Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering

Content

Chemical and Process Engineering | 2021 | vol. 42 | No 4

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Abstract

The work concerns numerical simulations of a cone mill used for emulsion preparation. Hydrodynamics, power consumption and population balance are investigated for various operating conditions at high phase volume emulsions and for different rheologies. Cone mills are usually simplified as a simple gap between rotor and stator but by increasing the complexity of the geometry till it represents the commercial device identifies a wealth of additional features such as recirculation zones above (which enhance breakage) and below (which allow for coalescence) the rotor-stator gap. Two separate sets of population balance modelling constants are required to capture all the experiment results – even with the most complex geometries. Some suggestions are made for improvements and further studies will consider other rotor-stator devices.
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Authors and Affiliations

Guido Lupieri
1
Ioannis Bagkeris
1
Jo J.M. Janssen
2
Adam J. Kowalski
1

  1. Unilever R&D, Port Sunlight Laboratory, Quarry Road East, Bebington, Wirral CH63 3JW, UK
  2. Unilever Foods Innovation Centre, Bronland 14, 6708WH Wageningen, The Nederlands
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Abstract

This perspective paper focuses on the changes in teaching chemical engineering in Europe triggered by new challenges and megatrends observed in the chemical and related industries. Among the new teaching areas to address those challenges and megatrends, process intensification, digitalization and advanced materials are expected to play the most important role and are discussed in more detail. The discussion on incorporation of those new areas in the university curricula is illustrated with a comparison of educational approaches to the chemical engineering teaching at two universities – Delft University of Technology and Warsaw University of Technology. The aim of this paper is to focus the attention of university teachers and potential decision makers on the most important challenges for contemporary teaching of chemical engineering.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej I. Stankiewicz
1
Marek Henczka
2
Eugeniusz Molga
2

  1. Delft University of Technology, Process and Energy Department, Leeghwaterstraat 39, 2628 CB Delft, The Netherlands
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, ul. Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents a research work on the process of emulsion separation by filtration-coalescence method in the presence of solid particles. A polyester PBT coalescence medium was used in experiments of water removal from diesel fuel. Apart from parameters representing the geometry and inherent properties of coalescence filters, the additional emulsion constituents such as surfactants and solid particles also affect the process. These constituent can cover fibres and they can also influence emulsion properties. It has been experimentally confirmed that contrary to surface active compounds, which stabilise the emulsion, the presence of specific solid particles decreased the system stability. If surface active compounds are present in the system, the influence of solid particles is different at the same concentration level depending on their type. The destabilization of emulsion due to the presence of Arizona dust was more pronounced. Although the presence of particles mitigated the effect of surfactants, their deposition in the filter media oppositely affected the coalescence process depending on solid type. Oleophilic iron oxide particles improved the separation efficiency of water from diesel fuel, while Arizona test dust had a negative impact on the separation process performance.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Krasiński
1
Łukasz Sołtan
1
Jakub Kozyrski
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The role of capillary pumping on the course of cleaning porous materials containing liquid contaminants using supercritical fluids was investigated numerically. As a specific process to be modelled, cleaning of porous membranes, contaminated with soybean oil, using supercritical carbon dioxide as the cleaning fluid (solvent) was considered. A 3D pore-network model, developed as an extension of a 2D drying model, was used for performing pore scale simulations. The influence of various process parameters, including the coordination number of the pore network, the computational domain size, and the external flow mass transfer resistance, on the strength of the capillary pumping effect was investigated. The capillary pumping effect increases with increasing domain size and decreasing external flow mass transfer resistance. For low coordination numbers of the pore network, the capillary pumping effect is not noticeable at macro scale, while for high coordination numbers, the opposite trend is observed – capillary pumping may influence the process at macro scale. In the investigated system, the coordination number of the pore network seems to be low, as no capillary pumping effects were observed at macro scale during experimental investigation and macro-scale modelling of the membrane cleaning process.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Krzysztoforski
1
Karim Khayrat
2
Marek Henczka
3
Patrick Jenny
2

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
  2. ETH Zurich, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
  3. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, ul. Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

In this paper aggregation of small solid particles in the perikinetic and orthokinetic regimes is considered. An aggregation kernel for colloidal particles is determined by solving the convection-diffusion equation for the pair probability function of the solid particles subject to simple shear and extensional flow patterns and DLVO potential field. Using the solution of the full model the applicability regions of simplified collision kernels from the literature are recognized and verified for a wide range of Péclet numbers. In the stable colloidal systems the assumption which considers only the flow pattern in a certain boundary layer around central particle results in a reasonable accuracy of the particle collision rate. However, when the influence of convective motion becomes more significant one should take into account the full flow field in a more rigorous manner and solve the convection-diffusion equation directly. Finally, the influence of flow pattern and process parameters on aggregation rate is discussed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Tyl
1
Juliusz Kondracki
2
Magdalena Jasińska
1

  1. Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
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Abstract

The energetic efficiency of mixing is studied numerically in a continuous flow mixer constructed from a sequence of alternately twisted pipe bends. Counter-rotating vortices present in the curved channels and known as Dean vortices narrow the distribution of the residence time of fluid elements and accelerate the generation of a new material surface without obstructing the main flow and increasing the risk of fouling or flow stoppage. Cyclic twisting of the pipe curvature allows for quick reorientation of Dean vortices. The reorientation induces chaotic advection in a stable three-dimensional flow and speeds up mixing. The effect of computational domain discretisation for the low and medium Reynolds numbers (20 < Re < 2000º on the head loss, primary and secondary flow, residence time distribution, and the energetic efficiency of generation of the inter material surface is determined. The energetic efficiency is calculated in the time space, a standard approach in modelling reactive micromixing, and at the reactor exit. The maximum energetic efficiency is determined for Re ≈ 600 ÷ 700. It is also found that the initial orientation of the material surface to the pipe curvature has a significant impact on the energetic efficiency of mixing.
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Authors and Affiliations

Antoni Rożeń
1
Janusz Kopytowski
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warszawa, Poland
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Abstract

The use of CaO-based adsorbents has a high potential to capture CO2 from various systems due to its high reactivity with CO2, high capacity, and low cost of naturally derived CaO. The application of CaO-based sorbents to remove carbon dioxide is based on a reversible reaction between CaO and CO2. However, multiple carbonation/calcination cycles lead to a rapid reduction in the sorption capacity of natural CaO, and therefore efforts are made to reduce this disadvantage by doping, regenerating, or producing synthetic CaO with stable sorption properties. In this review, the synthesis methods used to obtain CaO-based sorbents were collected, and the latest research on improving their sorption properties was presented. The most commonly used models to describe the CO2 sorption kinetics on CaO-based sorbents were also introduced. The methods of sorbent regeneration and their effectiveness were summarized. In the last part of this review, the current state of advancement of work on the larger scale, possible problems, and opportunities during scale-up of the calcium looping process were presented. Concluding (i) the presented methods of adsorbent synthesis allow for the production of doped CaO adsorbents on a laboratory scale, characterized by high CO2 capture efficiency and good cyclic stability, (ii) the most commonly used in practice models describing CO2 chemisorption are empirical models and the shrinking core model, (iii) the use of sorbent regeneration allows for a significant improvement in sorption capacity, (iv) the scale-up of both the production of new CaO adsorbents and the CO2 capture technology with their use requires further development.
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Authors and Affiliations

Donata Konopacka-Łyskawa
1
Natalia Czaplicka
1
Andrzej Szefer
2

  1. Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Process Engineering and Chemical Technology, ul. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
  2. FLUOR S.A., ul. Prymasa Stefana Wyszynskiego 11, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

In the work, the antioxidant activity of astaxanthin (AST) and the influence of the base formulation on the kinetics of AST release were studied. Three stable O/W AST-loaded emulsions, differing in droplet size (12.7 μm(E1), 3.8 μm(E2), 3.2 μm(E3)) and a nanoemulsion (0.13 μm, NE) were prepared. The results confirmed very strong antioxidant activity of AST. The emulsion internal phase droplet size did not significantly affect the AST release. The amount of released AST was respectively: 13.60% (E1), 11.42% (E2), 9.45% (E3), 9.71% (NE). The best fit to experimental data was obtained using the Higuchi model for emulsions and the Korsmeyer-Peppas model for NE. The results show that the AST release process is limited by the diffusion through carriers and the prepared O/W emulsions can be applied as vehicles for delivery of astaxanthin to the skin, ensuring effective anti-aging action of the cosmetics.
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Authors and Affiliations

Michał Dymek
1
Elżbieta Sikora
1

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland

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Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.
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ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.



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