Applied sciences

Archives of Mining Sciences


Archives of Mining Sciences | 2021 | vol. 66 | No 3

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As one of the most important decision-making problems in fully mechanised mining, the corresponding mining technology pattern is the technical foundation of the working face. Characterised by complexity in a thin seam fully mechanised mining system, there are different kinds of patterns. In this paper, the classification strategy of the patterns in China is put forward. Moreover, the corresponding theoretical model using neural networks applied for patterns decision-making is designed. Based on the above, optimal selection of these patterns under given conditions is achieved. Lastly, the phased implementation plan for automatic mining pattern is designed. As a result of the industrial test, automatic mining for panel 22204 in Guoerzhuang Coal Mine is realised.
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Authors and Affiliations

Chen Wang
1 2
Yu Zhang
Yong Liu
Chengyu Jiang
Mingqing Zhang

  1. Guizhou University, Mining College, Guiyang 550025, China
  2. Chongqing Energy Investment Group Science & Technology co., LTD, Chongqing 400060, China
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The structure and load characteristics of the roadway are simplified, and the experimental model of the roadway deformation and damage under compression-shear load is established. The experimental data acquisition system is built with a CCD camera. The digital speckle correlation method is used to calculate the image data of the experimental model. The correspondence between the evolution law of the deformation field, the interlayer displacement and deformation evolution are analysed, including the dynamic characteristic of the roadway surrounding the rock. Research results indicate: (1) The damage peak load of the weak layer structure shows a decreasing trend as the interlayer shear stress increases. As the initially applied shear stress increases, the value of interlayer sliding displacement increases, and the dynamic characteristics become more apparent. (2) In the sub-instability phase of the loading curve, when the surrounding rock slides along the layers under compression-shear load, the stress is re-distributed and transmitted to the deep part of the surrounding rock. Then the surrounding rock of the roadway forms the characteristic of alternating change, between tension to compression. (3) According to the state of dynamic and static mechanics, the deformation evolution of the roadway before the peak load belongs to the static process. Zonal fracturing is part of the transition phase from the static process to the slow dynamic process, and the rockburst damage is a high-speed dynamic process. (4) Under the compression-shear load, due to the weak layer structure of the coal and rock mass, the local fracture, damage, instability and sliding of the surrounding rock of the roadway are the mechanical causes of rockburst. (5) Even if the coal and rock mass does not have the condition of impact tendency, under stress load of the horizontal direction, distribution of large shear stress is formed between layers, and the dynamic damage of the rockburst may occur.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yimin Song
He Ren
Hailiang Xu
Dong An

  1. North China University of Technology, School of Civil Engineering, China
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UAV technology is being applied for DSM generation in open-pit mines with a well-established fact that the precision of such DSM is improved by increasing the number of Ground Control Points (GCPs). However, DSMs are updated frequently in an open-pit mine where the surface is excavated continuously. This imposes a challenge to arrange and maintain the GCPs in the field. Therefore, an optimal number of GCPs should be determined to obtain sufficiently accurate DSMs while maintaining safety, time, and cost-effectiveness in the project. This study investigates the influence of the numbers of GCPs and their network configuration in the Long Son quarry, Vietnam. The analysis involved DSMs generated from eight cases with a total of 18 GCPs and each having five network configurations. The inter-case and intra-case accuracy of DSMs is assessed based on RMSEXY, RMSEZ, and RMSEXYZ. The results show that for a small- or medium-sized open-pit mine having an area of approximately 36 hectares, five GCPs are sufficient to achieve an overall accuracy of less than 10 cm. It is further shown that the optimal choice of the number of GCPs for DSM generation in such a mining site is seven due to a significant improvement in accuracy (<3.5 cm) and a decrease in configuration dependency compared to the five GCPs.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nguyen Quoc Long
Ropesh Goyal
Luyen K. Bui
Cao Xuan Cuong
Le Van Canh
Nguyen Quang Minh
Xuan-Nam Bui

  1. Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Faculty of Geomatics and Land Administration,18 Vien street, Hanoi, 10000, Vietnam
  2. Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Civil Engineering, Kanpur-208016, Uttar Pradesh, India
  3. Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Faculty of Mining,18 Vien street, Hanoi, 10000, Vietnam
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The transport pipeline of lifting the underwater minerals to the surface of the water onto the ship during the movement of the vessel takes in the water a curved deformed shape. Analysis of the state of stability of the pipeline showed that if the flow velocity of fluid in the pipeline exceeds a certain critical value Vkr, then its small random deviations from the equilibrium position may develop into deviations of large amplitude. The cause of instability is the presence of the centrifugal force of the moving fluid mass, which occurs in places of curvature of the axis of the pipeline and seeks to increase this curvature when the ends of the pipeline are fixed. When the critical flow velocity is reached, the internal force factors become unable to compensate for the action of centrifugal force, as a result of that a loss of stability occurs. Equations describing this dynamic state of the pipeline are presented in the article.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jerzy Sobota
Xia Jianxin
Evgeniy Kirichenko

  1. Wrocław University of E nvironmental and Life Sciences, Poland
  2. Minzu University of China, Beijing, China
  3. Mining University, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine
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This paper focused on a study concerned with the motion of platforms at loading stations during truck changing in Trucklift slope hoisting system built in Jaeryong open-pit iron mine, DPR of Korea. The motion of platform in Trucklift slope hoisting system produces undesirable effect on truck changing. To analyze the motion of platform during truck changing, we built the dynamic model in ADAMS environment and control system in MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results indicate that the normal truck changing can be realized without arresters at loading stations by a reasonable structural design of platforms and loading stations.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tok Hyong Han
Kwang Hyok Kim
Un Chol Han
Kwang Myong Li

  1. Kim Chaek University of Technology, Faculty of Mining Engineering, Pyongyang, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
  2. Kim Chaek University of Technology, School of Science and Engineering, Pyongyang, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
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In deep mines, since the broken surrounding rocks & high-stress level of a roadway being near a coal seam, the creep characteristics of surrounding rocks should be considered as the main influencing factor in the selection for the roadway’s location of the lower coal seam. Both VI15 and VI16-17 coal seams of the Pingdingshan No. 4 Coal Mine, in China, Henan province, are close coal seams with a depth of around 900 m. According to the traditional formula calculation results, when the lower coal seam roadway is staggered 10 m to the upper coal seam goaf, the roadway pressure behaviour is significant, and the support becomes difficult. In this paper, the properties of surrounding rock were tested and the influence of lower coal seam on the stress state of surrounding rock is analysed by numerical simulation, and systematic analysis on the stress and creep characteristics of the surrounding rock of the mining roadway and its effects on the deformation is performed. The results demonstrated that the roadway’s locations in the lower coal seam can be initially divided into three zones: the zone with accelerated creep, the transition creep zone and the insignificant creep zone. The authors believed that the roadway layout in an insignificant creep zone can achieve a better supporting effect. Based on the geological conditions of the roadway 23070 of the VI16-17 coal seam of the Pingdingshan No. 4 Coal Mine, combined with the above analysis, a reasonable location of roadway (internal offset of 30 m) was determined using numerical simulation method. The reliability of the research results is verified by field measurement. The above results can provide a reference for selecting the roadway’s location under similar conditions.
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[1] Q .S. Li, X.W. Heng, Optimal Selection Method of Reasonable Mining Program for Close Distance Coal Seams Group. Coal Engineering 47 (10),12-14 (2015). DOI:
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Authors and Affiliations

Xufeng Wang
Jiyao Wang
Xuyang Chen
Zechao Chen

  1. Jiangsu Engineering Laboratory of Mine Earthquake Monitoring and Prevention, School of Mines, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China
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Cumulative blasts are an important controlled blasting method used to control the propagation of cracks in the predetermined direction. However, traditional cumulative blasts are associated with long processing times and poor blasting effects. A simple blasting technology called bilateral cumulative tensile explosion (BCTE) is proposed in this paper. There are two application types where BCTE is used. The first application is used to control the stability of high-stress roadways in both Wangzhuang mine 6208 tailgate and Hongqinghe mine 3-1103 tailgate. The second application is used to replace the backfill body in gob-side entry retaining (GER) in Chengjiao mine 21404 panel, Jinfeng mine 011810 panel and Zhongxing mine 1200 panel. The first application type reveals that BCTE can significantly reduce the deformation of the surrounding rock and reduce the associated maintenance cost of the roadways. Whereas the second application type, the roadway deformations are smaller, the process is simpler, and the production costs are lower, which further promotes GER and is of significance towards conserving resources.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jun Yang
Binhui Liu
Wenhui Bian
Kuikui Chen
Hongyu Wang
Chen Cao

  1. China University of Mining and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, Beijing 100083, China
  2. University of Wollongong, Mining & Environment Engineering, School of Civil, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
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The article is the result of a project aimed at developing and implementing a design of composite accessories for support in excavations located in underground hard coal mines. The research team verified the possibility of using elements made of prefabricated composite structural profile as an alternative to steel and reinforced concrete lining elements used to improve support’s stability and protect against rockfall.
This paper includes a research experiment on the possibilities of using a composite C-profile element as lining made in the pultrusion technology with a longitudinal position of the roving. The prefabricated structural profiles were adapted to the function by designing seatings for fitting the flanges for arch support’s V-profiles. Prototypes of these elements were subjected to bench tests in compliance with the guidelines for testing mesh linings. In addition, computer simulations using the finite element method were carried out.
The values obtained during the tests were compared with the requirements for lightweight mesh and included the Polish standard PN-G-15050 and reinforced A-type concrete lining defined in the standard ­PN-G-06021. The team determined the areas where material strength exceeded and the structure was damaged. Despite the limited quantity of laboratory tests and lack of field tests in actual mining conditions, it was possible to address the argument of the research and determine whether it is possible to use C-profile made in the pultrusion technology as a lining element.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Rotkegel
Jerzy Korol
Dagmara Sobczak

  1. Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarków 1, 40-166, Katowice, Poland
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Heat exhaustion of mining environments can cause a significant threat to human health. The existing cooling strategies for the mine face aim to cool the whole face. However, the necessary cooling space for the face is small, with a considerable amount of energy for cooling being wasted. Necessary cooling space is a space occupied by the workers in the face. This study proposed to build a non-homogeneous thermal environment for cost-effective energy savings in the face. An inlet air cooler was laid out in the intake airway to cool the whole face to some extent, and the tracking air cooler was designed to track the worker who constantly moved to improve the thermal environment. The cooling load and air distribution for this cooling strategy were investigated. In addition, the airflow in the face was solved numerically to estimate the cooling effect. The results revealed that an average energy saving of approximately 35% could be achieved. The thermal environment of the necessary cooling space within at least 10 m was significantly improved. This cooling strategy should be taken into account in mine cooling.
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Authors and Affiliations

Xian Li
Yaru Wu
Yunfei Zhang

  1. Linyi University, School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Linyi 276000, P.R. China
  2. Hohai University, College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Nanjing 210098, P.R. China
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In order to study the failure mechanism and characteristics for strip coal pillars, a monitoring device for strip coal pillar uniaxial compression testing was developed. Compression tests of simulated strip coal pillars with different roof and floor rock types were conducted. Test results show that, with increasing roof and floor strength, compressive strength and elastic modulus of “roof-strip coal pillar-floor” combined specimens increase gradually. Strip coal pillar sample destruction occurs gradually from edge to the interior. First macroscopic failure occurs at the edge of the middle upper portion of the specimen, and then develops towards the corner. Energy accumulation and release cause discontinuous damage in the heterogeneous coal-mass, and the lateral displacement of strip coal pillar shows step and mutation characters. The brittleness and burst tendency of strip coal pillar under hard surrounding rocks are more obvious, stress growth rate decreases, and the rapid growth acoustic emission (AE) signal period can be regarded as a precursor for instability in the strip coal pillar. The above results have certain theoretical value for understanding the failure law and long-term stability of strip coal pillars.
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Authors and Affiliations

Xiao Qu
Shaojie Chen
Dawei Yin
Shiqi Liu

  1. Hohai University, China

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[1] L.B. Magalas, Development of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status and Perspectives. HRMS Coupled with a Laser Dilatometer . Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015). DOI:

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Large Magnetic Field-Induced Work output in a NiMgGa Seven-Lavered Modulated Martensite. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015). DOI:

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, Suppression of Interdiffusion in Copper/Tin thin Films. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012). DOI:


[4] K.U. Kainer (Ed.), Metal Matrix Composites, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006).

[5] K. Szacilowski, Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale, Wiley (2012).

[6] L. Reimer, H. Kohl, Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, Springer, New York (2008).

Proceedings or chapter in books with editor(s):

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major, P. Zięba (Eds.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Internet resource:

[8], accessed: 17.04.2017

Academic thesis (PhD, MSc):

[9] T. Mitra, PhD thesis, Modeling of Burden Distribution in the Blast Furnace, Abo Akademi University, Turku/Abo, Finland (2016).

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