Applied sciences

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

Content

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | 2022 | vol. 67 | No 1 |

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Abstract

The resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity were determined for Bi2Te3 + Ag2Te composite mixtures. Subsequent measurements were carried out in the temperature range from 20 to 270°C, and for compositions from pure Bi2Te3 to xAg2Te = 0.65 selected along the pseudo-binary section of Ag-Bi-Te ternary system. It was found that conductivity vs. temperature dependence shows visible jump between 140 and 150°C in samples with highest Ag2Te content, which is due to monoclinic => cubic Ag2Te phase transformation. Measured Seebeck coefficient is negative for all samples indicating they are n-type semiconductors. Evaluated power factor is of the order 1.52·10–3 and it decreases with increasing Ag2Te content (at. %). Recalculated thermal conductivity is of the order of unity in W/(m K), and is decreasing with Ag2Te addition. Finally, evaluated Figure of Merit is 0.43 at 100°C and decreases with temperature rise.
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Authors and Affiliations

S. Drzewowska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tian-Wey Lan
2
ORCID: ORCID
B. Onderka
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, 30 Mickiewicza Avenue, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
  2. Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan, ROC
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Abstract

The surfacing layer of cobalt-based alloy is prepared using the tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) process and employing the UMCo50, ST1 and ST6 filler materials. The metallographic testing, hardness, wear and corrosion testing of different surfacing layers have been carried out. Each area of the surfacing layer is characterized using the optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cellular and a few columnar dendrites have been observed near the fusion line of the UMCo50 surfacing layer, and cellular structure is observed in the central region. Dendrites and cellular crystals have been observed in the ST1 and ST6 surfacing layers. The average hardness of UMCo50, ST1 and ST6 surfacing layers are 320 HV, 672.3 HV and 497.5 HV, respectively. The wear loss of the ST1, ST6 and UMCo50 surfacing layer is 2.71 mg, 4.35 mg, and 14.57 mg, respectively. The corrosion weight loss of the ST1, ST6 and UMCo50 surfacing layers are 0.0388 g, 0.0477 g and 0.0833 g, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Haitao Xue
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xiaoping Luan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Weibing Guo
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dong Zhou
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Hebei University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, No. 5340, Xipingdao Road, Beichen District, Tianjin, 300401, PR China
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Abstract

In the present paper, the excavation of the energetic approach that estimates the fatigue crack initiation life of metal is conducted for H62 brass. The benefit of the energetic approach is the division of the actual applied strain range Δε into two parts, that is, a damage strain range Δεd that induces fatigue damage within the metal, and an undamaged strain range Δεc, which does not produce fatigue damage of the metal and corresponds to theoretical strain fatigue limit. The brightness of this approach is that the undamaged strain range Δεc can be estimated by the fundamental conventional parameters of metal in tensile test. The result indicated that the fatigue crack initiation life of H62 brass can be estimated by this approach successfully.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Zheng
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Zhang
1
ORCID: ORCID
X.J. Peng
1
ORCID: ORCID
Y. Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Northwest University, School of Chemical Engineering, Xi’an 710069, P. R. China
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Abstract

The gold recovery from cyanidation tailings was only 4.01% with the general flotation process, the surface analyses of flotation products were performed, and the results showed that the poor gold recovery with general flotation process was due to the passive films covering the surface of the gold bearing pyrite. These films are mainly hydrophilic hydroxides of Ca, Fe and Mg, at the same time, the depression of CN– to pyrite flotation in the flotation slurry was also a main contributing factor. With the surface repair regeneration procedures, it was proven that sulfuric acid pretreatment plays a dominant role in the removing and cleaning of passive films, while destroying free cyanides in the slurry. Sodium carbonate was then used as a buffering pH modifier and as a slurry dispersant after sulfuric acid pretreatment. The gold recovery was as high as 93.41%, compared to the original gold recovery of 4.01%.
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Authors and Affiliations

Huang Zhongsheng
1 2 3
Yang Tianzu
1

  1. School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan, China
  2. State Key Laboratory of Comprehensive Utilization of Low-Grade Refractory Gold Ores, Xiamen 3361101, Fujian, China
  3. Zijin Mining Group Company Limited, Shanghang 364200, Fujian, China
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Abstract

In this study, Strontium Bismuth Niobate (SrBi2-xTmxNb2O9 with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) doped by Tm was synthesized using by the hydrothermal method. The microstructure and electrical properties were mainly investigated. XRD analysis showed a single-phase orthorhombic structure for Tm-doped SrBi2Nb2O9 samples. The crystallite size is anisotropic and the strain is apparently independent of Tm amount. Dielectric properties for doped SrBi2Nb2O9 with Tm3+ ion have the same trend discussed for the pure sample. FTIR resulats showed that NbO6 octahedral is formed, on one hand, and on the other hand, it shows that spectras for doped and undoped samples are nearly the same. The Cross-section of ceramics showed the plate-like morphology, also the distribution of the pore in ceramics are observed for all samples. Tm dopants produce only minor changes in the impendence parameter values at room temperature. The luminescent (PL) properties of Tm-doped SrBi2Nb2O9 ceramic powders were investigated. The optimum Tm3+ concentration for the maximum PL intensity was found to be at x = 0.075.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohamed Afqir
1
ORCID: ORCID
Stevan Stojadinović
2
ORCID: ORCID
Mohamed Elaatmani
1
ORCID: ORCID
Abdelouahad Zegzouti
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nabiha Tahiri
1
Mohamed Daoud
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Université Cadi Ayyad, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Laboratoire des Sciences des Matériaux et Optimisation des Procédés, Marrakech, Morocco
  2. University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentskitrg 12-16, Belgrade, Serbia
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Abstract

As a result of experimental data processing, the ratio of alloying elements Кγ' was proposed for the first time, which can be used to assess the mechanical properties, taking into account the complex effect of the main alloy components. The regularities of the influence of the composition on the properties of heat-resistant nickel alloys of equiaxial crystallization are established. It is shown that for multicomponent nickel systems it is possible with a high probability to predict a mismatch, which significantly affects the strength characteristics of alloys of this class. A promising and effective direction in solving the problem of predicting the main characteristics of heat-resistant materials based on nickel is shown.
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Authors and Affiliations

A.A. Glotka
1
ORCID: ORCID
V.E. Ol’shanetskii
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Zaporizhzhia Polytechnic National University, Ukraine, Zaporizhzhia, st. Zhukovskogo, 64, 69063
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Abstract

Multi-particle finite element method (MPFEM) simulation has been proven an efficient approach to study the densification behaviors during powder compaction. However, comprehensive comparisons between 2D and 3D MPFEM models should be made, in order to clarify which dimensional model produces more accurate prediction on the densification behaviors. In this paper, uniaxial high velocity compaction experiments using Ti-6Al-4V powder were performed under different impact energy per unit mass notated as Em. Both 2D and 3D MPFEM simulations on the powder compaction process were implemented under displacement control mode, in order to distinguish the differences. First, the experimental final green density of the compacts increased from 0.839 to 0.951 when Em was increased from 73.5 J/g to 171.5 J/g. Then detailed comparisons between two models were made with respect to the typical densification behaviors, such as the density-strain and density-pressure relations. It was revealed that densification of 2D MPFEM model could be relatively easier than 3D model for our case. Finally, validated by the experimental results, 3D MPFEM model generated more realistic predictions than 2D model, in terms of the final green density’s dependence on both the true strain and Em. The reasons were briefly explained by the discrepancies in both the particles’ degrees of freedom and the initial packing density.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jian Zhou
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hongkun Xu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Chenyu Zhu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bin Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kun Liu
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Hefei University of Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Hefei, 230009, China
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Abstract

Zeolites, minerals with the formula Mx/n[AlO2]x(SiO2)y] zH2O, are environmentally friendly materials used as water treatment adsorbents, gas adsorbents, and petrochemical catalysts. This study used a mixture of aluminum black dross and waste glass to synthesize zeolites via a hydrothermal synthesis and analyzed the effects of varying reaction time on phase changes under different synthesis conditions. With increased reaction times, a phase change from zeolite Na-P1 to analcime was observed; on employing hydrothermal synthesis at 150°C for 96 h, the majority of the crystalline structures changed into analcime. Heavy metal cation adsorption was tested to assess the applicability of the synthesized analcime to water treatment. Zeolite adsorption of at least 95% was observed for both Pd and Cd ions. Although a higher level of adsorption was observed for Pb ion than Cd ion, Cd ion was demonstrated to undergo relatively faster adsorption when tested under optimal pulp density at the same level of adsorption (95%).
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Authors and Affiliations

Yubin Kang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Byoungyong Im
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jin-Ju Choi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jin-Ho Yoon
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dae-Guen Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute For Advanced Engineering, 17180, Goan-ro, 51 Beon-gil, Baegam-myeon, Cheoin-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
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Abstract

Internal cracking surrounding primary carbides in high carbon steel as-cast blooms induced by soft reduction is investigated to elucidate their influence of internal cracking on carbide precipitation and the resulting segregated band in hot-rolled wire rods. The primary carbides precipitation in high carbon steel has been investigated using both experimental observations and finite element simulations for as-cast blooms induced by soft reduction. It is found that the carbides precipitation in the vicinity of existing internal cracks is often located midway between the surface and centreline of the bloom, further increases the occurrence of the segregated bands in the hot-rolled wire rods. In addition, the growth of primary carbides surrounding the internal cracking are based on the chemical driving force and high density precipitate zones have been clarified in continuous casting bloom induced by soft reduction. It clearly shows that the spatial distribution of internal cracking surrounding primary carbides that play a key role in the formation of the segregated bands in the final steel products.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nanfu Zong
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Tao Jing
2
ORCID: ORCID
Yang Liu
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. R&D Institute of Bengang Steel Plates Co., Ltd., Benxi 117000, China
  2. Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  3. Jiangsu Changqiang Iron and Steel Corp., Ltd., Jiangsu 214500, China
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Abstract

The main aim of the present paper is to evaluate the porosity and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V and CoCrW alloys produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) as an additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Ti6Al4V and CoCrW alloys are attractive for medical application. The complex examination of porosity for these alloys needs the quantification of morphological and dimensional characteristics. Quantification of porosity was realized on non-etched samples. Quantitative image analysis was used to describe the dimensional and morphological porosity characteristics. The pores were evaluated by Image pro plus software. The results show the significant inhomogeneity of the morphology and distribution, as well as the pore size in the investigated materials and underline the importance of pore structure for the controlling mechanism of the mechanical response.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Bidulský
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
P. Petroušek
3
ORCID: ORCID
J. Bidulská
3
ORCID: ORCID
R. Hudák
4
ORCID: ORCID
J. Živčák
4
ORCID: ORCID
M. Actis Grande
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
  2. Asian Innovation Hub, Budulov 174, 045 01 Moldava Nad Bodvou, Slovakia
  3. Technical University of Kosice, Faculty of Materials , Metallurgy and Recycling, Dpt. of Plastic Deformation and Process Simulation, Letná 9, 042 00 Kosice, Slovakia
  4. Technical University of Kosice, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Dpt . of Instrumental and Biomedical Engineering, Letná 9, 042 00 Kosice, Slovakia
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Abstract

Dissimilar Al/Ti alloy sheets were lap welded with ultrasonic assistance in this work. The influence of ultrasonic vibration on formation, intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and tensile failure load of the obtained joints was discussed. The results showed that voids formed at the lap interface without ultrasonic assistance. No voids can be observed on the joint welded with ultrasonic because the vibration during welding improved the material flow. No obvious IMC formed at the Al/Ti bonding interface of the joint welded without ultrasonic assistance. An IMC layer formed at the bonding interface of Al/Ti with ultrasonic assistance and its thickness increased with decreasing the welding speed. The failure load of the joint welded with ultrasonic assistance was higher than the joint without ultrasonic because the void was eliminated and the thin IMC layer formed at the bonding interface was beneficial to joint strength. All joints presented shear failure mode during the tensile shear tests.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zhibo Dong
1
Ziao Zhang
2
Wei Hu
2
Peng Gong
2
ORCID: ORCID
Zan Lv
2

  1. Harbin Institute of Technology, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin 150001, China
  2. Shenyang Aerospace University, School of Aerospace Engineering, Shenyang 110136, China
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Abstract

Whereas approximately 96.3% of the steel produced worldwide is made by continuous casting, great emphasis is put on the superior efficiency of this process. The water model of the tundish and mathematical modeling is often used for the simulation of the steel flow during continuous casting. The experiments were performed on a model of the tundish with two outlets, at two casting speeds (0.8 m.s–1 and 1.2 m.s–1). Eight setups of the tundish were evaluated, which differed in the design of the dams (with or without drainage holes), in their distance from the center of the tundish, and their height. The contribution of the work is the analysis of phenomena in the tundish water model in conditions of repeatability (ten repetitions). The goal is to find the setup providing the most symmetrical flow, with the minimum difference in the residence times Δτ on the two outlets. Taking into account the results obtained at both casting speeds, the most preferred is setup 2 with the 87 mm high dams placed 587 mm from the center of tundish (Δτ = 0.5). The setup 3 (Δτ = 8.25) appears to be the least appropriate. The higher the casting speed, the higher the number of unsuitable arrangements.
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Authors and Affiliations

P. Blaško
1
ORCID: ORCID
B. Bulko
1
ORCID: ORCID
J. Petrík
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Demeter
1
ORCID: ORCID
V. Socha
2
ORCID: ORCID
L. Hanáková
2
ORCID: ORCID
P. Palfy
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Solc
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Vasilňáková
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Materials, Metallurgy and Recycling, Letná 9, 04 001 Košice, Slovakia
  2. Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Transportation Sciences, Horská 3, 128 00 Prague, Czech Republic
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Abstract

An experimental study was performed to assess the influences of aluminum content on the porosity, microstructure and mechanical properties of powder metallurgy steels. Optical microscope equipped with the image processing software and the scanning electron microscope were employed to study the microstructure of investigated specimens. In order to find mechanical properties of specimens, Vickers hardness and compression tests were conducted. By increasing the aluminum content (from 0 to 4 wt. %), the porosity increases (from 6.01% to 8.43%). The microstructure of specimens contains aluminum phase distributed between the boundaries of agglomerated iron particles, ferrite, and pearlite. By increasing the aluminum content, stress-strain curves shift significantly downwards, and the modulus of elasticity, elongation, yield stress, and Vickers hardness reduce from 1.82 to 0.86 GPa, 32.1 to 17.8%, 138.1 to 28.2 MPa, and 127.7 to 26.8 HV, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Hamid Sazegaran
1
Hasan Bahari
1
Ali Mohammad Naserian-Nik
2
Farhad Khorramshahi
3

  1. Quchan University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering, Quchan, Iran
  2. Quchan University of Technology, Engineering Faculty, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quchan, Iran
  3. Research and Development (R&D) Manager, Mashhad Powder Metallurgy, Mashhad, Iran
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Abstract

The microstructure evolution of boron-bearing high speed steel roll materials after casting and tempering was investigated. The results indicate that as-cast boron-bearing high speed steel consists of martensitic matrix, retained austenite and different borocarbides. The as-cast alloy has a hardness above 64 HRC, and the borocarbides distribute along the grain boundaries. After RE-Mg-Ti compound modification treatment, obvious necking and broken network appear in the grain boundaries. The hardness of boron-bearing high speed steel roll materials reduces gradually with the increase of tempering temperature. Under the same conditions, the toughness of the modified roll material is higher than that of the unmodified roll material. Wear tests show that the wear resistance of boron-bearing high-speed steel modified by RE-Mg-Ti compound modification treatment is better.
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Authors and Affiliations

Cheng Xiaole
1
Hou Jianqiang
2
Fu Hanguang
1

  1. School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xi’an Polytechnic University, Xi’an 710048, Shaanxi province, P. R. China
  2. MCC Jingcheng Engineering Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing 100176, P.R. China
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Abstract

The effect of the compaction rate on the structure, microstructure and properties of Fe-Al sinters obtained during the SHS reaction is presented in this paper. It was found that increasing the uniaxial pressing pressure led to the increase of the contact area between iron and aluminium particles, which improved the conduction and lowered heat losses during the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction and thus result with a sintered material with an improved phase homogeneity. On the other hand, an increase in the pressing pressure causes air be trapped in the pores and later on reacts with iron and aluminium to form oxides. In this work, the shrinkage course was analysed at six different pressing pressures: 50, 100, 150, 200, 300 and 400 MPa. The green compacts were then subjected to the PAIS process (pressure-assisted induction sintering) at a temperature of 1000°C under a load of 100 kN for 5 min. Such prepared samples were subjected to density, porosity, and microhardness (HV0.1) measurements. X-ray diffraction phase analysis and SEM observations were performed together with EDS chemical composition measurements. For studied chemical composition of the samples and sample geometry, 200 MPa compacting pressure was found to be optimal in order to obtain the best sample homogeneity.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Berendt-Marchel
1
D. Siemiaszko
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Military University of Technology, 2 Gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa, Poland
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Abstract

In this work, thermo-mechanically treated 42CrMo steel was subjected to cryogenic treatment conducted by means of orthogonal design method, followed by low-temperature tempering to investigate the effect of different parameters of cryogenic treatment on wear resistance of 42CrMo steel and to optimize parameters of cryogenic treatment for improving wear resistance. The results of hardness test and wear test show that cryogenic treatment significantly improves wear resistance with marginal changes in coefficient of friction and hardness. Specifically, cryogenic temperature has the largest impact on wear resistance of 42CrMo steel, holding time has medium impact, and the parameter of treatment cycles has the least impact. The optimum parameters of cryogenic treatment are −196°C for 12 hours with one cycle for improving wear resistance. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis indicate that marginal changes in hardness and coefficient of friction may be owing to little amount of transformation of retained austenite, and the significant influence of cryogenic treatment on improving wear resistance of 42CrMo steel can be mainly attributed to segregation of carbon atoms promoted by cryogenic treatment resulting in more precipitation of carbides in subsequent tempering.
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Authors and Affiliations

Haidong Zhang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xianguo Yan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zhi Chen
1
ORCID: ORCID
Minna Zhao
1
ORCID: ORCID
Liang Tang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yuan Gao
1
ORCID: ORCID
Fan Li
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yao Huang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Junji Li
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering , Taiyuan 030024, China
  2. Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Jincheng School District, Jincheng 048011, China
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Abstract

7075-T6 Al and AZ31B Mg dissimilar alloys were friction stir lap welded with or without a Zn filler, and the effect of heat input on the joint quality was systematically studied. The experimental and finite element simulation results displayed that the formation characteristics and microstructures of the joint with or without the Zn filler were significantly affected by the heat input. The tensile shear load of joint with or without the Zn filler increased first and then decreased with the decrease of the welding speed from 200 to 50 mm/min. Moreover, the peak temperature in the stir zone was significantly decreased by the Zn filler addition, and the high temperature zone narrowed along the plate thickness direction. These changes of heat input made that longer mixing region boundary length and larger effective lap width were attained as the Zn filler was used. In addition, due to the replacement of Al-Mg intermetallic compounds (IMCs) by Al-Mg-Zn and Mg-Zn IMCs which were less harmful to the joint, the tensile shear load of the joint with the Zn filler was obviously enhanced compared to that of the joint without the Zn filler at each welding speed. The maximum tensile shear load of 7.2 kN was obtained at the welding speed of 100 mm/min.
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Authors and Affiliations

Huaxia Zhao
1
ORCID: ORCID
Peng Gong
2
ORCID: ORCID
Shude Ji
2
ORCID: ORCID
Xue Gong
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AVIC Manufacturing Technology Institute, Beijing 100024, P. R. China
  2. Shenyang Aerospace University, College of Aerospace Engineering, Shenyang 110136, P. R. China
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Abstract

Currently, due to the economic and ecological aspects, light alloys are increasingly important construction material, in particular in the transport industry. One of the popular foundry magnesium alloys is the alloy AZ91, which among others due to mechanical properties and technological features, is used, for example, for light structural parts.
The paper presents the results of research on modification of the AZ91 alloy surface layer in the plasma electrolytic oxidation process. The change of usable properties of the produced coatings was obtained by introducing additions of silicon carbide or boron nitride. The thickness and hardness of the protective layers produced, resistance to scratches and corrosion resistance were determined. Moreover, the friction coefficient of the coating-steel pair was investigated. The quality of the connections made between the coating and the substrate, i.e. the magnesium alloy, was also evaluated. The results obtained for coatings with silicon carbide or boron nitride additives were always compared to the results obtained for unmodified samples.
On the basis of the obtained results, it was shown that the introduction of boron nitride additive to the AZ91 alloy coating produced in the plasma electrolytic oxidation process significantly improves the resistance to: (i) corrosion and (ii) abrasive wear of the coating.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Pelczar
1
P. Długosz
2
ORCID: ORCID
P. Darłak
2
ORCID: ORCID
A. Szewczyk-Nykiel
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Nykiel
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Hebda
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Engineering and Physics, Department of Materials Engineering, 24 Warszawska St r., 31-155 Krakow, Poland
  2. Centre of Casting Technology, Research Network Lukasiewicz-Krakow Institute of Technology, Zakopiańska 73, 30-418 Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

The electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of PtCoBi half-Heusler compound [001] surfaces and its bulk state have been investigated in the framework of density functional theory using GGA approximation. The half-metallic behaviors of CoBi-term, CoPt-term and PtBi-term decrease with respect to its bulk state. The spin polarization at the Fermi level is 73.2% for the bulk state, and it is –64.4% and –64.1% for the CoBi-term and PtBi-term, respectively while less polarization has been observed for the ­CoPt-term. All terminations have given almost similar optical responses to light. Plasmon oscillations for the terminations occur in the range of 12.5 to 14.5 eV (21 to 22 eV) along xx (zz), and it occurs at 23 eV for the bulk state. The refractive index for the bulk and all three terminations is very high in the infrared and visible areas, meaning a very strong metallic trend in these compounds. The phenomenon of super-luminance occurs for the incident light with energy exceeding 5.5 eV for all three terminations, and it occurs in the range of 10 eV for the bulk mode. These terminations show transparent behavior after the energy of 10 eV.
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Authors and Affiliations

Hamed Rezazadeh
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohamadreza Hantehzadeh
1
ORCID: ORCID
Arash Boochani
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
  2. Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran
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Abstract

Physical mechanisms of gas recirculation and wake closure were investigated by modeling the gas field generated by High Pressure Gas Atomizer using computational fluid dynamics. A recirculation mechanism based on axial and radial gas pressure gradient was proposed to explain the gas recirculation. The occurrence of wake closure is regarded as a natural result when elongated wake is gradually squeezed by expansion waves of increasing intensity. An abrupt drop could be observed in the numerical aspiration pressure curve, which corresponds well with the experimental results. The axial gradient of gas density is considered as the reason that results in the sudden decrease in aspiration pressure when wake closure occurs. Lastly, it is found that a shorter protrusion length and a smaller melt tip diameter would lead to a smaller wake closure pressure, which could benefit the atomizer design to produce fine metal powder with less gas consumption.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mingxiang Liu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Shan Zhou
2

  1. Shanghai University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Advanced Solidification Technology, Shanghai 200444, China
  2. Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Forming Technology and Equipment, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030, China
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Abstract

The 22Cr25NiWCoCu austenitic stainless steel was developed by AB Sandvik Material Technology in Sweden. Due to its high creep strength and good corrosion resistance, this material is well suited for use in superheaters in advanced coal-fired power boilers as well as in other types of steam boilers using various types of fuel. The examined material was subject to long-term ageing for the time of annealing up to 20 000 h at 700 and 750°C. Precipitation processes and microstructure stability as-received and after ageing were investigated. Examination of the microstructure was conducted using scanning electron microscopy. The identification of secondary phases was carried out by X-ray phase composition.
Using the results of the investigations of precipitation processes in the microstructure, both within the grains and at the grain boundaries, their statistical analysis was carried out. To illustrate this impact, the following parameters were used: surface area and equivalent diameter of precipitates. Based on the surface area measurements, the percentage of the phase in the reviewed photo’s total area was calculated.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Sroka
1
A. Zieliński
2
T. Puszczało
1 3
K. Sówka
1 3
B. Hadzima
4

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Department of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, S. Konarskiego 18A, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  2. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, K. Miarki 12-14, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  3. ZRE, ul. Gen. Jankego 13, 40-615 Katowice, Poland
  4. University of Žilina, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina, Slovakia
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Abstract

The work concerns of modeling the process of manufacturing machine parts by casting method. Making a casting without internal defects is a difficult task and usually requires numerous computer simulations and their experimental verification at the prototyping stage. Numerical simulations are then of priority importance in determining the appropriate parameters of the casting process and in selecting the shape of the riser for the casting fed with it. These actions are aimed at leading shrinkage defects to the riser, so that the casting remains free from this type of defects. Since shrinkage defects usually disqualify the casting from its further use, this type of research is still valid and requires further work. The paper presents the mathematical model and the results of numerical simulations of the casting solidification process obtained by using the Finite Element Method (FEM). A partial differential equation describing the course of thermal phenomena in the process of 3D casting creating was applied. This equation was supplemented with appropriate boundary and initial conditions that define the physical problem under consideration. In numerical simulations, by selecting the appropriate shape riser, an attempt was made to obtain a casting without internal defects, using a simple method of identifying their location. This is the main aim of the research as such defects in the casting disqualify it from use.
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Authors and Affiliations

L. Sowa
1
ORCID: ORCID
T. Skrzypczak
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Kwiatoń
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Machine Design Fundamentals, Dąbrowskiego 73, 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

In this globalized era, building materials play an essential role in the civil engineering field. Nowadays, with the increase in population, the demand for construction activities is also increasing. Polyethylene (PET) bottles are among the most widely used materials and cause an abundance of non-degradable waste, at about 0.94 million tonnes in Malaysia. One of the alternatives to reduce this waste's environmental impact is to incorporate it inside building materials such as brick and concrete. As PET bottles' recycling is highly promoted, the physical and mechanical properties of building materials made from PET bottles have also been reviewed. The data analysis shows that the compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength and density of building materials decreases as the percentage of PET waste increases. However, other properties such as water absorption, initial absorption rate, and firing shrinkage increase proportionally with the PET waste. Besides, heavy metals in these building materials comply with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. It can be concluded that the percentage of PET waste incorporated into brick and concrete must be less than 5% and 2%, respectively, to produce suitable materials to provide alternatives in reducing and recycling PET waste.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohd Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Aeslina Abdul Kadir
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Intan Seri Izzora Arzlan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Razali Md Tomari
3
ORCID: ORCID
Noor Azizi Mardi
3
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Fahrul Hassan
4
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Nabiałek
5
ORCID: ORCID
B. Jeż
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
  2. Center of Excellent Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Malaysia
  3. Faculty of Electric and Electronic, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
  4. Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
  5. Department of Physics, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Częstochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19,42-200 Częstochowa
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Abstract

This paper discussed the effect of the addition of silica fume (2 wt.% and 4 wt.%) and alumina (2 wt.% and 4 wt.%) on the properties of fly ash geopolymer concrete. The fly ash geopolymer concrete achieved the highest 28-day compressive strength with 2 wt.% of silica fume (39 MPa) and 4 wt.% of alumina (41 MPa). The addition of 2 wt.% of silica fume increased the compressive strength by 105% with respect to the reference geopolymer (without additive). On the other hand, the compressive strength surged by 115% with 4 wt.% of alumina compared to the reference geopolymer. The addition of additives improved the compactness of the geopolymer matrix according to the morphology analysis.
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Authors and Affiliations

Fong Sue Min
1
Heah Cheng Yong
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Liew Yun Ming
1 3
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1 3
ORCID: ORCID
Hasniyati Md Razi
4
Foo Wah Low
5
Ng Hui-Teng
1 2
Ng Yong-Sing
1 2

  1. Centre of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 02600 Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Perlis, Malaysia
  4. Reactor Technology Center, Technical Support Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Malaysia
  5. Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering & Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Bandar Sungai Long, 43000 Kajang, Malaysia
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Abstract

The γ/γ′ Co-based alloys are a new class of cobalt superalloys, which are characterized by remarkable high temperature strength owing to strengthening by γ′-Co3(Al, X) phases. In this investigation, the effect of cerium addition on oxidation behavior of model Co-Al-W alloys was studied. The introduction of Ce aimed at improvement of the oxidation resistance of γ′-forming Co-based superalloys. The minor additions of cerium (0.1, 0.5 at.%) were added to the base alloy Co-9Al-9W. The alloys were prepared via induction vacuum melting (VIM). Further, a primary microstructure of the alloys was analyzed with particular regard to a segregation of Ce. The thermogravimetric analysis (TG) under non-isothermal conditions was used to preliminary estimate the oxidation behavior of alloys at different temperatures. During experiment, differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed simultaneously. After this test, cyclic oxidation expermients was carried out at 800°C for 500 h. In as-cast state, Ce segregates to interdendritic areas and forms intermetallic phases. The effect connected with melting of interdendritic precipitates was observed at 1160°C. Ce-containing alloys were less prone of oxide spallation. Moreover, oxidation rate of these alloys substantially decreased after 100h of oxidation, whereas mass of the sample corresponding to base alloy continued to increase.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Migas
1
ORCID: ORCID
T. Liptáková
2
ORCID: ORCID
G. Moskal
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Engineering, Department of Materials Technologies , Katowice, Poland
  2. University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Material Engineering, Zilina, Slovak Republic
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Abstract

The disposal of industrial steel mill sludge in landfills has frequently received significant concern as the sludge has a very notable potential to contaminate soil surface and groundwater in the long run. Recently, the incorporation of industrial steel mill sludge into fired clay brick has become one of the promising alternative methods as it could produce a lightweight product while minimizing the environmental impact of the waste used. In this study, fired clay bricks as the most common building material were incorporated with 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of steel mill sludge and fired at 1050°C (heating rate of 1°C/min). The manufactured bricks were subjected to physical and mechanical properties such as firing shrinkage, dry density, and compressive strength while the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was conducted to analyze leaching behavior from the manufactured bricks. The results demonstrated that incorporation up to 15% of steel mill sludge reduces the properties up to 27.3% of firing shrinkage, 8.1% of dry density and 67.3% of compressive strength. The leaching behavior of Zn and Cu from steel mill sludge was reduced up to 100% from 7414 to 9.22 ppm (Zn) and 16436 to 4.654 ppm (Cu) after 15% of sludge incorporation. It was observed that high temperature during the firing process would improve the properties of bricks while immobilizing the heavy metals from the waste. Therefore, recycling steel mill sludge into construction building materials could not only alleviate the disposal problems but also promote alternative new raw materials in building industries.
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Authors and Affiliations

Noor Amira Sarani
1
ORCID: ORCID
Azini Amiza Hashim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Aeslina Abdul Kadir
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nur Fatin Nabila Hissham
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Nabiałek
2
ORCID: ORCID
B. Jeż
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
  2. Department of Physics, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Częstochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19,42-200 Częstochowa
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Abstract

Geopolymer is formed from the alkali activation of materials rich in Si and Al content with the addition of a silicate solution to enhance the properties of the materials. This paper presents research on the mechanical properties of fly ash-based geopolymer filler in epoxy resin by varying different solid to liquid ratios using sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate as the alkaline activator. However, the common problem observed from the solid to liquid ratio is the influence of curing time and compressive strength of geopolymer to have the best mechanical property. The mix design for geopolymers of solid to liquid ratio is essential in developing the geopolymer’s mechanical strength. A series of epoxy filled with fly ash-based geopolymer materials with different solid to liquid ratio, which is prepared from 0.5 to 2.5 solid to liquid ratio of alkaline activator. The tensile strength and flexural strength of the epoxy filled with fly ash-based geopolymer materials is determined using Universal Testing Machine under tensile and flexural mode. It was found that the optimum solid to liquid ratio is 2.0, with the optimum tensile and flexural strength value. However, both the tensile and flexural properties of epoxy filled with fly ash-based geopolymer suddenly decrease at a 2.5 solid to liquid ratio. The strength is increasing with the increasing solid to liquid ratio sample of geopolymer filler content.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohammad Firdaus Abu Hashim
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Che Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali
1 3
ORCID: ORCID
Yusrina Mat Daud
1 4
ORCID: ORCID
Meor Ahmad Faris
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1 4
ORCID: ORCID
Farah Farhana Zainal
1 4
ORCID: ORCID
Saloma Hasyim
5
ORCID: ORCID
Muhammad Taqiyuddin Lokman
2

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Center of Excellence Geopolymer & Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), School of Materials Engineering, (UniMAP), 02600 Jalan Kangar-Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, (UniMAP), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Faculty of Ocean Engineering Technology and Informatic, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Darul Iman, Malaysia
  4. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, (UniMAP), Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, 02600 Jalan Kangar-Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  5. Sriwijaya University, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Indonesia
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Abstract

The density, compressive strength, and thermal insulation properties of fly ash geopolymer paste are reported. Novel insulation material of glass bubble was used as a replacement of fly ash binder to significantly enhance the mechanical and thermal properties compared to the geopolymer paste. The results showed that the density and compressive strength of 50% glass bubble was 1.45 g/cm3 and 42.5 MPa, respectively, meeting the standard requirement for structural concrete. Meanwhile, the compatibility of 50% glass bubbles tested showed that the thermal conductivity (0.898 W/mK), specific heat (2.141 MJ/m3K), and thermal diffusivity (0.572 mm2/s) in meeting the same requirement. The improvement of thermal insulation properties revealed the potential use of glass bubbles as an insulation material in construction material.
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Authors and Affiliations

Noor Fifinatasha Shahedan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Norsuria Mahmed
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Liew Yun Ming
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Shayfull Zamree Abd Rahim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ikmal Hakem A Aziz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Aeslina Abdul Kadir
3
ORCID: ORCID
Andrei Victor Sandu
4
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Fathullah Ghazali
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Center of Excellence Geopolyme & Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Johor, Malaysia
  4. Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Iasi, Romania
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Abstract

This paper elucidated the potential of electron backscatter diffraction analysis for ground granulated blast furnace slag geopolymers at 1000°C heating temperature. The specimen was prepared through the mechanical ground with sandpaper and diamond pad before polished with diamond suspension. By using advanced technique electron backscatter diffraction, the microstructure analysis and elemental distribution were mapped. The details on the crystalline minerals, including gehlenite, mayenite, tobermorite and calcite were easily traced. Moreover, the experimental Kikuchi diffraction patterns were utilized to generate a self-consistent reference for the electron backscatter diffraction pattern matching. From the electron backscatter diffraction, the locally varying crystal orientation in slag geopolymers sample of monoclinic crystal observed in hedenbergite, orthorhombic crystal in tobermorite and hexagonal crystal in calcite at 1000°C heating temperature.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ikmal Hakem Aziz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
2
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Arif Anuar Mohd Salleh
2
ORCID: ORCID
Sorachon Yoriya
3
ORCID: ORCID
Rafiza Abd Razak
4
ORCID: ORCID
Rosnita Mohamed
1
ORCID: ORCID
Madalina Simona Baltatu
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Geopolymer & Green Technology, Centre of Excellence (CEGeoGTech), Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  3. National Metal and Material Technology Center (MTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 114, Thailand Science Park, Pahonyothin Rd., Khlong 1, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
  4. Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 02100 Padang Besar, Perlis, Malaysia
  5. Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, 700050, Iasi, Romania
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Abstract

The increasing needs of using aluminum epoxy composite as a replacement to solid metal rapid prototyping has opened to interests in optimizing its machining processes. This paper reported on the success of optimizing the surface roughness of aluminium epoxy composite using milling process along with a new finding on the best combination parameters. Taguchi method was used as the optimization method whereas spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut were set as input factors using an L9 Orthogonal Array. Analysis of Variance was used to identify the significant factors influencing the surface roughness. Experiment was conducted in dry condition using a vertical milling machine and the surface roughness after the machining was evaluated. Optimum combination of cutting parameters was identified after the finest surface roughness (response) based on the signal-to-noise ratio calculated. Cutting parameters selected after preliminary testing are cutting speeds of (2000, 3000 and 4000) rpm, feed rate (300, 400 and 500) mm/min, and cutting depth (0.15, 0.20, and 0.25) mm. The result showed that cutting speed had the largest percentage contribution to surface roughness with 69% and the second highest contribution was feed rate with 22% and depth of cut at 9%. The spindle speed was found as the most significant factor influencing the quality of surface roughness. The result is significant particularly in providing important guidelines for industries in selecting the right combination of parameters as well as to be cautious with the most significant factor affecting the milling process of metal epoxy composite.
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Authors and Affiliations

K.W. Leong
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Z. Shayfull
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Fathullah
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
M.F. Omar
2
ORCID: ORCID
M.M.A. Abdullah
2
ORCID: ORCID
H. Radhwan
1 2
A.H. Mazlan
1
ORCID: ORCID
B. Jeż
3
ORCID: ORCID
M. Nabiałek
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Częstochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Department of Physics, 19 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

Microstructures are an important link between materials processing and performance, and microstructure control is essential for any materials processing route where the microstructure plays a major role in determining the properties. In this work, silver-doped titanium dioxide (Ag/TiO2) thin film was prepared by the sol-gel method through the hydrolysis of titanium tetra-isopropoxide and silver nitrate solution. The sol was spin coated on ITO glass substrate to get uniform film followed by annealing process for 2 hours. The obtained films were annealed at different annealing temperatures in the range of 300°C-600°C in order to observe the effect on crystalline state, microstructures and optical properties of Ag/TiO2 thin film. The thin films were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. It is clearly seen, when the annealing temperature increases to 500°C, a peak at 2θ = 25.30° can be seen which refers to the structure of TiO2 tetragonal anatase. The structure of Ag/TiO2 thin film become denser, linked together, porous and uniformly distributed on the surface and displays the highest cut-off wavelength value which is 396 nm with the lowest band gap value, which is 3.10 eV.
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Authors and Affiliations

A.R. Kamrosni
1
ORCID: ORCID
C.H. Dewi Suryani
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Azliza
1
ORCID: ORCID
A.B.A. Mohd. Mustafa
1
ORCID: ORCID
M.S. Mohd. Arif Anuar
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Norsuria
1
ORCID: ORCID
V. Chobpattana
2
ORCID: ORCID
L. Kaczmarek
3
B. Jeż
4
ORCID: ORCID
M. Nabiałek
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, (UniMAP), Center of Excellence Geopolymer & Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), School of Materials Engineering, 02600 JalanKangar- Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi (RMUTT), Fac ulty of Engineering, Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Thailand
  3. Lodz University of Technology (TUL), Instititute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego Str., 90-924 Lodz, Poland
  4. Częstochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Department of Physics, 19 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

Geopolymer is widely studied nowadays in various scope of studies. Some of the ongoing studies are the study of the various materials towards the geopolymer strength produced. Meanwhile, some of the studies focus on the mixing of the geopolymer itself. This paper discussed the phase analysis of metakaolin/dolomite geopolymer for different solid to the liquid ratio which was, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, and the properties that affected the geopolymer based on the phases. The constant parameters in this study were the percentage of metakaolin and dolomite used. The metakaolin used was 80% meanwhile dolomite usage was 20%. Besides that, the molarity of NaOH used is 10M and the alkaline activator ratio used is 2.0. All the samples were tested at 28 days of curing. The results show that the 0.8 solid to the liquid ratio used gave better properties compare to other solid to liquid ratio. The phases analyzed were quartz, sillimanite, mullite, and faujasite. The 0.8 S/L ratio shows the better properties compared to others by the test of phase analysis, compressive strength morphology analysis, and functional group analysis.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ahmad Syauqi Sauffi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Wan Mastura Wan Ibrahim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
2
ORCID: ORCID
Masdiyana Ibrahim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Romisuhani Ahmad
1
ORCID: ORCID
Fakhryna Ahmad Zaidi
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Engineering Technology, P. O. Box 77, d/a Pejabat, Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Centre of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, P. O. Box 77, d/a Pejabat, Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia
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Abstract

Fe-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have been extensively investigated due to their ultrahigh strength and elastic moduli as well as desire magnetic properties. However, these BMGs have few applications in industrial productions because of their brittleness at room temperature. This study is focused on the effect of cooling rate on the mechanical properties (especially toughness) in the Fe41Co7Cr15Mo14Y2C15B6 BMG. For this aim, two samples with the mentioned composition were fabricated in a water-cooled copper mold with a diameter of 2 mm, and in a graphite mold with a diameter of 3 mm. The formation of crystalline phases of Fe23(B, C)6, α-Fe and Mo3Co3C based on XRD patterns was observed after the partial crystallization process. To determine the toughness of the as-cast and annealed samples, the indentation technique was used. These results revealed that the maximum hardness and toughness were depicted in the sample casted in the water-cooled copper mold and annealed up to 928°C. The reason of it can be attributed to the formation of crystalline clusters in the amorphous matrix of the samples casted in the graphite mold, so that this decrease in the cooling rate causes to changing the chemical composition of the amorphous matrix.
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Authors and Affiliations

P. Rezaei-Shahreza
1
ORCID: ORCID
H. Redaei
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Moosavi
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Hasani
1
A. Seifoddini
1
ORCID: ORCID
B. Jeż
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Nabiałek
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Yazd University, Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, 89195-741, Yazd, Iran
  2. Częstochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Department of Physics, 19 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

Production of Ti-based alloys with non-toxic elements give the possibility to control the market of medical applications, using alloys with appropriate properties for human body, contributing to improving the health of the population. Determination of parameters of atomic and magnetic structure of functional biomaterials demonstrating interesting physical phenomena and being promising for medical applications in a wide range of thermodynamic parameters; exploration of the role of cluster aggregation in the formation of physical properties. Paper is about the obtaining of the new titanium system alloys, the determining their characteristics and structure, and obtaining information concerning phase transitions and some mechanical properties. Ti15Mo7ZrxTa (5 wt.%, 10 wt.% and 15 wt.%) alloys developed shows a predominant β phase highlighted by optical microstructure and XRD patterns. A very low young modulus of alloys was obtained (43-51 GPa) which recommends them as very good alloys for orthopedic applications.
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Authors and Affiliations

I. Baltatu
1
ORCID: ORCID
A.V. Sandu
1 2 3
ORCID: ORCID
M.S. Baltatu
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Benchea
4
ORCID: ORCID
D.C. Achitei
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
F. Ciolacu
5
ORCID: ORCID
M.C. Perju
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
P. Vizureanu
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
L. Benea
6
ORCID: ORCID

  1. “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, 41 “D. Mangeron” Street, 700050, Iasi, Romania
  2. University Malaysia Perlis, Centre of Excellence Geopolymer & Green Technology School of Materials Engineering, Kompleks Pengajian Jejawi 2,02600 Arau, Perlis
  3. Romanian Inventors Forum, Str. Sf. P. Movila 3, L11, 700089, Iasi, Romania
  4. “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, 61-63 “D. Mangeron” Street, 700050, Iasi, Romania
  5. “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Department of Natural and Synthetic Polymers, 73 Blvd. D. Mangeron, Iasi, 700050, Romania
  6. Dunărea de Jos University of Galati, Faculty of Engineering, 47 Domneasca St., 800008, Galati, Romania
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Abstract

This study summarised the recent achievement in developing fiber reinforced geopolymer concrete. The factor of replacing Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) which is due to the emission of carbon dioxide that pollutes the environment globally is well discussed. The introduction towards metakaolin is presented. Besides, the current research trend involved in geopolymer also has been reviewed for the current 20 years to study the interest of researchers over the world by year. Factors that contribute to the frequency of geopolymer research are carried out which are cost, design, and the practicality of the application for geopolymer concrete. Besides, the importance of steel fibers addition to the geopolymer concrete is also well discussed. The fundamental towards metakaolin has been introduced including the source of raw material, which is calcined kaolin, calcined temperature, chemical composition, geopolymerisation process, and other properties. Alkali activators which are mixing solution between sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) have been reviewed. The mechanical properties of fibers reinforced metakaolin-based geopolymer concrete which is compressive and flexural are thoroughly reviewed. The compressive and flexural strength of fiber-reinforced metakaolin geopolymer concrete shows some improvement to the addition of steel fibers. The reviews in this field demonstrate that reinforcement of metakaolin geopolymer concrete by steel fibers shows improvement in mechanical performance.
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Authors and Affiliations

Meor Ahmad Faris
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1 3
ORCID: ORCID
Ratnasamy Muniandy
ORCID: ORCID
Shamala Ramasamy
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Mohammad Firdaus Abu Hashim
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Subaer Junaedi
4
ORCID: ORCID
Andrei Victor Sandu
5
ORCID: ORCID
Muhammad Faheem Mohd Tahir
1 3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University Malaysia Perlis, Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Center of Excellent Geopolymer and Green Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  2. University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  3. University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  4. Universitas Negeri Makasssar, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Indonesia
  5. Gheorge Asachi Technical University of Lasi, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Lasi, Romania
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Abstract

This study focused on the reclamation of ash from incineration process and development of new artificial lightweight aggregate (LWA) that have comparable properties with existing natural coarse aggregate. The main objective of this study is to examine potential use of recycled municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash as raw material in LWA production with a method of cold-bonded pelletization. Two types of incineration ash which is bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) were collected from Cameron Highland Incineration Plant, Malaysia. The properties of BA and FA are studied by means of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and microstructure of these ashes were inspected using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The properties of BALA and FALA produced in this study is examined including loose bulk density, water absorption and aggregate impact value (AIV). From the results of both types of artificial LWA, the lowest loose bulk density of BALA is BALA50 with 564.14 kg/m3 and highest is at 831.19 kg/m3. For FALA50, lowest loose bulk density is 573.64 kg/m3 and highest is 703.35 kg/m3. Water absorption of BALA and FALA is quite similar with one another in with the value of 23.8% and 22.6%, respectively. Generally, FALA have better qualities of LWA comparing with BALA with lower bulk density and water absorption and can be categorized as strong aggregate. In summary, reclamation and reutilization of incinerator ash has generated acceptable qualities for artificial LWA. Both types of BA and FA shown a great potential to be recycled as additional materials in artificial aggregate production.
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Authors and Affiliations

Norlia Mohamad Ibrahim
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Roshazita Che Amat
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Mustaqqim Abdul Rahim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nur Liza Rahim
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Abdul Rahim Abdul Razak
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Civil Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Electrical Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
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Abstract

The paper presents Finite Elements Method numerical analysis of strength of friction pairs most often used in hip and knee joints alloplasty. Analytic solutions are to indicate and define the areas where damages or premature wear of cooperating elements may occur. Analytical-experimental research states complete and thorough analysis. Accurate technical simulation of the joints of the human motor system, is difficult to conduct due to high level of complexity of human bio-bearings. All attempts to simulate the work of human joints, lead only to an approximate reflection of real human joint motion. To properly face the above problems, along with numerical analysis, there have been conducted empirical tests on the simulator of knee joint endoprosthesis
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Nabrdalik
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Sobociński
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Technology and Automation, 21 Armii Krajowej Av ., 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
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Abstract

The goal of this study is to develop a method of manufacturing porous ceramic skeletons used as semi-finished products for reinforcement of composite materials or as filters. For manufacturing skeletons, only waste materials from coal combustion (fly ashes and bottom slags) as well as rubber granules from used tires and car parts were used. These granules were a pore-forming agent that underwent thermal degradation during sintering process. The influence of sintering temperature, portion, and type of rubber granules on the porosity of developed ceramic skeletons was determined. The study of structure of base materials and the developed ceramic skeletons in a scanning electron microscope as well as their X-ray phase analysis were made. Results will allow to predict phases that can be formed on the metal-reinforcement interface during pressure infiltration.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Krezmer
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Scientific and Didactic Laboratory of Nanotechnology and Materials Technologies , Krasińskiego Str., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

Steel loss related to the formation of scale is a parameter that is of great importance in the charge heating process. The value of steel loss determined by the thickness of the scale layer affects the intensity of the heat transfer process in the heating furnace, but also constitutes a significant element in the heat-material balance. Reducing the loss of steel during charge heating has a positive effect on heat consumption and material losses, which is extremely important in the context of energy and resource savings, the main elements of sustainable development processes. The methodology of determining the loss of steel to scale in an industrial heating furnace is presented in the paper. The results of calculations for various charge temperatures at the entrance to the furnace are presented. The influence of furnace operating conditions on steel loss is discussed.
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Boryca
1
T. Wyleciał
1
D. Urbaniak
1

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, 19 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
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Abstract

In the current study, wear performance of pure magnesium (Mg) and composite fabricated with titanium carbide (TiC) reinforcement is investigated under various loading and sliding velocity conditions. The Mg-matrix composite is prepared by friction stir processing (FSP) carried out at optimized values of process parameters. Sliding wear tests on Mg and friction stir processed (FSPed) Mg+TiC surface composite were done on pin-on-disc configuration. The consequence of the normal load applied and sliding velocity on wear behaviour of the two materials is evaluated by performing the tests at two normal loads of 6 N and 12 N and three sliding speeds of 0.5 m/s, 1.5 m/s and 4.5 m/s. FSPed composite found to exhibit an enhanced wear resistance as compared to that of pure Mg. To get an insight into the possible types of mechanisms for wear of the composites sample under varying load and sliding speeds conditions, the worn test specimens are subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM/EDS analysis revealed that oxidation, ploughing, trailing edge and 3-body abrasive wear were the predominant mechanisms for the wear of samples at a different set of experimental conditions. The tensile strength of the FSPed surface composite was found to be 25% higher than pure Mg. Wear resistance was found to increase by about 33%.
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Authors and Affiliations

Balraj Singh
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jagdev Singh
2
ORCID: ORCID
Ravinder Singh Joshi
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. I.K. Gujral Punjab Technical University, Department of Research, Innovation and Consultancy, Punjab, India
  2. Mechanical Engineering Department, Beant College of Engineering and Technology, Punjab, India
  3. Mechanical Engineering Department, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Punjab, India
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Abstract

The effect of 0.2% addition of Mg, Co and Ce to 99.9% cast aluminium was studied by evaluation of changes in microstructure and mechanical properties. The microstructure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The Al99.9 alloy contained only Al-Fe-Si phase particles. Similar Al-Fe-Si particles were observed in alloy with 0.2% Mg addition, because this amount of magnesium was fully dissolved in the solid solution. The addition of cobalt resulted in the formation of Al9.02Co1.51Fe0.47 phase particles assuming the shape of eutectic plates. The electron backscattered diffraction map made for the alloy with 0.2% Co addition showed numerous twin boundaries with distances between them in the range from 10 to 100 µm. The addition of cerium was located in the grain boundary area. Cerium also gave rise to the formation of two types of particles, i.e. Al4Ce and Al-Ce-Fe-Si. The Al-Ce-Fe-Si phase is a nucleation site for the Al4Ce phase, which forms eutectic plates. The results showed that the introduction of additives increases the mechanical properties of the cast materials. The 99.9% cast aluminium has a hardness of 16.9 HB. The addition of 0.2% by weight of Mg, Co, Ce increases this hardness to 21.8 HB, 22.6 HB and 19.1 HB, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

P. Koprowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Lech-Grega
1
Ł. Wodzinski
2
ORCID: ORCID
B. Augustyn
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Boczkal
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Uliasz
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Ożóg
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals, Division in Skawina, 19 Piłsudskiego Str., 32-050 Skawina, Poland
  2. Boryszew S.A., Modern Aluminium Products, 23 Piłsudskiego Str., 32-050 Skawina, Poland
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Abstract

Magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) is an important refractory material of magnesia origin. It is formed by the reaction of magnesium and aluminum oxides. In this study, TiO2 was added to magnesite waste and alumina (Al2O3) powders in different proportions and the mixtures were sintered at different temperatures after shaping. The aim of this study was to produce spinel economically by recycling waste materials. Therefore, titanium dioxide (TiO2) added magnesium aluminate spinel was produced and the products obtained were characterized by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. In addition, bulk density, apparent porosity and microhardness values were measured and the effects of TiO2 additive on magnesium aluminate properties were examined. The better values were determined in samples doped 4 wt.% TiO2 at the sintering temperature of 1400°C.
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Authors and Affiliations

N. Canikoğlu
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Sakarya University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Sakarya/Turkey
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Abstract

AISI 316L steel was subjected to nitrocarburizing under glow discharge conditions, which was followed by DLC (diamond-like carbon) coatings deposition using the same device. The coatings were applied under conditions of direct current and pulsed glow discharge. In order to determine the influence of the produced nitrocarbon austenite layer and the type of discharge on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the coatings, the following features were analysed: surface roughness, coating thickness, structure, chemical composition, adhesion and resistance to frictional wear. For comparison purposes, DLC coatings were also deposited on steel without a nitrocarburised layer. The obtained results indicate a significant influence of the type of glow discharge on the roughness, hardness, nitrogen content and of the nitrocarburised layer on the resistance to wear by friction and adhesion of the produced coatings.
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Authors and Affiliations

T. Borowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Kulikowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Spychalski
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Rożniatowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
B. Rajchel
2
B. Adamczyk-Cieślak
1
ORCID: ORCID
T. Wierzchoń
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, 141 Wołoska Str., 02-507 Warszawa, Poland
  2. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Poland
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Abstract

The weld lines that occur in injection mouldings are critical areas on which depends on the strength of the mouldings. The flow of the material in the injection mould takes place through the gate and then gradually in the mould cavity. Depending on the shape of the formed object, the weld line may or may not occur. In the case of spreading of plastic streams or bypassing obstacles in the form of cores in the mould, the joining lines run down. Most often, the strength of the moulded part is the lowest in these areas and the resulting lines can cause cracking. The aim of the research presented in the publication was to evaluate the properties of particular parts of mouldings obtained from an experimental injection mould equipped with 4 weld line areas. The tests were performed using the method of thermal analysis by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis DMA. Tensile tests were performed on the parts with weld areas and the maximum crack force was determined. The morphology of the obtained fractures was observed using an optical microscope.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Humienny
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Postawa
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Kalwik
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Technology and Automation, 21 Armii Krajowej Av., 42- 201 Czestochowa, Poland
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Abstract

The article presents the results of research on selected thermal, mechanical properties, as well as the microscopic structure of filaments and details made on a 3D printer in FDM technology. The materials used in the study were PETG (polyethylene terephthalate doped with glycol) and PLA (polylactide) doped with copper. As part of the study, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was performed in order to determine the temperatures of phase transformations and changes in melting enthalpy values of filaments before the printing process and also elements made of them. The second part of the research was electrocorrosive ageing process of printouts, carried out in the Simulated Body Fluid solution in a device generating 0.3 A direct current, voltage with value 4.3 V for the entire duration of the test, which was 720 h. After this process DSC test was conducted again. The next stage of the research was Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) of printouts before and after electrocorrosive ageing process. This test was carried out to characterize the dynamic-mechanical properties as a function of frequency, temperature and time. Additionally, microscopic analyses of the surfaces of the tested printouts were performed in order to assess the changes after electrolysis.
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Redutko
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Kalwik
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Szarek
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Technology and Automation, 21 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
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Abstract

To clarify the effect of copper powder morphology on the microstructure and properties of copper matrix bulk composites reinforced with Ni-doped graphene, spherical and dendritic copper powders were selected to fabricate the Ni-doped graphene reinforced copper matrix bulk composites. The Ni-doped graphene were synthesized by hydrothermal reduction method, followed by mixing with copper powders, and then consolidated by spark plasma sintering. It is found that the Ni-doped graphene are well bonded with the dendritic copper powder, whereas Ni-doped graphene are relatively independent on the spherical copper powder. The copper base bulk composite prepared by the dendritic copper powder has better properties than that prepared by spherical copper powder. At 0.5wt.% Ni-doped graphene, the dendritic copper base bulk composite has a good combination of hardness, electrical conductivity and yield strength, which are 81.62 HV, 87.93% IACS and 164 MPa, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jituo Liu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xianhui Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jia Liu
2
ORCID: ORCID
Hangyu Li
1
Yan Liang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jingyi Ren
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Xi’an University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi’an 710048, P.R. China
  2. Xi’an Polytechnic University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi’an 710048, P.R. China
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Abstract

In this work, research on influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), produced in Catalic Chemical Carbon Vapor Deposition, NANOCYLTM NC7000CNTs on a structure and properties of AISI 301 steel remelted by TIG arc. In the assessment of influence a type of carbon on properties and structure of austenitic steel, as a carbon filler was use also carburizer. In the specimens (AISI 301 plates) with dimensions 155×60×7 [mm] were drilled holes with 1.3 mm diameter and placed 0.5 mm under specimen surface. Next, to the drilled holes was implemented CNTs, carburizer and mixture of these both powders. Prepared specimens were remelted by TIG method on the CASTOTIG 2200 power source with 2.4 mm tungsten thoriated electrode with parameters sets for obtain 3.0 mm penetration depth. Remelted specimens were cut into the half of the welds distance and prepared for metallographic examinations. Cross sections of the specimens were tested on classical metallography microscopes, hardness tests, SEM analyses (on JEOL 5800 LV SEM EDX equipment) and phase identification by X-ray phase analysis on Philips APD X’Pert PW 3020 diffractometer. Hardness analysis indicates about 25% increase of hardness in the remelted area when the CTNs are used. In the specimens with carburizer there is no significant changes. SEM analyses of remelted areas on AISI 301 specimens modificated with CNTs, indicates that dark areas, initially interpret as one of the phase (based on optical microscope) is finally densely packed bladders with dimensions from 50 nm up to a few µm. These bladders are not present in the specimens with carburizer filler. High resolution scanning microscopy allow to observe in the this area protruding, longitudinal particles with 100-300 nm length. For identification of this phase, X-ray analysis was done. But very small dimensions of used CNTs (diameters about 9,5 nm), random orientation and small weight amount can make difficult or impossible to CNTs detection during XRD tests. It means that it is not possible to clearly determine nature of particles filling the cavities, it is only possible to suppose that they are CNTs beams with nanoparticles comes from their disintegration. Results of the researches indicates, that fill in the weld pool with different form of carbon (CNTs and carburizer) it is possible to achieve remelted beads with different structure and hardness distribution. It confirms validity of the research continuation with CNTs as a modifier of steels and also other metals and theirs alloys.
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Górka
1
ORCID: ORCID
T. Kik
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Burda
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Department of Welding, 18a Konarskiego Str., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  2. Cametics Ltd, Nanotechnology, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom
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Abstract

This work investigates the compaction behaviour of commercial pure aluminium chips (CP Al) produced during a machining operation and subsequently consolidated by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP). Empirical models were developed to describe the relative density and hardness of the compacted product of ECAP as functions of the initial machining input parameters including cutting edge angle (CA), depth of cut (DOC) and then the number of consolidation pass during ECAP. The models were developed utilizing response surface methodology (RSM) based on data from a central composite face centred factorial design of experiments approach. The models were then validated by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The effect of input parameters on the relative density and hardness of the ECAP consolidated samples are presented and discussed including details as regards to the mechanical and microstructural properties. An optimum set of input parameters are identified and presented where the best relative density and hardness are demonstrated.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Palanivel
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Vigneshwaran
2
ORCID: ORCID
A. Alshqirate
3
ORCID: ORCID
R. Madhavan
2
ORCID: ORCID
P. Venkatachalam
4
R.F. Laubscher
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Shaqra University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saudi Arabia, 11911
  2. National Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Puducherry, Karaikal – 609 609, India
  3. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan 19117
  4. Department of Mechanical Engineering, MVJ College of Engineering, Bengaluru – 560 067, Karnataka, India
  5. Department of Mechanical Science & Engineering, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
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Abstract

Now, the use of any medical device based on metals or alloys, especially intended for dentistry applications, is impossible without preclinical evaluation of its anticorrosion properties. Today, the use of stainless steels with AISI standardization, with predilection 316L and 321, are preferred for ergonomic reasons due to their high operational reliability and optimal mechanical properties for functionality over time. In this regard, 316L and 321 stainless steels are tested for comparison in the solution that simulates human saliva with different pH. Stainless steel samples were subjected to corrosion in Fusayama-Meyer and Carter-Brugirard saliva. In-situ electrochemical measurements were applied, such as the open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the corrosion resistance of 316L is superior to 321 in saliva solution at both pH values.
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Authors and Affiliations

V. Neaga
1
L. Benea
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Competences Centre: Interfaces-Tribocorrosion and Electrochemical Systems (CC-ITES), Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, 47 Domneasca Street, RO-800008 Galati, Romania
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Abstract

A characteristic study on the phenol formaldehyde (PF) composite is carried out based on the micro level bio waste particles such as wood sawdust (WSD) and coir pith (CP). Composite is characterized by mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and impact at different percentages of particles (0-50% by weight) to find out the optimum percentage of particle loading to get the maximum properties. The WSD/CP/PF hybrid composite is also prepared by two different methods i.e., one: one (1:1) ratio and rule of mixture. The first method (1:1) is used to find out the optimum level of hybrid particles loading to get the maximum properties. But, the second method is followed to find out the weight percentages of particles influencing the properties of resulting composite. The results show that the mechanical properties of WSD/PF are higher than CP/PF composite in the entire particle loading. The optimum particle loading to get the maximum properties is 40 wt.% in CP/PF composite, whereas for WSD/PF composite are at 30 wt.%. The hybrid composite (1:1) also gives the maximum properties at 30 wt.%. Moreover, the hybrid composite (20WSD/10CP) prepared by rule of mixture showed the highest mechanical properties compared to the other particle loading. It is identified that the WSD particles are most influencing the properties of PF composites than the CP particles. Fractographic study was performed using scanning electron microscope to examine the failure mechanism of the composite specimens.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Sujin Jose
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Athijayamani
2
ORCID: ORCID
S.P. Jani
3
ORCID: ORCID
V. Mago Stalany
4
ORCID: ORCID
M. Adam Khan
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Automobile Engineering, New Horizon College of Engineering, Bengaluru, India
  2. Mechanical, Government College of Engineering, Bodi, Tamil Nadu, India
  3. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Marri Laxman Reddy Institute of Technology and Management, Hyderabad – 500043, India
  4. Mechanical, Lourdes Mount College of Engineering & Technology, Marthandam, Ta milnadu, India5
  5. School of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, Kalasalingam Academy of Research & Education, Virudhunagar Dist., Tamilnadu, India

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors


Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is a quarterly journal of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS which publishes original scientific papers and reviews in the fields of metallurgy and materials science, foundry, mechanical working of metals, thermal engineering in metallurgy, thermodynamic and physical properties of materials, phase equilibria in the broad context and diffusion. In addition to the regular, original scientific papers and conference proceedings, invited reviews presenting the up-to-date knowledge and monothematic issues devoted to preferred areas of research will be published. Submission of a paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form.


When preparing the manuscript, please pay attention to the following rules:


1. Manuscript submission

1.1. Manuscripts to be considered for publication should be submitted to the Editorial Office via www.editorialsystem.com/amm/. Authors should designate corresponding author, whose responsibility is to represent the Authors in contacts with the Editorial Office. The corresponding author receives an e-mail notification confirming the submission of the manuscript to the Editorial Office and is informed about the progress of the review process.


1.2. Manuscript should not exceed 15 pages of full-size paper (A4), must be double spaced (please use 12 point font), with generous margins, and the pages must be numbered. Authors should submit an electronic file of their manuscript in Microsoft Word (minimum : version 2000).


1.3. All manuscripts must be written in good English. Both British and U.S. English are acceptable but Authors should be consistent in their usage. It is sole responsibility of the Authors to make sure that the manuscript is grammatically correct and spell checked. Authors are strongly encouraged to have the manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English or a language professional, before it is submitted to the editorial office. Papers written in poor English will be automatically rejected without being subjected to review.


1.4. Authors should submit an electronic copy of final version of their paper in Microsoft Word Format, shemes (sketches) and figures saved as .eps, .jpeg, or .tiff.


1.5. Articles submitted for publication should include abstract and maximum 5 keywords.


1.6. Please adhere to the following order of presentation:


Author(s) with first names in full and ORCID.

Affiliation(s): in a short form (Institution, City, Country). Use the superscripts (*, **, . . .) after the Authors’ names in case of different affiliations.

Title: All words in lower case (first letter of first word capitalized).


Abstract: maximum 10 lines, including primary objective, research design, methods and procedures, main outcomes and results. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract.

Keywords: 5 maximum.

Main text: Begin on the second page with Introduction, followed by Experimental (Materials and Methods) and/or Theory section, Results, Discussion, and end with Conclusion section and Acknowledgement. When appropriate the Authors may choose to combine Results section and Discussion section into one Results and Discussion section. Make sure the text in sections is divided logically into paragraphs.
Use the decimal system for sections, subsections and (at the most) sub-subsections, as exemplified in the headings of these instructions.
All abbreviations should be spelled out the first time they are introduced in text or references. Thereafter the abbreviation can be used.


Appendices

References

Correspondence address: title, name, postal address, telephone and e-mail address of the corresponding Author, number ORCID.

Figure captions

Tables

2. Manuscript preparation


The editorial system includes:


1. Manuscript, which should contain the full text with figures, tables and signatures to them where they are placed.


2. Figures, tables and signatures to them as separate files.


2.1. Formulae, equations and units
The formulas should be written in Microsoft Equation and MathType with the possibility of editing (not as graphics).
Formulae and equations should be typed on separate lines and numbered consecutively in parentheses on the right side (1) . . . (n). Vectors must be indicated as such. Size of symbols should be kept uniform for all equations in the manuscript. Formulae and equations should be referred to in the text as follows: Eq. (1).
Numbers and units must be separated by a space, e.g. 5.5 wt.%, 273.15 K, 1013 MPa, etc. The only exception are angle degrees, e.g. 90°.

2.2. Figures

Figures should be complete without corrections and additions in the word. Figures are usually printed in reduced size (fitting column width of 85 mm) and this should be taken into account when preparing them. For the best results, make sure that lettering on figures and micrographs is at least 2 mm high after reduction, and the style of labeling must be uniform for all figures. Each figure should have its own caption explaining the content without reference to the text. Figure captions should be typed on a separate page at the end of manuscript. The appropriate place of in the text should be indicated by <Fig. 3 > written in separate line. Figures should be referred to in text as follows: Fig. 1. The magnification must be indicated by a labeled scale marker on the micrograph itself, not drawn below it. For optimum printing quality micrographs should be saved as .eps or .tiff at a resolution of at least 300 dpi while line drawings at a resolution of at least 600 dpi.

2.3. Move file
The authors can make movie files up to 100 MB in MP4 format.
The author at the first reference (Movie 1. Click here) should with the Click here command connect the web address with the place of uploading the movie (hyperlink) and at the end of the article provide a list of hyperlinks (samples: Movie 1, hyperlink, movie no 2, hyperlink ......).

The files will be removed from the edytorial system when rejected or published article (moved to Rejected or Published manuscripts).


2.4. Tables

Tables together with captions should be typed on separate page at the end of manuscript. Tables are to be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers in the text (TABLE 1 . . . n). A caption must be placed above respective table and should explain the symbols used in the heading and in the left hand column. Tables should be referred to in the text as follows: TABLE 1.


2.5. References

References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science: http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations/, everyone abbreviation should be end with a dot - example. Arch.Metall.Mater.] or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket).

The use of DOI numbers (full notation and linked) is mandatory for each paper and should be formatted as shown in the examples below:

Journals:

[1] L.B. Magalas, Development of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status and Perspectives. HRMS Coupled with a Laser Dilatometer. Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/AMM-2015-0350

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Large Magnetic Field-Induced Work output in a NiMgGa Seven-Lavered Modulated Martensite. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4933303

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, Suppression of Interdiffusion in Copper/Tin thin Films. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012).DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

Books:

[2] M. H. Kamdar, A.M.C. Westwood, Environment-Sensitive Mechanical Behaviour, New York 1981.

Proceedings:

[3] F. Erdogan, in: H. Liebowitz (Ed.), Fracture 2, Academic Press 684, New York (1968).

Internet resource:

[4] http://www.twi.co.uk/content/fswqual.html

PhD Thesis:

[6] F.M. LIang. World Hyphenation by Computer. PhD thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, June.

Chapter in books:

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major,

P. Zięba (Ed.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Articles in press:

[8] H. EtschmaIer, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012), DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

3. Fees

No honorarium will be paid. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

4. Review and proofread process

4.1. Peer review process All submitted manuscripts undergo review by renowned specialists appointed by the Editor-in-Chief and members of the Editorial Board. Reviewers receive guidance to help them perform the review, and submit written opinion on the manuscript together with recommendation to accept as is, or reject, or accept after revision. In the latter case i.e. when revision is requested, the authors are obliged to respond to Editor and Reviewers’ comments in detail and make revisions to the manuscript. A rebuttal to Reviewers’ comments can also be sent via the Editorial System in writing. Decision to reject the article is taken by the Editorial Board with the final decision belonging to the Editor, who may appoint another reviewer if necessary. Reviewers remain anonymous to Authors and their identity cannot be revealed by the Editorial Office.

In a separate file, the authors are requested to suggest names and contact details (affiliations and valid e-mail addresses) of at least three experts who could serve as reviewers.

Brief explanation (2-3 sentence-long) why each person is suitable as a reviewer should also be provided. The suggested reviewers cannot be from the same country as affiliation of the corresponding author. The decision to appoint a reviewer belongs solely to the editor.

4.2. Revised manuscript submission

When revision of a manuscript is requested, Authors should return the revised version of their manuscript as soon as possible. Prompt action may ensure fast publication if a paper is finally accepted for publication in Arch. Metall. Mater. If it is the first revision of an article Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 7 days.

If it is the second revision Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 1 day.

4.3. Final proofreading

Authors will receive a pdf file with the edited version of their manuscript for final proofreading. This is the last opportunity to view an article before its publication on the journal web site. No changes or modifications can be introduced once it is published. Thus authors are requested to check their proof pages carefully against manuscript within 3 working days and prepare a separate document containing all changes that should be introduced. Authors are sometimes asked to provide additional comments and explanations in response to remarks and queries from the language or technical editors.

5. Original version

Starting from issue 1/ 2018, Volume 63, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is published in electronic via www.journals.pan.pl. The printed version is printed only for designated libraries (legal basis: Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Art of March 6, 1997).

6. Prevent cases of plagiarism

Readers should be sure that the authors present the results of their work transparently, fair and honest, regardless of whether they are the direct authors, or used the help of a specialized entity (natural or legal person). To prevent cases of plagiarism, "ghostwriting" and "guest Authorship", the Editorial Office will require that the Authors disclosed the contribution of individual Authors in the creation of manuscript (with their affiliations and contributions, i.e. the information who is responsible for: research concept and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, writing the manuscript). Funding sources (together with grant number) must also be revealed. The corresponding Author will bear the main responsibility for the manuscript. Detected cases will be exposed, including notifying the appropriate entities (institutions employing the Authors, scientific societies, associations of editors of scientific journals, etc.).

7. License type

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

Submission of an article to the journal is unequivocal to expressing consent to the publication in both paper and electronic form.

Additional info

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is covered by the following services:


Arianta, Baidu Scholar, BazTech, Celdes, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) - CAplus, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Current Contents/Engineering, Computing, and Technology, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Materials Science Citation Index, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Science Citation Index Expanded, CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), CNPIEC, DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), EBSCO (relevant databases), EBSCO Discovery Service, Elsevier - SCOPUS, Genamics JournalSeek, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, J-Gate, JournalTOCs, KESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders), Microsoft Academic, Naviga (Softweco), Primo Central (ExLibris), ProQuest (relevant databases), ReadCube, ResearchGate, SCImago (SJR), Sherpa/RoMEO, Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest), TDNet, TEMA Technik und Management, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb, WanFang Data, WorldCat (OCLC)

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