Application of MoO3 as an efficient catalyst for wet air oxidation treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater (Experimental and DFT study)

Journal title

Archives of Environmental Protection




vol. 47


No 2


Chen, Chen : School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, China ; Cheng, Ting : School of Environmental Ecology, Jiangsu City Vocational College, China ; Wang, Lei : School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, China ; Tian, Yuan : School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, China ; Deng, Qin : School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, China ; Shi, Yisu : School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, China



wet air oxidation ; catalytic wet air oxidation ; pharmaceutical wastewater ; DFT

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne




Polish Academy of Sciences


  1. Ahsani, M., Hazrati, H., Javadi, M., Ulbricht, M., & Yegani, R. (2020). Preparation of antibiofouling nanocomposite PVDF/Ag-SiO2 membrane and long-term performance evaluation in the MBR system fed by real pharmaceutical wastewater. Separation and Purification Technology, 249,116938. DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2020.116938
  2. Aniszewski, A. (2020). Impact of ground adsorption capacity on he change on the chemical composition of groundwater. Archives of Environmental Protection, 46,2, pp. 35-41. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2020.133472
  3. Chen, C., Cheng, T., Shi, Y., & Tian, Y. (2014a). Adsorption of Cu(II) from Aqueous Solution on Fly Ash Based Linde F (K) Zeolite. Iranian Journal of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering-International English Edition, 33,3, pp. 29-35. DOI: 10.30492/IJCCE.2014.11328
  4. Chen, C., Cheng, T., Wang, Z. L., & Han, C. H. (2014b). Removal of Zn2+ in aqueous solution by Linde F (K) zeolite prepared from recycled fly ash. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society 91,2, pp. 285-291
  5. Chen, C., Cheng, T., Zhang, X., Wu, R., & Wang, Q. (2019a). Synthesis of an Efficient Pb Adsorption Nano-Crystal under Strong Alkali Hydrothermal Environment Using a Gemini Surfactant as Directing Agent. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, 41,6, pp. 1034-1038.
  6. Chen, C., Chenhao, Y., Ting, C., Xiao, Z., & Jiandong, Z. (2019b). Preparation of Mo-Na composite catalyst and its application in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment. Industrial Water Treatment 39,8, pp. 77-81.(in Chinese)
  7. Chen, C., Jiandong, Z., Ting, C., & Xiao, Z. (2018). Preparation of Nano-manganese Cerium/γ-Al2O3 Composite Catalyst and Its Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation Treatment of Antibiotic Production Wastewater. Journal of Synthetic Crystals 47,11, pp. 2288-2294. (in Chinese)
  8. Chen, C., Li, Q., Shen, L., & Zhai, J. (2012). Feasibility of manufacturing geopolymer bricks using circulating fluidized bed combustion bottom ash. Environ Technol 33,10-12, pp. 1313-1321. DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2011.626797
  9. Chen, M., Ren, L., Qi, K., Li, Q., Lai, M., Li, Y., Li, X., & Wang, Z. (2020). Enhanced removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products from real municipal wastewater using an electrochemical membrane bioreactor. Bioresource Technology, 311,123579. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123579
  10. Cheng, T., Chen, C., Tang, R., Han, C.-H., & Tian, Y. (2018). Competitive Adsorption of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd from Aqueous Solution Onto Fly Ash-Based Linde F(K) Zeolite. Iranian Journal of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering-International English Edition, 37,1, pp. 61-72. DOI: 10.30492/IJCCE.2018.31971
  11. Cheng, T., Chen, C., Wang, L., Zhang, X., Ye, C., Deng, Q., & Chen, G. (2021). Synthesis of Fly Ash Magnetic Glass Microsphere@BiVO4 and Its Hybrid Action of Visible-Light Photocatalysis and Adsorption Process. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 30,3, pp. 1-14. DOI: 10.15244/pjoes/127918
  12. Coimbra, R. N., Calisto, V., Ferreira, C. I. A., Esteves, V. I., & Otero, M. (2019). Removal of pharmaceuticals from municipal wastewater by adsorption onto pyrolyzed pulp mill sludge. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 12,8, pp. 3611-3620. DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.12.001
  13. Dong, S., Cui, L., Zhang, W., Xia, L., & Sun, J. J. C. E. J. (2020). Double-shelled ZnSnO3 hollow cubes for efficient photocatalytic degradation of antibiotic wastewater. Chemical engineering journal 384,123279. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2019.123279
  14. Ferrer-Polonio, E., Fernandez-Navarro, J., Iborra-Clar, M.-I., Alcaina-Miranda, M.-I., & Antonio Mendoza-Roca, J. (2020). Removal of pharmaceutical compounds commonly-found in wastewater through a hybrid biological and adsorption process. Journal of Environmental Management 33,3, pp. 29-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110368
  15. Guo, J., Fortunato, L., Deka, B. J., Jeong, S., & An, A. K. (2020). Elucidating the fouling mechanism in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment by membrane distillation. Desalination, 475,114148. DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2019.114148
  16. He, Y., Chen, Y.-g., Zhang, K.-n., Ye, W.-m., & Wu, D.-y. (2019). Removal of chromium and strontium from aqueous solutions by adsorption on laterite. Archives of Environmental Protection, 45,3, pp. 11-20. DOI 10.24425/aep.2019.128636
  17. Hofman-Caris, C. H. M., Siegers, W. G., van de Merlen, K., de Man, A. W. A., & Hofman, J. A. M. H. (2017). Removal of pharmaceuticals from WWTP effluent: Removal of EfOM followed by advanced oxidation. Chemical Engineering Journal, 327,1, pp. 514-521. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2017.06.154
  18. Hohenberg, P. & Kohn, W. (1964). InhomogeIIeous Electron Gas. Physical Review, 136,3B, pp. 864-871
  19. Huang, J., Wang, X., Li, S. & Wang, Y. (2010). ZnO/MoO3 mixed oxide nanotube: A highly efficient and stable catalyst for degradation of dye by air under room conditions. Applied Surface Science, 257,1, pp. 116-121. DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.06.046
  20. Huang, P. R., He, Y., Cao, C. & Lu, Z. H. (2014). Impact of lattice distortion and electron doping on alpha-MoO3 electronic structure. Sci Rep. 4,7131, pp. 1-7. DOI: 10.1038/srep07131
  21. Kang, J., Zhan, W., Li, D., Wang, X., Song, J. & Liu, D. (2011). Integrated catalytic wet air oxidation and biological treatment of wastewater from Vitamin B-6 production. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 36,9-11, pp. 455-458. DOI: 10.1016/j.pce.2010.03.043
  22. Khan, A. H., Khan, N. A., Ahmed, S., Dhingra, A., Singh, C. P., Khan, S. U., Mohammadi, A. A., Changani, F., Yousefi, M., Alam, S., Vambol, S., Vambol, V., Khursheed, A. & Ali, I. (2020). Application of advanced oxidation processes followed by different treatment technologies for hospital wastewater treatment. Journal of Cleaner Production, 269,122411. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122411
  23. Klancar, A., Trontelj, J., Kristl, A., Meglic, A., Rozina, T., Justin, M. Z. & Roskar, R. (2016). An advanced oxidation process for wastewater treatment to reduce the ecological burden from pharmacotherapy and the agricultural use of pesticides. Ecological Engineering, 97,186-195. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.09.010
  24. Kohn, W. & Sham, L. J. (1965). Self-Consistent Equations Including Exchange and Correlation Effects. Physical Review, 140, A1133.
  25. Kresse, & Furthmuller (1996). Efficient iterative schemes for ab initio total-energy calculations using a plane-wave basis set. Physical review. B, Condensed matter 54,16, pp. 11169-11186
  26. Li, W., Zhao, S., Qi, B., Du, Y., Wang, X. & Huo, M. (2009). Fast catalytic degradation of organic dye with air and MoO3:Ce nanofibers under room condition. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 92,3-4, pp. 333-340. DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2009.08.012
  27. Li, Y., Shen, J., Quan, W., Diao, Y., Wu, M., Zhang, B., Wang, Y., & Yang, D. (2020). 2D/2D p-n Heterojunctions of CaSb2O6/g-C(3)N(4)for Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic Degradation of Tetracycline. European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2020,40, pp. 3852-3858. DOI: 10.1002/ejic.202000635
  28. Tan, l., Yu, C., Wang, M., Zhang, S. & Sun, J., Dang, S. & Sun, J. (2019). Synergistic effect of adsorption and photocatalysis of 3D g-C3N4-agar hybrid aerogels. Applaied Surface Science, 467-468, pp. 286-292. DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.10.067
  29. Lunagomez Rocha, M. A., Del Angel, G., Torres-Torres, G., Cervantes, A., Vazquez, A., Arrieta, A. & Beltramini, J. N. (2015). Effect of the Pt oxidation state and Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio on the Pt/TiO2-CeO2 catalysts in the phenol degradation by catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO). Catalysis Today 250,145-154. DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2014.09.016
  30. Ma, Y., Jia, Y., Jiao, Z., Wang, L., Yang, M., Bi, Y. & Qi, Y. (2015). Facile synthesize α-MoO3 nanobelts with high adsorption property. Materials Letters, 157,53-56. DPOI: 10.1016/j.matlet.2015.05.095
  31. Mucha, Z. & Kułakowski, P. (2016). Turbidity measurements as a tool of monitoring and control of the SBR effluent at the small wastewater treatment plant – preliminary study. Archives of Environmental Protection, 42,3, pp. 33-36. DOI 10.1515/aep-2016-0030
  32. Mukimin, A., Vistanty, H. & Zen, N. (2020). Hybrid advanced oxidation process (HAOP) as highly efficient and powerful treatment for complete demineralization of antibiotics. Separation and Purification Technology, 241,116728. DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2020.116728
  33. Parvas, M., Haghighi, M. & Allahyari, S. (2019). Catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol over ultrasound-assisted synthesized Ni/CeO2-ZrO2 nanocatalyst used in wastewater treatment. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 12,7, pp. 1298-1307. DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.10.043
  34. Perdew, J., Burke, K. & Ernzerhof, M. (1996). Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple. Physical review letters, 77,3865-3868. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3865
  35. Perdew, J., Chevary, J. A., H, V., Jackson, K., Pederson, M., Singh, D. & Fiolhais, C. (1992). Atoms, Molecules, Solids, and Surfaces: Applications of the Generalized Gradient Approximation for Exchange and Correlation. Physical review. B, Condensed matter, 46,6671-6687.
  36. Phoon, B. L., Ong, C. C., Saheed, M. S. M., Show, P.-L., Chang, J.-S., Ling, T. C., Lam, S. S. & Juan, J. C. (2020). Conventional and emerging technologies for removal of antibiotics from wastewater. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 400,122961. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122961
  37. Schrank, S. G., Jose, H. J., Moreira, R. F. P. M. & Schroder, H. F. (2004). Elucidation of the behavior of tannery wastewater under advanced oxidation conditions. Chemosphere, 56,5, pp. 411-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.04.012
  38. Sushma, Kumari, M. & Saroha, A. K. (2018). Treatment of toxic industrial effluent containing nitrogenous organic compounds by integration of catalytic wet air oxidation at atmospheric pressure and biological processes. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 6,5, pp. 6256-6262. DOI:10.1016/j.jece.2018.09.057
  39. Urbanowska, A. & Kabsch-Korbutowicz, M. (2019). Nanofiltration as an effective method of NaOH recovery from regenerative solutions. Archives of Environmental Protection, 45,2, pp. 31-36. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.127978
  40. Verma, A., Kaur, H. & Dixit, D. (2013). Photocatalytic, Sonolytic and Sonophotocatalytic Degradation of 4-Chloro-2-Nitro Phenol. Archives of Environmental Protection, 39,2, pp. 17-28. DOI: 10.2478/aep-2013-0015
  41. Wang, G., Wang, D., Xu, Y., Li, Z. & Huang, L. (2020a). Study on optimization and performance of biological enhanced activated sludge process for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment. Science of the Total Environment, 739,140166. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140166
  42. Wang, J., Dong, S., Yu, C., Han, X., Guo, J. & Sun, J. (2017). An efficient MoO3 catalyst for in-practical degradation of dye wastewater under room conditions. Catalysis Communications, 92,100-104. DOI: 10.1016/j.catcom.2017.01.013
  43. Wang, P., Liang, Y. N., Zhong, Z. & Hu, X. (2020b). Nano-hybrid bimetallic Au-Pd catalysts for ambient condition-catalytic wet air oxidation (AC-CWAO) of organic dyes. Separation and Purification Technology, 233,15, pp. 11590. DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2019.115960
  44. Xu, K., Liao, N., Zheng, B. & Zhou, H. (2020). Adsorption and diffusion behaviors of H2, H2S, NH3, CO and H2O gases molecules on MoO3 monolayer: A DFT study. Physics Letters A, 384,21, pp. 1-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2020.126533
  45. Yadav, A., Teja, A. K. & Verma, N. (2016). Removal of phenol from water by catalytic wet air oxidation using carbon bead – supported iron nanoparticle – containing carbon nanofibers in an especially configured reactor. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 4,2, pp. 1504-1513. DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2016.02.021
  46. Zhang, X., Cheng, T., Chen, C., Wang, L., Deng, Q., Chen, G. & Ye, C. (2020). Synthesis of a novel magnetic nano-zeolite and its application as an efficient heavy metal adsorbent. Materials Research Express, 7,8, pp. 085007. DOI: 10.1088/2053-1591/abab43
  47. Zhang, Y., Zhang, Z., Yan, Q. & Wang, Q. (2016). Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of alkali metal molybdate/α-MoO3 hybrids as highly efficient catalytic wet air oxidation catalysts. Applied Catalysis A: General, 511,47-58. DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2015.11.035
  48. Zou, H., Ma, W. & Wang, Y. (2015). A novel process of dye wastewater treatment by linking advanced chemical oxidation with biological oxidation. Archives of Environmental Protection, 41,4, pp. 33-39. DOI: 10.1515/aep-2015-0037






DOI: 10.24425/aep.2021.137277

Abstracting & Indexing

Abstracting & Indexing

Archives of Environmental Protection is covered by the following services:

AGRICOLA (National Agricultural Library)




BIOSIS Citation Index





Engineering Village


Google Scholar

Index Copernicus

Journal Citation Reports™

Journal TOCs






Ulrich's Periodicals Directory


Web of Science