Assessment of exposure to fungal aerosol in the lecture rooms of schools in the Lesser Poland region

Journal title

Archives of Environmental Protection




vol. 49


No 4


Frączek, Krzysztof : Department of Microbiology and Biomonitoring, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics,Hugo Kołłątaj University of Agriculture, Krakow, Poland ; Bulski, Karol : Department of Microbiology and Biomonitoring, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics,Hugo Kołłątaj University of Agriculture, Krakow, Poland ; Chmiel, Maria : Department of Microbiology and Biomonitoring, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics,Hugo Kołłątaj University of Agriculture, Krakow, Poland



air pollution ; fungi ; bioaerosol ; schools ; classroom

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne




Polish Academy of Sciences


[1]. Auger, E.J., & Moore-Colyer, M.J.S. (2017). The effect of management regime on airborne respirable dust concentrations in two different types of horse stable design. J. Equine Vet. Sci, 51, pp.105–109. DOI:10.1016/j.jevs.2016.12.007
[2]. Augustyńska, D. & Pośniak, M. (2016). Harmful factors in the working environment: acceptable values. CIOP – PIB, Warszawa. (in Polish)
[3]. Basińska, M. & Michałkiewicz, M. (2016). Variability of microbial air pollution and dust concentration inside and outside a selected school in Poznań. Ecol. Eng. 50, pp. 17–25. DOI:10.12912/23920629/65479
[4]. Brągoszewska, E., Mainka, A., Pastuszka, J.S., Lizończyk, K. & Desta, G.Y (2018). Assessment of Bacterial Aerosol in a Preschool, Primary School and High School in Poland. Atmosphere, 9,87. DOI:10.3390/atmos9030087
[5]. Bulski, K. & Frączek, K. (2021). Mycological Air Quality at Animal Veterinary Practice. Yearbook of Environmental Protection (Rocznik Ochrona Środowiska), 23, pp. 168-179. DOI:10.54740/ros.2021.011
[6]. Canha, N., Almeida, S.M., Carmo Freitas do, C. & Wolterbeek, H.T. (2015) Assessment of bioaerosols in urban and rural primary schools using passive and active sampling methodologies. Arch. Environ. Prot. 41, pp. 11–22. DOI:10.1515/aep-2015-0034
[7]. Chegini, F.M., Baghani, A.N., Hassanvand, M.S., Sorooshian, A., Golbaz, S., Bakhtiari, R., Ashouri, A., Joubani, M.N. & Alimohammadi, M. (2020). Indoor and outdoor airborne bacterial and fungal air quality in kindergartens: Seasonal distribution, genera, levels, and factors influencing their concentration. Build Environ, 175. DOI:10.1016/j.buildenv.2020.106690
[8]. Clauß, M. (2015). Particle size distribution of airborne microorganisms in the environment – a review. Landbauforsch -·Appl. Agric. Forestry Res., 65, pp. 77-100. DOI:10.3220/LBF1444216736000
[9]. Dumała, S.M. & Dudzińska, M.R.., (2013). Microbiological Indoor Air Quality in Polish Schools. Annual Set Environ. Prot., 15, pp. 231-244.
[10]. Ejdys, E. (2009). The influence of atmospheric air on the quality of bioaerosol in school rooms in spring and autumn - mycological assessment. Ochrona Środowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych, 41, pp. 142-150. (in Polish)
[11]. Estillore, A.D., Trueblood, J.V. & Grassian, V.H. (2016). Atmospheric chemistry of bioaerosols: heterogeneous and multiphase reactions with atmospheric oxidants and other trace gases. Chem. Sci., 7, pp. 6604-6616. DOI:10.1039/c6sc02353c
[12]. Eytyugina, M.G., Alves, C.A., Nunes, T. & Cerqueira, M. (2010). Outdoor/indoor air quality in primary schools in Lisbon: a preliminary study. Quim. Nova, 5, pp. 1145–1149. DOI:10.1590/S0100-40422010000500027
[13]. Faridi, S., Hassanvand, M.S., Naddafi, K., Yunesian, M., Nabizadeh, R., Sowlat, M.H., Kashani, H., Gholampour, A., Niazi, S., Zare, A., Nazmara, S. & Alimohammadi, M. (2015) Indoor/outdoor relationships of bioaerosol concentrations in a retirement home and a school dormitory Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 22, pp. 8190–8200. DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-3944-y
[14]. Fang, Z., Yang, H., Li, C., Cheng, L., Zhao, M. & Xie, C. (2021). Prediction of PM2.5 hourly concentrations in Beijing based on machine learning algorithm and ground-based LiDAR. Arch. Environ. Prot., 47(3), pp. 98-107, DOI 10.24425/aep.2021.138468
[15]. Fsadni, P., Frank, B., Fsadni, C. & Montefort, S. (2017). The Impact of Microbiological Pollutants on School Indoor Air Quality. Journal Geoscience and Environment Protection, 5, pp. 54-65. DOI:10.4236/gep.2017.55004
[16]. Gołofit-Szymczak, M. & Górny, R.L. (2010). Bacterial and fungal aerosols in air -conditioned office buildings in Warsaw, Poland – the winter season. Int. J. Occup. Saf. Ergon., 16, pp. 465-476. DOI:10.1080/10803548.2010.11076861
[17]. Gołofit-Szymczak, M., Górny, R.L., Ławniczek-Wałczyk, A., Cyprowski, M. & Stobnicka, A. (2015) Bacteria and fungal aerosols in the work environment of cleaners. Occupational Medicine (Medycyna Pracy), 66(6), pp. 779–791. (in Polish)
[18]. Górny, R.L., Frączek, K. & Ropek, D.R. (2020). Size distribution of microbial aerosols in overground and subterranean treatment chambers at health resorts. J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng., 18(2), pp. 1437-1450. DOI:10.1007/s40201-020-00559-9.
[19]. Górny, R.L. (2019). Microbial aerosols: sources, properties, health effects, exposure assessment – A review. KONA Powder and Particle Journal, 37, pp. 64-84. DOI:10.14356/kona.2020005
[20]. Górny, R.L., Cyprowski, M., Ławniczek-Wałczyk, A., Gołofit-Szymczak, M. & Zapór, L. (2011). Biohazards in the indoor environment – a role for threshold limit values in exposure assessment, [in:] Management of indoor air quality, Dudzińska MR (Ed.). Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp. 1-20.
[21]. Grzyb, J. & Lenart-Boroń, A. (2020) Size distribution and concentration of fungal aerosol in animal premises of a zoological garden. Aerobiol., 36, pp: 233–248. DOI:10.1007/s10453-020-09625-z
[22]. Jiayu, C., Qiaoqiao, R., Feilong, C., Chen, L., Jiguo, W., Zhendong, W., Lingyun, C., Liu, R. & Guoxia, Z. (2019). Microbiology Community Structure in Bioaerosols and the Respiratory Diseases. J. Environ. Sci. Public Health, 3, pp. 347-357. DOI:10.26502/jesph.96120068 23. Jo, W.K. & Seo, Y.J. (2005). Indoor and outdoor bioaerosol levels at recreation facilities, elementary schools, and homes. Chemosphere, 61(11), pp. 1570–1579. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.103
[24]. Jurado, S.R., Bankoff, A.D.P., Jurado, S.R., Bankoff, A.D.P. & Sanchez, A. (2014). Indoor Air Quality In Brazilian Universities. Int. J. Env. Res. Pub. Health, 1, pp. 7081-7093. DOI:10.3390/ijerph110707081
[25]. Sanchez, A. (2014). Indoor Air Quality In Brazilian Universities. Int. J. Env. Res. Pub. Health, 1, pp. 7081-7093. DOI:10.3390/ijerph110707081
[26]. Kim, K.H., Kabir, E. & Jahan, S.A. (2018). Airborne bioaerosols and their impact on human health. J. Environ. Sci. (China), 67, pp. 23-35. DOI:10.1016/j.jes.2017.08.027
[27]. Lang-Yona, N., Shuster-Meiseles, T., Mazar, Y., Yarden, O. & Rudich, Y. (2016). Impact of urban air pollution on the allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia: outdoor exposure study supported by laboratory experiments. Sci. Total Environ., 541, pp. 365-371. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.09.058
[28]. Lee, J.H. & Jo, W.K. (2006). Characteristic of indoor and outdoor bioaerosols at Korean high-rise apartment buildings. Environ. Res., 101, pp. 11-17. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2005.08.009
[29]. Li, Y., Ge, Y., Wu, C., Guan, D., Liu, J. & Wang, F. (2020). Assessment of culturable airborne bacteria of indoor environments in classrooms, dormitories and dining hall at university: a case study in China. Aerobiol., 36, pp. 313–324. DOI:10.1007/s10453-020-09633-z
[30]. Mainka, A., Zajusz-Zubek, E., Kozielska, B. & Brągoszewska, E. (2015). Study of air pollution affecting children in a municipal kindergarten located on a road with heavy traffic. Engineering and Environmental Protection (Inżynieria i Ochrona Środowiska), 18(1), pp. 119-133. (in Polish)
[31]. Piersanti, A., D’Elia, I., Gualtieri, M., Briganti, G., Cappelletti, A., Zanini, G. & Ciancarella, L. (2021). The Italian National Air Pollution Control Programme: Air Quality, Health Impact and Cost Assessment. Atmosphere, 12(2), pp. 196. DOI:10.3390/atmos12020196
[32]. Puspita, I.D., Kamagata, Y., Tanaka, M., Asano, K. & Nakatsu, C.H. (2012). Are uncultivated bacteria really uncultivable? Microbes Environ., 27(4), pp. 356-366. DOI:10.1264/jsme2.ME12092
[33]. Sheik, G.B., Rheam, A.I., Shehri, Z.S. & Otaibi, O.B.M. (2015). Assessment of bacteria and fungi in air from College of Applied Medical Sciences (Male) at AD-Dawadmi, Saudi Arabia. Int. Res. J Biological Sci., 4(9), pp. 49-53.
[34]. Simon, X. & Duquenne, P. (2014). Assessment of workers' exposure to bioaerosols in a French cheese factory. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 58, pp. 677-692. DOI:10.1093/annhyg/meu027
[35]. Wlazło, A., Górny, R.L., Złotowska, R., Ławniczek, A., Łudzień-Izbińska, B., Harkawy A.S., Janczyk, E. (2008). Exposure of employees to selected harmful biological agents in the libraries of the Silesian Voivodship. Occupational Medicine (Medycyna Pracy), 59, pp. 159-170. (in Polish)






DOI: 10.24425/aep.2023.148688

Abstracting & Indexing

Abstracting & Indexing

Archives of Environmental Protection is covered by the following services:

AGRICOLA (National Agricultural Library)




BIOSIS Citation Index





Engineering Village


Google Scholar

Index Copernicus

Journal Citation Reports™

Journal TOCs






Ulrich's Periodicals Directory


Web of Science