysis of steel shell and ladle lining in the production process, combining conventional fatigue analysis and extended fracture theory. The mechanism is accurate and effective according to the simulation results. Through which, the useful life of steel shell can be accurately predicted by detecting the crack length of it. Due to the large number of factors affecting the life of the lining of the ladle, it is difficult to accurately predict the life of the ladle lining, so a forecasting mean based on the thermal shock method is proposed to predict the service life of the ladle lining in this paper. The life prediction mechanism can provide data support and theoretical guidance for the active maintenance of the ladle, which is the prerequisite for scientifically formulating ladle initiative maintenance program.
Microstructure and texture of the CuCr0.6 alloy processed by rolling with cyclic movement of rolls (RCMR) at room temperature were investigated. The RCMR processing was applied for the samples in different initial conditions in the solid solution followed by quenching into iced water at 1000oC for 3 h and in aging treatment conditions performed at 500oC for 2 h and at 700oC for 24 h. Application of the solution and aging processes prior to RCMR deformation results in the partial dissolution of Cr particles into the Cu matrix and precipitation of the second phase particles. RCMR processing with value of the total effective strain (εft) of 5 was introduced to the material. It was found that the RCMR method is effective in texture weakening. The obtained results revealed that there is a large similarity in texture orientations after RCMR processing independently of heat treatment conditions. Cyclic character of deformation leads to an incomplete transition of LAB to HAB.
Micro-defects detection in solidified castings of aluminum alloy has always been a hot topic, and the method employed is mainly depends upon the size and shape of the specimens. In present paper, the amount and distribution characters of micro-defects in a series of 2219 aluminum alloy ingot, with diameters of φ1380 mm, φ1250 mm, φ1000 mm, φ850 mm and φ630 mm, prepared by direct chill casting were investigated by means of metallographic, respectively. Samples were cut along the radius direction from slices in the steady casting stage. The result reveals that typical micro-defects are consist of inclusions, porosity and shrinkage under optical microscope, and the total amount of micro-defect per unit area in an ingot slightly decreased with the increase of its diameter. Meanwhile, defects were classified into 2 types according to its size, the results suggesting that defects greater than 40 μm account for the largest proportion among the counted two kinds of defects. Moreover, the distribution of defects greater than 40 μm along the radial direction was detected, its amount increases as its distance from the side, indicating that the micro-defects greater than 40 μm distributed the most in the center zone of ingots and the larger the ingot diameter, the more obvious the tendency was.
7N01-T4 aluminum alloy was welded by metal inert gas welding and the influence of V-groove angle on joint fatigue properties was investigated. The results indicate that the volume of fusion zone (FZ) and the grains in FZ become small when the groove angle decreases to 50° from 70°. Most pores distribute at the FZ edge and fewer pores are formed in the small angle joint. The fatigue crack mainly initiates at the transition region between the weld passes due to the pore concentration. The small angle contributes to increasing joint fatigue properties, especially at the low stress level. The fatigue strength of 50° joint is 103.06 MPa which is 15.3% higher than that of 70°joint.
AISI 316L/TiB2/2p composites were manufactured by HP-HT using different pressures (5 and 7 GPa) and temperatures (900-1300°C), with constant reinforcing particle content 2 vol%. The mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated on the basis of hardness (HV0.3) and compression tests (20°C, 10−5 s−1). The results showed that the role of sintering pressure increased with increasing process temperature. At temperatures of 900°C and pressures of 5 and 7 GPa the difference in measured values of compressive strength was 1-2%, while at 1300°C they reached 20%. At constant pressure of 5 GPa, a change in hardness and compressive strength of 40% were obtained with a temperature change of 900 to 1300°C. Changes in mechanical properties in the composite occurred without substantial changes in density, microstructure, reinforcement phase distribution, and phase composition in the matrix.
In this paper, study the preparation of Y-Fe alloy by reduction-diffusion process, which is novel technique for producing an alloy from its ores directly at different temperatures. From this work, investigates the particles size and morphology structure of alloy by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive-X-ray analyzer (EDAX) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) respectively. Here study the thermodynamics of property of system such as Gibbs free energy and reaction kinetics of system respectively. The Vibrating Sample magnetometer (VSM) is used to study the magnetic properties of alloy such as cocerviety, saturation magnetization and retentivity.
In order to improve the efficiency of power generation system and reduce CO2 emissions power plants work at high temperature and pressure. Under such conditions modified steel 9Cr, which fulfils the requirements concerning creep resistance, is used. However, Cr2O3 formed on the steel does not protect the construction material in the atmosphere which contains CO2 and SO2. The aim of the experiment was to study the behaviour of P91 steel in CO2 atmosphere with the addition of 1% and 5 vol.% of SO2 at different temperatures (700, 800 and 900°C). It was concluded that the corrosion rate of P91 steel is increasing with a rise in temperature. Scales formed in CO2 atmosphere at 900°C contain a mixture of iron oxides in the outer layer and chromium-iron spinel in the inner layer. The FeS and Ni were found in the inner zone of scales formed in SO2 atmosphere.
In the last 20 years, a new meshless computational method has been developed that is called peridynamics. The method is based on the parallelized code. The subject of the study is the deformation of open-cell copper foams under dynamic compression. The computational model of virtual cellular material is considered. The skeleton structure of such a virtual cellular material can be rescaled according to requirements. The material of the skeleton is assumed as the oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper. The OFHC copper powder can be applied in additive manufacturing to produce the open-cell multifunctional structures, e.g., crush resistant heat exchangers, heat capacitors, etc. In considered peridynamic computations the foam skeleton is described with the use of an elastic-plastic model with isotropic hardening. The dynamic process of compression and crushing with different impact velocities is simulated.
Eutectic copper oxides (Cu2O) crystallize during the copper solidification process in the ETP grade copper which leads to high oxygen concentrations in interdendritic spaces. It has been experimentally found that they can be regular or elongated, and their size reaches several micrometres. During the multi-cage hot rolling process, homogenization of the oxide distribution in the entire volume of the wire rod occurs. This process is carried out in the soft copper matrix. Throughout the drawing process the fragmentation of oxides transpires along with changes in the shape from angular to more oval in a degree depending on the size of the deformation (wire diameter). Microcracks, fissures and local stress fields in the reinforced copper matrix arise around the oxide particles. The article presents the results of research on the evolution of copper oxides in ingots, wire rods and wires. The results of investigations of the wires properties and the limitations of the drawing process, especially of microwires, are presented.
The addition of hard ceramic particles of nc-(Ti,Mo)C in carbon network into Ti matrix has been proved to be an efficient way to enhance their properties. The purpose of this work was to analyze the corrosion, tribological, mechanical and morphological effects of combining nc-(Ti,Mo)C/C with titanium metal, to create a unique composite via selective laser melting technique (SLM). Composites with different weight percentage (5, 10 and 20 wt %) of ceramic phase were produced. The samples of pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy were also tested, as a reference. These composites were examined for corrosion resistance in body fluid (artificial saliva solution). Moreover, the properties of titanium composites reinforced with nc-TiC powders were compared. It was stated that mechanical properties were significantly improved with increasing amount of nc-(Ti,Mo)C/C in Ti matrix. In terms of corrosion resistance, the composites showed worse properties compared to pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy, but better than TiC-reinforced composites.
The paper presents the results of the pitting resistance investigations of selected stainless steels in the chloride environment and the simultaneous impact of erosive factors using the cyclic polarization technique. Additionally, using electrochemical techniques, ie: electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and measurement of corrosion potential, the behavior of the passive layer of selected stainless steels in the environment of chlorides and erosion was examined. On the basis of the obtained results, the resistance of stainless steels 1.4301 and 1.4404 was found, both on the effect of chloride ions and erosive factors in the studied systems. Both tested steels are susceptible to pitting corrosion. It was found that a good measure of erosive impact on stainless steel is both impedance spectrum analysis and continuous monitoring of the corrosion potential of steel.
Electrochemical Cr coatings doped with diamond nanoparticles were deposited on sintered steels with different carbon contents (0.2-0.8 wt.-%). The mechanical properties of surfaces as hardness and wear resistance increase as compared to the steel substrate. Microcutting and microgridding mechanisms were observed after tribological tests, but also adhesive wear in some areas was observed. X-ray examination indicated that the layer was textured, with the exception of the sample with the highest concentration of diamond nanoparticles in the electrolyte (42 g/l). The intensity ratio ICr110/ICr200 was calculated and compared with the indices for a standard sample. The greatest differences in the intensity ratio occurred for the samples with low carbon content (0.2%C). On the other hand, more the material is textured the greater the difference.
The article presents current methods used for the recovery of metals from used electronic equipment. The analysis of the composition and structure of the material was made on the example of one of the most popular and widespread e-waste – used cell phones. The article was address the problems of processing and separation of individual components included in these heterogeneous wastes. The main purpose of the conducted research was to prepare the tested material in such a way that the recovery of metals in the further stages of its processing was as effective as possible.The results of attempts to separate individual material fractions with magnetic, pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods will be presented. An analysis of the possibilities of managing electronic waste in terms of the circular economy will be made.
Wider application of silicon carbide (SiC) is anticipated for increasing the durability of various structural facilities. For this study, SiC was fabricated with decreased electrical resistivity for precision electrical discharge machining. Two-step reaction sintering by infiltration of molten Fe-Si alloy was applied for SiC fabrication. The procedure included first sintering at 973 K in Ar gas atmosphere and second sintering by spontaneous infiltration of molten Fe-75%Si alloy at 1693 K in vacuum. The sintered structure porosity became very low, forming 3C-type SiC. Results confirmed that molten Fe-75%Si alloy infiltration occurred because of reaction sintering. The electrical resistivity of the sintered SiC infiltrated by molten Fe-75%Si alloy can be improved to be two orders of magnitude lower than that by molten Si, consequently maintaining the high performance of SiC.
The report presents research efforts on the synthesis of Zn/MoS2 composite coatings by electrochemical reduction from a sulphate-borate bath containing MoS2 powder as a dispersion phase at various concentrations. The structure of the Zn/MoS2 composite coatings was characterised and the effect of MoS2 particles embedded on their microhardness was evaluated. The coatings produced are characterized by a compact, homogeneous structure and a good connection to a steel substrate. The incorporation of MoS2 particles into the zinc matrix has an influence on the structure and morphology of the Zn/MoS2 composite coatings. It was found that the presence of MoS2 particles increases surface roughness along with coating hardness. The incorporation of the MoS2 particles into the zinc matrix slightly improves the corrosion resistance compared to Zn coatings, making the corrosion potential shift towards more electropositive values.
In this study a group of selected transformation kinetics equations is applied to describe the isothermal ferritic transformation in austempered ductile iron (ADI). A series of dilatometric tests has been carried out on ADI at different temperatures. The obtained experimental data are utilized to determine the parameter values of the considered kinetic equations. It is found that the transformation kinetics models by Starink, Austin and Rickett are substantially more effective at describing the ferritic transformation in ADI than the much celebrated Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that evaluating the kinetic parameters using the least squares method instead of calculating them from vastly used formulas can significantly improve the accuracy of the JMAK model’s predictions.
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is a quarterly journal of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS which publishes original scientific papers and reviews in the fields of metallurgy and materials science, foundry, mechanical working of metals, thermal engineering in metallurgy, thermodynamic and physical properties of materials, phase equilibria in the broad context and diffusion. In addition to the regular, original scientific papers and conference proceedings, invited reviews presenting the up-to-date knowledge and monothematic issues devoted to preferred areas of research will be published. Submission of a paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form.
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 L.B. Magalas, Development of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status and Perspectives. HRMS Coupled with a Laser Dilatometer. Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/AMM-2015-0350
 E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Large Magnetic Field-Induced Work output in a NiMgGa Seven-Lavered Modulated Martensite. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4933303
 H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, Suppression of Interdiffusion in Copper/Tin thin Films. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012).DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).
 M. H. Kamdar, A.M.C. Westwood, Environment-Sensitive Mechanical Behaviour, New York 1981.
 F. Erdogan, in: H. Liebowitz (Ed.), Fracture 2, Academic Press 684, New York (1968).
 F.M. LIang. World Hyphenation by Computer. PhD thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, June.
Chapter in books:
 R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major,
P. Zięba (Ed.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).
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 H. EtschmaIer, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012), DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).
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