Section steels produced by welding are essential parts for shipbuilding and offshore plant production. T-type and H-type section steels are produced by handwork for secondary processing, which is a generally difficult and tedious activity. Therefore, automatic welding, with sound welding properties and a high-speed process, is necessary to meet the production demands. Welding conditions can be optimized by controlling various parameters to obtain suitable and highly reliable microstructural properties. In this study, the heat affected zone and weld defects of fillet-welded Angle and T-bar parts were investigated in terms of their microstructural, macrostructural, and mechanical properties to ensure the soundness of AH36 section steel parts joined by continuous welds.
The effect of TiC content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a nanocrystalline Fe-Mn alloy was investigated by XRD analysis, TEM observation, and mechanical tests. A sintered Fe-Mn alloy sample with nano-sized crystallites was obtained using spark plasma sintering. Crystallite size, which is used as a hardening mechanism, was measured by X-ray diffraction peak analysis. It was observed that the addition of TiC influenced the average size of crystallites, resulting in a change in austenite stability. Thus, the volume fraction of austenite at room temperature after the sintering process was also modified by the TiC addition. The martensite transformation during cooling was suppressed by adding TiC, which lowered the martensite start temperature. The plastic behavior and the strain-induced martensite kinetics formed during plastic deformation are discussed with compressive stress-strain curves and numerical analysis for the transformation kinetics.
This paper aims to investigate the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of hot-deformed AlMg4 alloys with Mn, Fe, and Si as the main impurities. For this purpose, solidification behavior and microstructural evolution during hot-rolling and heat-treatment processes are investigated by using theoretical calculations and experimental characterization. The crystallization and morphological transformation of intermetallic Al3Fe, Al6Mn, and Mg2Si phases are revealed and discussed in terms of the variation in chemical composition. Following a homogenization heat-treatment, the effect of heat treatment on the intermetallic compounds is also investigated after hot-rolling. It was revealed that the Mg2Si phase can be broken into small particles and spherodized more easily than the Al3Fe intermetallic phase during the hot-rolling process. For the Mn containing alloys, both yield and ultimate tensile strength of the hot-rolled alloys increased from 270 to 296 MPa while elongation decreased from 17 to 13%, which can be attributed to Mn-containing intermetallic as well as dispersoid.
In this study, to investigate effects of rhenium addition on the microstructures and mechanical properties, 15Cr-1Mo ODS ferritic steels with rhenium additions were fabricated by the mechanical alloying, hot isostatic pressing, and hot rolling processes. Unremarkable differences on grain morphologies and nano-oxide distributions were estimated in the microstructure observations. However, the ODS ferritic steels with 0.5 wt.% rhenium showed higher tensile and creep strengths at elevated temperature than that without rhenium. It was found that rhenium is very effective to improve the mechanical properties.
In this study, the effects of adding niobium and vanadium to Fe-based oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are confirmed. The composition of alloys are Fe-20Cr-1Al-0.5Ti-0.5Y2O3 and Fe-20Cr-1Al-0.5Ti-0.3V-0.2Nb-0.5Y2O3. The alloy powders are manufactured by using a planetary mill, and these powders are molded by using a magnetic pulsed compaction. Thereafter, the powders are sintered in a tube furnace to obtain sintered specimens.
The added elements exist in the form of a solid solution in the Fe matrix and suppress the grain growth. These results are confirmed via X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses of the phase and microstructure of alloys. In addition, it was confirmed that the addition of elements, improved the hardness property of Fe-based oxide dispersion strengthened alloys.
In this study, a molybdenum alloy with dispersed high-entropy particles was fabricated using the powder metallurgy method. The high-entropy powder, composed of Nb, Ta, V, W, and Zr elements with a same atomic fraction, was prepared via high-energy ball milling. Using this powder, an ideal core-shell powder, composed of high-entropy powder as core and Mo powder as shell, was synthesized via the milling and reduction processes. These processes enabled the realization of an ideal microstructure with the high-entropy phase uniformly dispersed in the Mo matrix. The sintered body was successfully fabricated via uniaxial compaction followed by pressureless sintering. The sintered body was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope, and the high-entropy phase is uniformly dispersed in the Mo matrix.
Liquid metal extraction (LME) process results in 100% neodymium (Nd) extraction but the highest extraction efficiency reported for Dysprosium (Dy) so far is 74%. Oxidation of Dy is the major limiting factor for incomplete Dy extraction. In order to enhance the extraction efficiency and to further investigate the limiting factors for incomplete extraction, experiments were carried out on six different particle sizes of under 200 µm, 200-300 µm, 300-700 µm, 700-1000 µm, 1000-2000 µm and over 2000 µm at 900℃ with magnesium-to-magnet scrap ratio of 15:1 for 6, 24 and 48 hours, respectively. This research identified Dy2Fe17 in addition to Dy2O3 phase to be responsible for incomplete extraction. The relationship between Dy2Fe17 and Dy2O3 phase was investigated, and the overall extraction efficiency of Dy was enhanced to 97%.
In this study, the magnetic properties and wave absorption characteristics of high entropy alloys are investigated. The high entropy alloys with FeNiMnCoCu, FeNiMnZnCo, and FeNiZnCoCu compositions were synthesized by the sol-gel method. After the sol-gel process, the annealing process and hydrogen reduction process was performed. FeNiMnCoCu and FeNiZnCoCu were revealed soft magnetic property. The saturation magnetization was 12 emu/g and 36 emu/g, respectively. And The coercive force was –45 Oe and –34 Oe, respectively. The high entropy alloy with these compositions was revealed wave absorption property at above 10 gigahertz frequency region. And it has shown the trend that wave absorption frequency has decreased with the sample thickness increasing.
Recently, since the demand of rare earth permanent magnet for high temperature applications such as an electric motor has increased, dysprosium (Dy), a heavy rare earth element, is becoming important due to severe bias in its production. To fulfill the increasing need of Dy, recycling offers as a promising alternative. In recycling of rare earths, Hydro-metallurgical extraction method is mainly used however it has adverse environmental effects. Liquid metal extraction on the other hand, is an eco-friendly and simple method as far as the reduction of rare earth metal oxide is concerned. Therefore, liquid metal extraction was studied in this research as an alternative to the hydro-metallurgical recycling method. Magnesium (Mg) is selected as solvent metal because it doesn’t form intermetallic compounds with Fe, B and has a low melting and low boiling point. Extraction behavior of Dy in (Nd,Dy)-Fe-B magnet is observed and effect of Mg ratio on extraction of Dy is confirmed.
The U-type ferrite is a kind of hexagonal ferrite, and it is known as a microwave absorber in the X-band. The magnetic and dielectric loss of the U-type ferrite change to the composition and coating layer, etc. In this study, the silicon oxide layer was coated on the substituted U-type ferrites to improve microwave absorption characteristics. The complex permittivity and complex permeability were measured using toroidal specimens that were press-molded and the measured frequency range was set from 2-18 GHz. The improvement of the microwave absorption rate was different according to the type of the substituted U-type ferrites. Only in the substituted U-type ferrites with nickel and zinc, an improvement in the microwave absorption rate due to enhancement of magnetic loss was confirmed. The highest microwave absorption was 99.9% at 9.6 GHz, which was S_Z0.5U.
NdFeB anisotropic sintered permanent magnets are typically fabricated by strip casting or melt spinning. In this study, the plastic deformability of an NdFeB alloy was investigated to study the possibility of fabricating anisotropic sintered magnets using gas atomized powders. The results show that the stoichiometric composition Nd12Fe82B6 softens at high temperatures. The aspect ratio and orientation factor of Nd12Fe82B6 billets after plastic deformation were found to increase with increasing plastic deformation temperature, particularly above 800℃. This confirms that softening at high temperatures can lead to plastic deformation of Nd2Fe14B hard magnetic phases.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of beta type aged Ti-4Mo-4Cr-X (X = V, Sn, Zr) quaternary alloy for use as a cardiovascular stent. Titanium (Ti) alloys were fabricated using a vacuum arc remelting furnace process. To homogenize the specimens of each composition and remove the micro segregation, all cast specimens were subjected to homogenization at 850℃ for 4 h, which was 100℃ higher than the β-transus temperature of 750℃. The tensile strength and elongation of the aged Ti-4Mo-4Cr-X (X = V, Sn, Zr) alloys were increased as compared to the homogenized alloys. In addition, many α/β interface boundaries formed after aging treatment at 450°C, which acted as inhibitors of strain and caused an increase in tensile strength. The elongation of Ti-4Mo-4Cr-X alloys consisting of α + β phases after aging treatment was improved by greater than 30%. Results of a potentiodynamic polarization test showed that the lowest current density of Ti-4Mo-4Cr-4Sn with 1.05 × 10–8 A/cm2 was obtained. The present Ti-4Mo-4Cr-X alloys showed better corrosion characteristics as compared to the 316L stainless steel and L605 (Co-Cr alloy) cardiovascular stent alloys.
TiNi alloys have excellent shape memory properties and corrosion resistance as well as high biocompatibility. This study investigated the effects of copper addition on the phase transitions and electrochemical corrosion behaviors of Ti50Ni50-xCux alloys. TiNi, Ti50Ni47Cu3, Ti50Ni44Cu6, and Ti50Ni41Cu9 alloys were prepared using vacuum arc remelting followed by 4 h homogenization at 950°C. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analyses were conducted. The corrosion behaviors of the alloys were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization test in Hank’s balanced salt solution at a temperature of 36.5 ± 1°C. The TiNi alloy showed phase transitions from the cubic B2 phase to the monoclinic B19’ phase when the alloy was thermally cycled. The addition of copper to the TiNi alloy played a major role in stabilizing the orthorhombic B19 phases during the phase transitions of Ti50Ni50-xCux alloys. The shifts in the corrosion potential toward the positive zone and the low corrosion current density were affected by the amount of Cu added. The corrosion resistance of the TiNi alloy increased with increasing copper content.
In this study, the extrusion characteristics of Al-2Zn-1Cu-0.5Mg-0.5RE alloys at 450, 500, and 550℃ were investigated for the high formability of aluminum alloys. The melt was maintained at 720℃ for 20 minutes, then poured into the mold at 200℃ and hot-extruded with a 12 mm thickness bar at a ratio of 38:1. The average grain size was 175.5, 650.1, and 325.9 μm as the extrusion temperature increased to 450, 500 and 550℃, although the change of the phase fraction was not significant as the extrusion temperature increased. Cube texture increased with the increase of extrusion temperature to 450, 500 and 550℃. As the extrusion temperature increased, the electrical conductivity increased by 47.546, 47.592 and 47.725%IACS, and the tensile strength decreased to 92.6, 87.5, 81.4 MPa. Therefore, the extrusion temperature of Al extrusion specimen was investigated to study microstructure and mechanical properties.
This study investigates the microstructures and the mechanical properties of equiatomic Ti20Mo20Ta20Nb20V20 and non-equiatomic Ti40Mo15Ta15Nb15V15 and Ti60Mo10Ta10Nb10V10 HEAs using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and micro-Vickers hardness test. The specimens were fabricated using the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process and homogenized at a temperature of 1300°C for 4 h in a vacuum atmosphere. The determined thermodynamic parameters, Ω ≥ 1.1, δ ≤ 6.6%, and VEC < 6.87, suggested that the HEAs consisted of BCC solid solutions. XRD patterns of all the HEAs displayed single BCC phases. The difference in the solidification rate led to the micro-segregation associated with the elements Ta and Mo enriched in the dendrite arms and the elements V and Ti in the inter-dendritic regions. The HEA specimens showed a decrease in hardness with higher concentration of Ti element because the intrinsic hardness of Ti is lower as compared to the intrinsic hardness of Nb and Mo.
The present study investigated various thermodynamic parameters, microstructures and electrochemical behaviors of TiMoVCrZr and Ti-rich TiMoVCrZr high-entropy alloys (HEAs) prepared by vacuum arc remelting. The microstructures of the alloys were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The determined thermodynamic values of the Ω-parameter and the atomic size difference (δ) for the HEAs were determined to be in the range of Ω ≥ 1.1, and δ ≤ 6.6% with valance electron configuration (VEC) ≤ 5.0, suggesting the HEAs were effective at forming solid solutions. XRD patterns of the equiatomic Ti20Mo20V20Cr20Zr20 HEA revealed four phases consisting of the body centered cubic1 (BCC1), BCC2, hexagonal close-packed (HCP), and intermetallic compound Cr2Zr phases. Three phases were observed in the XRD patterns of Ti-rich Ti40Mo15V15Cr15Zr15 (BCC, HCP, and Cr2Zr) and a single BCC phase was observed in Ti-rich Ti60Mo10V10Cr10Zr10 HEAs. The backscattered-electron (BSE) images on the equiatomic Ti20Mo20V20Cr20Zr20 HEA revealed BCC and HCP phases with Cr2Zr precipitates, suggesting precipitation from the HCP solid solution during the cooling. The micro-segregation of Ti-rich Ti60Mo10V10Cr10Zr10 HEAs appeared to decrease remarkably. The alloying elements in the HEAs were locally present and no phase changes occurred even after additional HIP treatment. The lowest current density obtained in the polarization potential test of Ti-rich Ti40Mo15V15Cr15Zr15 HEA was 7.12×10–4 mA/cm2 was obtained. The studied TiMoVCrZr HEAs showed improved corrosion characteristics as compared to currently available joint replacement material such as ASTM F75 alloy.
In this paper, we have studied the evolution of morphology and brazing behavior of Ag-28Cu alloy filler processed by high energy ball milling. The milling of the powder mixture was carried out for 40 h. The structural and morphological analyses were performed by the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The melting temperature of the braze filler was determined by differential thermal analysis. The filler wetting properties were assessed from the spread area ratio measurements on various Ti substrates. The results indicate that the ball milling can effectively depress the filler melting point and enhance the brazeability. The milled powder mixture showed Ag(Cu) solid solution with a crystallite size of 174-68 nm after 40 h. It was shown that the high energy ball milling can be a potential method to develop low temperature brazing fillers for advanced microjoining applications.
In this study, we have developed Sn-Ag alloy by a simple high energy ball milling technique. We have ball-milled the eutectic mixture of Sn and Ag powders for a period of 45 h. The milled powder for 45 h was characterized for particle size and morphology. Microstructural investigations were carried out by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The melting behavior of 45 h milled powder was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The resultant crystallite size of the Sn(Ag) solid solution was found to be 85 nm. The melting point of the powder was 213.6oC after 45 h of milling showing depression of ≈6oC in melting point as compared to the existing Sn-3.5Ag alloys. It was also reported that the wettability of the Sn-3.5Ag powder was significantly improved with an increase in milling time up to 45 h due to the nanocrystalline structure of the milled powder.
In the ironmaking, sizes of raw materials such as iron ores and coke must be adjusted for subsequent process in the blast furnace. The depletion of high grade iron ore in recent years necessitates a technology that can utilize low-grade fine iron ores. Thus, steelmakers have been studying the sinter-briquette complex firing process that employs a method of charging the sinter feed together with briquettes made of fine iron ore. In this process, larger briquettes increase the briquette productivity per unit time but decrease the green strength of briquettes and they can break during transportation and charging. Thus, the briquette shape is very important.
Therefore, in this study, we simulate a twin roll briquetting process using the DEM analysis and compared the compressive force distributions in the briquette for different aspect ratios. This study is a new attempt, because research cases by numerical methods on the same or similar systems are very rare. Consequently, the optimal aspect ratio is 0.5 at briquette height 20 mm, 2.0 at 30 mm, and 1.5 at 40 mm. Also, the average compressive force increased in proportion with the pocket height at the same aspect ratio. Therefore, to increase the pocket depth for high productivity, the pocket height must also be increased for obtaining high strength briquettes.
In this study, a simple and effective way to fabricate highly porous scaffolds with controlled porosity and pore size is demonstrated. Ti-7Zr-6Sn-3Mo shape memory alloy fibers were prepared through a melt overflow process. The scaffolds with porosity of 65-85% and large pores of 100-700 μm in size were fabricated by sintering the as-solidified fibers. Microstructures and transformation behaviors of the porous scaffolds were investigated by means of SEM, DSC and XRD. The scaffolds were composed of β phase at room temperature. Superelasticity with the superelastic recovery strain of 7.4% was achieved by β↔α” phase transformation. An effect of porosity on mechanical properties of porous scaffolds was investigated by using compressive test. As the porosity increased from 65% to 85%, elastic modulus and compressive strength decreased from 0.95 to 0.06 GPa and from 27 to 2 MPa, respectively.
Stable dispersion of antimony-doped tin oxide nano-powder was prepared by wet attrition process by comminuting aggregated ATO nano-powder using the titanate coupling agent as a dispersant to form the chemisorbed layer on the particle surface. The feed solution of the ATO dispersion and PVP was prepared for electro-spun fibers on the glass substrate. The surface resistance of the fibrous ATO film after electrospinning for 30 minutes was in the order of 105 Ω/□, which is sufficient for anti-static coating. The optical transmittance of ATO fibers was confirmed by measuring the visible light transmittance.
In this study, the synthesis of lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) powder was conducted by a carbonation process using carbon dioxide gas (CO2) from waste acidic sludge based on sulfuric acid (H2SO4) containing around 2 wt.% lithium content. Lithium sulfate (Li2SO4) powder as a raw material was reacted with CO2 gas using a thermogravimetric apparatus to measure carbonation conditions such as temperature, time and CO2 content. It was noted that carbonation occurred at a temperature range of 800℃ to 900℃ within 2 hours. To prevent further oxidation during carbonation, calcium sulfate (CaO4S) was first introduced to mixing gases with CO2 and Ar and then led to meet in the chamber. The lithium carbonate obtained was examined by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and it was found that of lithium carbonate with a purity above 99% was recovered.
The low adherence of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on titanium (Ti) alloys can be improved by using interlayer coatings. In this study, DLC (a-C:H) films were deposited using radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD), and a TiCN interlayer was applied between the extra low interstitial (ELI) grade of Ti-6Al-4V alloy and a-C:H film. The characteristics of the a-C:H-coated Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy, Vickers hardness, and scratch and wear tests. The DLC (a-C:H) films deposited by rf-PECVD had a thickness of 1.7 µm, and the TiCN interlayer had a thickness of 1.1 µm. Vickers hardness of the DLC (a-C:H) films were increased as a result of the influence of the TiCN interlayer. The resulting friction coefficient of the a-C:H-coated Ti-6Al-4V with the TiCN interlayer had an extremely low value of 0.07.
The flow behavior of 7175 aluminum alloy was modeled with Arrhenius-type constitutive equations using flow stress curves during a hot compression test. Compression tests were conducted at three different temperatures (250°C, 350°C, and 450°C) and four different strain rates (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5 s−1). A good consistency between measured and set values in the experimental parameters was shown at strain rates of 0.005, 0.05, and 0.5 s−1, while the measured data at 5 s−1 showed the temperature rise of the specimen, which was attributable to deformation heat generated by the high strain rate, and a fluctuation in the measured strain rates. To minimize errors in the fundamental data and to overcome the limitations of compression tests at high strain rates, constitutive equations were derived using flow curves at 0.005, 0.05, and 0.5 s−1 only. The results indicated that the flow stresses predicted according to the derived constitutive equations were in good agreement with the experimental results not only at strain rates of 0.005, 0.05, and 0.5 s−1 but also at 5 s−1. The prediction of the flow behavior at 5 s−1 was correctly carried out by inputting the constant strain rate and temperature into the constitutive equation.
Direct energy deposition (DED) is a three-dimensional (3D) deposition technique that uses metallic powder; it is a multi-bead, multi-layered deposition technique. This study investigates the dependence of the defects of the 3D deposition and the process parameters of the DED technique as well as deposition characteristics and the hardness properties of the deposited material. In this study, high-thermal-conductivity steel (HTCS-150) was deposited onto a JIS SKD61 substrate. In single bead deposition experiments, the height and width of the single bead became bigger with increasing the laser power. The powder feeding rate affected only the height, which increased as the powder feeding rate rose. The scanning speed inversely affected the height, unlike the powder feeding rate. The multi-layered deposition was characterized by pores, a lack of fusion, pores formed by evaporated gas, and pores formed by non-molten metal inside the deposited material. The porosity was quantitatively measured in cross-sections of the depositions, revealing that the lack of fusion tended to increase as the laser power decreased; however, the powder feeding rate and overlap width increased. The pores formed by evaporated gas and non-molten metal tended to increase with rising the laser power and powder feeding rate; however, the overlap width decreased. Finally, measurement of the hardness of the deposited material at 25℃, 300℃, and 600℃ revealed that it had a higher hardness than the conventional annealed SKD61.
A superior SiC based thermal protection coating process for carbon composite, which can be especially effective in a hot oxidizing atmosphere, was established in this study. A multi-coating process based on a combination of Chemical Vapor Reaction (CVR) and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) was developed. Various protective coating layers on carbon composite were tested in hot oxidizing surroundings and the test results verified that the thermal ablation rate could be dramatically reduced down to 3.8% when the protective multi-coating was applied. The thermal protection mechanism of the coating layers was also investigated.
The presented access the influence of Mn content (0-0.94 wt.%) on the course of the cooling curves, phase transformation, macrostructure, and microstructure of Al-Cu alloys for three series: initial (Series I), with the addition of an AlTi master (Series II), and modified with AlTi5B1 (Series III). The maximum degree of undercooling ΔT was determined based on the cooling curves. The surface density of the grains (NA) was determined and associated with the inverse of solidification interval 1/ΔTk. Titanium (contained in the charge materials as well as the modifier) has a significant effect on the grinding of the primary grains in the tested alloys. A DSC thermal analysis allowed for the determination of phase transition temperatures under conditions close to equilibrium. For series II and III, the number of grains decreases above 0.2 wt.% Mn with a simultaneous increase in solidification interval 1/ΔTk. The presence of Al2Cu eutectics as well as the Cu-, Fe-, and Mn-containing phases in the examined samples was demonstrated using scanning electron microscopy.
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of using moulding sands based on inorganic binders hardened in a microwave chamber in the technology of ablation casting of aluminium alloys. The essence of the ablation casting technology consists in this that a mould with a water-soluble binder is continuously washed with water immediately after being poured with liquid alloy until its complete erosion takes place. The application of an environmentally friendly inorganic binder improves the ecology of the whole process, while microwave hardening of moulding sands allows moulds to be made from the sand mixture containing only a small amount of binder.
The studies described in this article included microwave-hardened sand mixtures containing the addition of selected inorganic binders available on the market. The strength of the sands with selected binders added in an amount of 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0 parts by mass was tested. As a next step, the sand mixtures with the strength optimal for ablation casting technology, i.e. about 1.5 MPa, were selected and tested for the gas forming tendency. In the four selected sand mixtures, changes occurring in the samples during heating were traced. Tests also included mould response to the destructive effect of ablation medium, which consisted in the measurement of time necessary for moulds to disintegrate while washed with water. Tests have shown the possibility of using environmentally friendly, microwave-hardened moulding sands in ablation casting of aluminium alloys.
In the present study, the lead-free BaTi1-xZrxO3 (for x = 0, 0.05 and 0.15) ceramics were prepared by High-Energy Ball Milling and heat treatments. The performed X-ray, SEM and EDS measurements confirmed high purity, good quality and the expected quantitative composition of the obtained samples. The study of dielectric properties was performed by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy at the frequency ranging from 0.1 Hz to 10 MHz. The obtained measurement data, analyzed in accordance with the Arrhenius formalism demonstrated the presence of relaxation type dielectric mechanisms. The impedance answer of studied ceramic materials indicated the presence of two relaxation processes: one with a dominant resistive component and the other with a small capacitive component. The observed dielectric relaxation process is temperature dependent and has a “non-Debye” character.
This study is devoted to synthesis and characterization of uranium dioxide microspheres (Ø < 100 µm) and pellets by application of powder-free process called the Complex Sol-Gel Process. The precursors of prepared sols were ascorbic acid solution with dissolved a freshly precipitated ammonium diuranate. The microspheres of uranyl-ascorbate gel were obtained using the ICHTJ Process. The pellets were formed by pressing and sintering of uranium dioxide powder. Studies allowed determining an optimal heat treatment of calcination, reduction and sintering processes at temperatures of 700°C, 900°C and 1300°C, respectively. The main parameters which play a key role in the process of synthesis method and features of the pellets and microspheres of uranium dioxide are described in this article.
This paper presents the way in which temperature is measured in tests concerning structural transformations in various types of steel under welding conditions. In the test methodology, a small-sized steel specimen was subjected to simulated welding thermal cycles, during which the temperature of the specimen, changes in magnetic permeability and thermal expansion were measured simultaneously. The measurements of those parameters required the non-contact heating of the specimen, which involved the use of heating lamps. The temperature measurement was of key importance because the subsequent analysis of the remaining parameters was performed in the function of temperature.
The tests of structural transformations resulted in the development of Continuous Cooling Transformation under welding conditions (CCT) diagrams, enabling the determination of steel weldability and constituting the source of information needed to determine the effect of welding thermal cycles on the structure and properties of the material subjected to the tests.
Related numerical models to be used as the basis for the analysis of temperature distribution in the test specimen have been developed. These tests involved the analysis of the values and the distribution of temperature in relation to various model parameters, i.e. thermocouple types, geometrical features of a thermocouple junction and the diameter of thermocouple wires. The results of FEM calculations have been compared to the experiments.
The perovskite type matrix is considered as solidification material for high-level radioactive waste. In this work the perovskite-rutile-type matrix doped by Co, Cs, Nd and Sr which simulate nuclear waste was prepared by sol-gel route. The material was characterized by several methods such as: X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and particle induced X-ray emission combined with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The analyzes confirmed chemical composition Co-Cs-Nd-Sr- doped perovskite-rutile-type structure. A virtual model of the pellet`s structure was created non-destructively by Roentgen computed micro-tomography. The leaching tests confirmed high chemical resistance of the matrix.
Increasing demands are imposed on foundries to enforce the manufacture of castings characterized by tight dimensional tolerances, high surface finish and total absence of casting defects. To face these challenges, castings are increasingly made in loose self-hardening sands with furfuryl resin, commonly known as furan sands. In the group of self-hardening sands with synthetic resins, loose self-hardening sands with furfuryl resin enjoy the greatest popularity. The sand mixtures based on furan resins are usually subjected to mechanical reclamation. The consumption of binder and hardener and thus the cost of the sand depend on the quality of reclaim, and mainly on the dust removal degree.
The planned tightening of the environmental protection regulations in the EU countries, including limiting the content of free furfuryl alcohol in resins and reducing the emission of furfuryl alcohol, formaldehyde and BTEX compounds at workplaces, necessitated the development of a new generation of eco-friendly furfuryl resins that have recently appeared on the market.
The main aim of this article was to determine the effect of reclaim content on the sand parameters, such as bending strength, tensile strength, bench life, gas-forming tendency and loss on ignition. Tests were carried out with reclaim content in the sand mixture varying from 50 to 90%. The reclaim obtained by dry mechanical reclamation was supplied by one of the domestic foundries.
The results showed that the highest mechanical properties were obtained in sands containing 60% of the reclaim.
The paper presents the test results of molding compounds, sand casting molds and their analysis. The subject of testing was compound containing furan resins prepared according to the following recipe: matrix – regenerate 90% + fresh sand – 10%, furan resin – 1.10% by weight, hardener – 0.40% by weight. The impact of adhesive type and its quantity (Quan = 0.90, 1.1 and 1.5%) on the strength indexes of molding compound subject to densification was analyzed. The publication presents the test results: tensile strength Rm, compressive strength Rc and flexural strength Rg, as well as compound permeability as function of its density. The analysis also covers the impact of density level on mold strength and the distribution of density level along the mold height.
Based on the test results, it was found that the best method to obtain high strength molds made from compounds with chemical adhesives was to densify it by vibrating the system: match plate – molding flask – compound filling the mold. The effectiveness of this densification method depends on the amplitude and frequency of vibrations.
The article will be focused on analysis of properties of aluminum alloy for the casting of type Al-Mg. As an experimental material was used aluminum alloy EN AC 51200, supplied in a cast state without a heat treatment. It was produced by the continuous casting method. Experiments deal with microstructural material analysis, fractographic analysis, mechanical and fatigue tests. The microstructure of the testing sample was examined using an optical microscope Neophot 32. Fatigue properties of aluminum alloy was tested by three-point bending cyclic loading. The fracture surface of the testing sample was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), where sample was observed on various stages of the fatigue process, its characteristics and differences of fracture surfaces.
In the paper presents two new patented of unconventional methods author’s and sleeve-type products of extruding [PL219182, PL221425]. The extrusion methods have been developed with the aim of reducing the energy and force parameters during the plastic forming of material. Traditional methods of extruding similar products are characterized by considerably higher extrusion force magnitudes. This results in substantial limitations and problems of an engineering nature. Moreover, the proposed methods of producing bottomed and bottomless sleeves are distinguished by the capability to minimize or totally eliminate the waste. The author’s methods of extruding long bottomless sleeves, presented herein, were used for developing a method for shaping inner toothing in spline sleeves. The theoretical analysis is based on thermomechanical simulation of the possibility of applying such processes to the extrusion of spline shafts with inner toothing. Next, the obtained results were compared with analogous parameters for classical indirect extrusion. The possibility of shaping inner toothing over the entire product length according to the proposed spline sleeve plastic forming methods was also explored.
The secondary aluminium alloys are very important material in actual industry from economic and ecological point of view. The secondary aluminium used for production of casts, however, contains some elements, i.e. iron, – affecting physical, chemical and mechanical behaviour. The subject of our investigation has been corrosion behaviour in natural atmosphere of the hypoeutectic AlSi7Mg0.3 cast alloys with various content of iron, because the Fe content affects not only mechanical properties but corrosion resistance, as well. Three types of the AlSi7Mg0.3 cast alloys were exposed for 9 months in natural atmosphere and the measure of their degradation by corrosion was found by determination of the weight loss and the light microscopy. In addition, a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses and evaluation of surface changes were used. The corrosion behaviour in natural atmosphere was compared to results of the carried out electrochemical and exposure laboratory experiments in chloride solutions.
This work deals with the effect of austempering temperature and time on the microstructure and content of retained austenite of a selected cast steel assigned as a material used for frogs in railway crossovers. Bainitic cast steel was austempered at 400°C, 450°C and 500°C for two selected times (0.5 h, 4.0 h) to study the evolution of the microstructure and retained austenite content. The microstructure was characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), and hardness tests. Phase transformations during and after austempering were determined by dilatometric methods.
The increase in isothermal temperature causes an increase in time to start of bainitic transformation from 0.25 to 1.5 s. However, another increase in temperature to 500°C shifts the incubation time to as much as 11 s. The time after which the transformations have ended at individual temperatures is similar and equal to about 300 s (6 min.). The dilatation effects are directly related to the amount of bainite formation. Based on these we can conclude that the temperature effect in the case of cast steel is inversely proportional to the amount of bainite formed. The largest effect can be distinguished in the case of the sample austempered at 400°C and the smallest at 500°C. Summarizing the dilatometric results, we can conclude that an increase in austempering temperature causes an increase in austenite stability. In other words, the chemical composition lowers (shifts to lower temperatures) the range of bainite transformation. It is possible that at higher austempering temperatures we will receive only stable austenite without any transformation. This is indicated by the hatched area in Figure 4b. This means that the heat treatment of cast steel into bainite is limited on both sides by martensitic transformation and the range of stable austenite. The paper attempts to estimate the content of retained austenite with X-ray diffraction.
Corrosion is a main problem for longtime exploration of heat exchangers in automotive industry. Proper selection of accelerated corrosion test for newly developed material is a key aspect for aluminum industry. The selection of material based on corrosion test includes test duration, chemical spray composition, temperature and number of cycles. The paper present comparison of old and newly developed accelerated corrosion tests for testing automotive heat exchanger. The accelerated test results are comprised with heat exchanger taken from market after life cycle.
This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of severe plastic deformation (SPD) by extrusion combined with reversible torsion (KoBo) method on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-5Cu and Al-25Cu alloys. The extrusion combined with reversible torsion was carried out using reduction coefficient of λ = 30 and λ = 98. In this work, the microstructure was characterized by light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Compression test and tensile test were performed for deformed alloys. The binary Al-5Cu and Al-25Cu alloys consist of the face cantered cubic (FCC) α phase in the form of dendrites and tetragonal (C16) θ-Al2Cu intermetallic phase observed in interdentritic regions. The increase of Cu content leads to increase of interdentritic regions. The microstructure of the alloys is refined after applying KoB deformation with λ = 30 and λ = 98. Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) of Al-5Cu alloy after KoBo deformation with λ = 30 and λ = 98 reached about 200 MPa. UTS for samples of Al-25Cu with λ = 30 and λ = 98 increased compared to Al-5Cu alloy and exceed 320 MPa and 270 MPa respectively. All samples showed increase of plasticity with increase of reduction coefficient. Independently of reduction coefficient, the compressive strain of Al-5Cu alloys is about 60%. The Al-25Cu alloy with λ = 98 showed the value of compressive strain exceed 60%, although for this same alloy but with λ = 30, the compressive strain is only 35%.
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is a quarterly journal of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS which publishes original scientific papers and reviews in the fields of metallurgy and materials science, foundry, mechanical working of metals, thermal engineering in metallurgy, thermodynamic and physical properties of materials, phase equilibria in the broad context and diffusion. In addition to the regular, original scientific papers and conference proceedings, invited reviews presenting the up-to-date knowledge and monothematic issues devoted to preferred areas of research will be published. Submission of a paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form.
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References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science: http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations/, everyone abbreviation should be end with a dot - example. Arch.Metall.Mater.] or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket).
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 L.B. Magalas, Development of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status and Perspectives. HRMS Coupled with a Laser Dilatometer. Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/AMM-2015-0350
 E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Large Magnetic Field-Induced Work output in a NiMgGa Seven-Lavered Modulated Martensite. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4933303
 H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, Suppression of Interdiffusion in Copper/Tin thin Films. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012).DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).
 M. H. Kamdar, A.M.C. Westwood, Environment-Sensitive Mechanical Behaviour, New York 1981.
 F. Erdogan, in: H. Liebowitz (Ed.), Fracture 2, Academic Press 684, New York (1968).
 F.M. LIang. World Hyphenation by Computer. PhD thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, June.
Chapter in books:
 R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major,
P. Zięba (Ed.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).
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 H. EtschmaIer, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012), DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).
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Starting from issue 1/ 2018, Volume 63, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is published in electronic via www.journals.pan.pl. The printed version is printed only for designated libraries (legal basis: Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Art of March 6, 1997).
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