Applied sciences

Archives of Thermodynamics

Content

Archives of Thermodynamics | 2016 | No 4 |

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Abstract

There are two basic types of coal mine gases: gas from demethanation of coal deposits, and ventilation gas; containing combustible ingredients (mainly methane, CH4). Effective use of these gases is an important technical and ecological issue (greenhouse gas emissions), mainly due to the presence of methane in these gases. Serious difficulties in this area (e.g. using them as the fuel for internal combustion (IC) engine) occur mainly in relation to the ventilation gas, whereas the gas from demethanation of coal deposits can be used directly as the fuel for internal combustion engines. The proposed solution of this problem shows that the simple mixing of these two gases (without supplying of oxygen from ambient air) is the effective way to producing the gaseous combustible mixture, which can be used for the fueling of internal combustion gas engines. To evaluate the energy usefulness of this way produced combustible mixture the process indicator has been proposed, which expresses the share of the chemical energy supplied with the ventilation gas, in the whole chemical energy of the produced fuel combustible mixture. It was also established how (e.g., by appropriate choice of the mixed gas streams) can be achieved significantly higher values of the characteristic process indicator, while retaining full energy usefulness of the gained gaseous mixture to power combustion engines.

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Authors and Affiliations

Stefan Postrzednik
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Abstract

Analysis of the state of-the-art in research of refrigerant condensation in miniature heat exchangers, so-called multiports, was made. Results of refrigerant R407C condensation in a mini condenser made in the form of two bundles of tubular minichannels from stainless steel with an inside diameter 0.64 mm and length 100 mm have been presented. Two exchangers consisted of four minichannels and 8 minichannels have been investigated. The values of average heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drops throughout the condensation process were designated. The impact of the vapor quality of refrigerant and the mass flux density on the intensity of heat transfer and flow resistance were illustrated. A comparative analysis of test results for various refrigerants in both mini heat exchangers were made.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tadeusz Bohdal
Henryk Charun
Małgorzata Sikora
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Abstract

As a kind of mass transfer process as well as the basis of separating and purifying mixtures, interfacial adsorption has been widely applied to fields like chemical industry, medical industry and purification engineering in recent years. Influencing factors of interfacial adsorption, in addition to the traditional temperature, intensity of pressure, amount of substance and concentration, also include external fields, such as magnetic field, electric field and electromagnetic field, etc. Starting from the point of thermodynamics and taking the Gibbs adsorption as the model, the combination of energy axiom and the first law of thermodynamics was applied to boundary phase, and thus the theoretical expression for the volume of interface absorption under electric field as well as the mathematical relationship between surface tension and electric field intensity was obtained. In addition, according to the obtained theoretical expression, the volume of interface absorption of ethanol solution under different electric field intensities and concentrations was calculated. Moreover, the mechanism of interfacial adsorption was described from the perspective of thermodynamics and the influence of electric field on interfacial adsorption was explained reasonably, aiming to further discuss the influence of thermodynamic mechanism of interfacial adsorption on purifying air-conditioning engineering under intensification of electric field.

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Authors and Affiliations

Yun-Yu Chen
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Abstract

The shell and coil heat exchangers are commonly used in heating, ventilation, nuclear industry, process plant, heat recovery and air conditioning systems. This type of recuperators benefits from simple construction, the low value of pressure drops and high heat transfer. In helical coil, centrifugal force is acting on the moving fluid due to the curvature of the tube results in the development. It has been long recognized that the heat transfer in the helical tube is much better than in the straight ones because of the occurrence of secondary flow in planes normal to the main flow nside the helical structure. Helical tubes show good performance in heat transfer enhancement, while the uniform curvature of spiral structure is inconvenient in pipe installation in heat exchangers. Authors have presented their own construction of shell and tube heat exchanger with intensified heat transfer. The purpose of this article is to assess the influence of the surface modification over the performance coefficient and effectiveness. The experiments have been performed for the steady-state heat transfer. Experimental data points were gathered for both laminar and turbulent flow, both for co current- and countercurrent flow arrangement. To find optimal heat transfer intensification on the shell-side authors applied the number of transfer units analysis.

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Authors and Affiliations

Rafał Andrzejczyk
Tomasz Muszyński
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Abstract

Performance assessment of ejector-expansion vapor compression refrigeration system with eco-friendly R134a alternative refrigerants (R152a, R1234yf, R600a, R600, R290, R161, R32, and propylene) is presented for air-conditioning application. Ejector has been modeled by considering experimental data based correlations of component efficiencies to take care of all irreversibilities. Ejector area ratio has been optimized based on maximum coefficient of performance (COP) for typical air-conditioner operating temperatures. Selected refrigerants have been compared based on area ratio, pressure lift ratio, entrainment ratio, COP, COP improvement and volumetric cooling capacity. Effects of normal boiling point and critical point on the performances have been studied as well. Using ejector as an expansion device, maximum improvement in COP is noted in R1234yf (10.1%), which reduces the COP deviation with R134a (4.5% less in basic cycle and 2.5% less in ejector cycle). Hence, R1234yf seems to be best alternative for ejector expansion system due to its mild flammability and comparable volumetric capacity and cooling COP. refrigerant R161 is superior to R134a in terms of both COP and volumetric cooling capacity, although may be restricted for low capacity application due to its flammability.

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Authors and Affiliations

Shubham Mishra
Jahar Sarkar
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Abstract

A direct problem and an inverse problem for the Laplace’s equation was solved in this paper. Solution to the direct problem in a rectangle was sought in a form of finite linear combinations of Chebyshev polynomials. Calculations were made for a grid consisting of Chebyshev nodes, what allows us to use orthogonal properties of Chebyshev polynomials. Temperature distributions on the boundary for the inverse problem were determined using minimization of the functional being the measure of the difference between the measured and calculated values of temperature (boundary inverse problem). For the quasi-Cauchy problem, the distance between set values of temperature and heat flux on the boundary was minimized using the least square method. Influence of the value of random disturbance to the temperature measurement, of measurement points (distance from the boundary, where the temperature is not known) arrangement as well as of the thermocouple installation error on the stability of the inverse problem was analyzed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Magda Joachimiak
Michał Ciałkowski
Andrzej Frąckowiak
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Abstract

In recent time, as the Chinese consumption level increases, the consumption quantity of high-value fruits, vegetables and seafood products have been increasing year by year. As a consequence, the traffic volume of refrigerated products also increases yearly and the popularization degree of the cold-chain transportation enhances. A low-temperature environment should be guaranteed during transportation, thus there is about 40% of diesel oil should be consumed by the refrigerating system and the cold-chain transportation becomes very costly. This study aimed to explore methods that could reduce the cost of transport packages of refrigerated products. On the basis of the heat transfer theory and the fluid mechanics theory, the heat exchanging process of corrugated cases during the operation of refrigerating system was analyzed, the heat transfer process of corrugated cases and refrigerator van was theoretically analyzed and the heat balance equation of corrugated cases was constructed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ying Yu
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Abstract

In the paper a calculation methodology of isentropic efficiency of a compressor and turbine in a gas turbine installation on the basis of polytropic efficiency characteristics is presented. A gas turbine model is developed into software for power plant simulation. There are shown the calculation algorithms based on iterative model for isentropic efficiency of the compressor and for isentropic efficiency of the turbine based on the turbine inlet temperature. The isentropic efficiency characteristics of the compressor and the turbine are developed by means of the above mentioned algorithms. The gas turbine development for the high compressor ratios was the main driving force for this analysis. The obtained gas turbine electric efficiency characteristics show that an increase of pressure ratio above 50 is not justified due to the slight increase in the efficiency with a significant increase of turbine inlet combustor outlet and temperature.

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Authors and Affiliations

Janusz Kotowicz
Marcin Job
Mateusz Brzęczek
Krzysztof Nawrat
Janusz Mędrych
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Abstract

Because the heat release of plutonium material, the composite structure is heated and the stress and strain of the composite structure will increase, which will affect the thermodynamic properties of the structure. The thermodynamic analysis of complex structures, which are composed of concentric structures of plutonium, beryllium, tungsten, explosives, and steel, was carried out. The results showed that when the structure is spherical, the temperature is higher than that of the ellipsoid structure. Stress of the elliptical structure is greater than the spherical structure. This study showed that the more flat the shell is, the greater the stress concentration point occurs at the long axis, and the maximum stress occurs at the beryllium layer. These conclusions provide theoretical support for the plutonium composite component testing.

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Authors and Affiliations

Gou Zhenzhi
He Bin
Yang Guilin

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