The paper presents the results of a study into lexical substitutions found in the Old English gloss to psalms 2-50 in the Eadwine Psalter. The major objectives to determine the possible sources of this manuscript, which clearly go beyond the traditional explanation that originally the gloss was derived from a Vespasian Psalter-type gloss, later revised by the corrector based on a Regius Psalter-type gloss. The analysis shows that the affiliation of the gloss is indeed highly complex for such a resource. Moreover, the paper shows that despite its numerous corrections, the Old English gloss to the Eadwine Psalter is in fact a valuable source of information on the twelfth-century scribal practice of the post-Conquest England.
In the morphosyntactic literature, there exist two approaches to the problem of argument structure in English nominal synthetic compounds such as furniture moving or dog training. According to Borer (2012), such synthetic compounds belong to the class of referential nominals and thus lack argument structure. On the other hand, Alexiadou (2017) maintains that the external argument is present in the structure of synthetic compounds due to their ability to co-occur with by-phrases. In this paper, we present an extensive set of corpus data to show that synthetic -ing compounds do project the external argument, which is evidenced by their ability to license not only by-phrases but also agent-oriented adjectives and instrumental phrases. Importantly, the corpus data indicates that certain synthetic -ing compounds display the capacity to occur in aspectual contexts; nominal compounds fall in two classes in that regard.
The article aims at the explanation of some distributional peculiarities of two high unrounded vowels [i] and [È] in Russian. More generally, it looks at some phonotactic constraints of Russian vowels which are directly related to a broader topic of palatalization and vowel reduction in this language. Although the discussion in this paper concerns only a tiny section of Russian phonology, which is the distribution of high unrounded vowels, it is necessary to introduce several facts from Russian phonology, such as palatalization, velarization, stress and vowel reduction. They, at first sight, may look pretty much irrelevant to the main topic of the paper but, as it will become evident, are closely related and actually indispensable to the understanding of vowel distribution including the two high unrounded vowels in Russian.
The perceptual text is the one described by means of sense organs and having specific cohesion tools which include among others lexis belonging to the perception modus, so called introductory predicates indicating specific perception acts, synesthetic expressions, the observer as well as spatial and locative syntactems. Text architectonics is determined by the change of the speaker’s position (observer, perceiver), his transition within the text time and space.
Nowadays, many known celebrities use social media as a channel to promote positive narratives and support humanitarian work. This article offers an analysis of the argumentative strategies employed in Instagram by a Spanish actor Javier Bardem, an Antarctic ambassador for Greenpeace, in order to attract the attention of the public to the ecological problems of the Antarctic Ocean. I have studied 76 posts published in Instagram during the 2018-2019 period. Starting from the theoretical framework of argumentation, as well as of pragmatic linguistics, I analyze those linguistic mechanisms and discursive strategies that are used with the aim to achieve the persuasive purposes.
The aim of this article is to analyze the role of phraseological units (PhUs) in discourse and to investigate their co(n)textual dependency. The paper presents a typology of the lexical and phraseological units, labelled as co(n)textual supports and developed by Olza y Losada (2011): expressions that paraphrase the initial phraseological meaning; expressions that highlight a specific component of this meaning; lexical and phraseological units that are synonymous with the ‘central’ phraseological expression they co-occur with; and lexical and phraseological units that are antonymous with the ‘central’ expression. These units orient and specify the use and interpretation of PhUs. The analysis also focuses on the so-called markers of phraseological units that function as (quasi) PhUs that serve to introduce phraseology within discourse in a (more or less) explicit way and have pragmatic discursive value (cfr. Olza 2013). The last part of the article examines some PhUs whose implicatures can be affected by contextual circumstances and characterized by greater dependence on the general context of the statement despite showing some degree of conventionalization.
The present article is concerned with the notion of ‘guilt’ as understood by the legal sciences and in the context of psychology and culture studies. Although legal connotations are unavoidable, ‘guilt’ is a term emotionally related to other feelings like ‘shame’, ‘fear’, ‘sadness’ etc. The analysis shall take a closer look at legal definitions of ‘guilt’ and ‘culpability’ at work in the American, Polish and German legal systems and refer the equivalents existing in these languages (wina,Schuld) to the concept of guilt understood as an emotion. As it turns out, legal definitions do not account for conceptual dimension of meaning and as such, they can only serve as departure points for further analysis to be complemented with cognitive analysis. ‘Guilt’ is a culturally determined and complex emotion that may be ‘dissected’ into several more basic emotional states. The underlying assumption is that there are differences in the understanding of the concept ‘guilt’ across languages which must be taken into account by the translators who deal with translational equivalents.
The purpose of the present article is a contrastive analysis of the verbs and verbal forms expressing the spatial situation in the Pericope Adulterae from the point of view of their translations into Polish and French starting from the original Greek biblical text. The author presents the general context of the pericope, its controversial place in the Gospel of John as well as its construction and its linguistic specificities. Starting from the original text of this biblical passage, then are listed the Greek verbs which express a spatial situation and are subjected to the analysis from the point of view of their forms and their meaning. According to the Polish and French translations chosen from this evangelical episode, the author proceeds to the comparison of the proposed equivalents and presents the comments which ensue. The analysis of translations demonstrates that some of the equivalents are analogous for two or all of the three languages, and some are typical only to one of the three languages.
The aim of the paper is to analyze instances of vegetalization, which is the X IS A PLANT metaphor, in John Henry Newman’s collection of sermons, published as Sermons on Subjects of the Day (1843). One group of metaphors are ontological metaphors, whose source domain is an entity (Lakoff, Johnson 2003). They can be classified as reifications, vegetalizations, animalizations, personifications, and deifications, which corresponds to the hierarchy of the so-called Great Chain of Being. As claimed by Krzeszowski (1997), these metaphors play an important role in expressing the axiological dimension of language, since they can express specific values of their target domains. In Christian discourse, vegetalizations contribute to the conceptualization of such notions from the religious sphere as God, grace, the Kingdom of God, the Christian life, the Church, or evil.
This paper is aimed at presentation and analysis of different approaches to the phenomenon of "feeling for language". The purpose is to demonstrate that this term, although controversial, is of great importance in language acquisition and in the evaluation of language expressions. The topic is discussed in the article with the help of definitions from Kainz, Knobloch, Lewandowski, Juhász, Olt/Disselkamp, and Trad. In the definitions, various facets of language feeling are taken up, such as its relation to intuition, reference to mother tongue and foreign language and individual or collective implications.
Academic authors employ various language means in order to construct and disseminate knowledge, to sound persuasive, to undergird their arguments, but also to seek agreement within the academic community. The aim of this paper is to analyse a selected group of rhetorical strategies used by Anglophone and Czech authors of Linguistics research articles (RAs) and research theses (RTs). These strategies are assumed to vary in both academic genres since the position of their writers within the academic community differs. Even though authors of RAs have to meet reviewers’ requirements in order for their article to be published, so their relative position may be lower than that of the reviewers’, authors of RAs may have the same “absolute status” as the reviewers may be just as expert in that particular field. By contrast, the status of research students is lower than that of their evaluators both in relative and absolute terms. Even though students may gain some learned authority in presenting an original contribution, their assessors command both learned and institutional authority, hence are endowed with a higher status. Apart from comparing rhetorical strategies used in RAs and RTs, the paper focuses on cross-cultural differences between Anglophone and Czechacademic writing traditions.
The purpose of the article is to concentrate on the phenomenon of small talk. It attempts to analyze the functions of small talk, the attitudes to small talk and the circumstances which either favour or impede the occurrence of small talk, such as formality, the interlocutors, the topics, etc. The study concentrates on the attitude of Polish, Greek and Spanish female students to the phenomenon of small talk. There are a number of queries in the form of a questionnaire that the informants were exposed to. Based on the informants’ responses, the obtained results will determine the factors which facilitate the occurrence of small talk, the significance of small talk, the functions it serves and the attitude the informants have towards this allegedly trivial and flippant phenomenon.
The study of inner speech is appropriate to carry out in the plane of interaction of various scientific studies. This approach allows us to analyze the specifics of functioning of inner speech at the level of artistic discourse. Such phenomenon as inner speech presents not only the protagonist's outlook, their emotional state or social aspects, but also demonstrates, under the influence of extraordinary factors, the intensity of affect expression in the addresser's speech activity. Inner speech in an emotive situation is marked by peculiar characteristics, which indicates its unique multidimensional essence.
The present article attempts to discuss whether a medical conference poster intended for a specific English-speaking discourse community shares the properties of discourse colony (Hoey 1986). The author analyses 12 e-posters, which were displayed during an international neurological conference, presenting findings on epilepsy treatment. First, the author characterises the conference poster, which is followed by a description of discourse community and discourse colony. Next, the analysis of the e-posters is carried out and the results of the analysis are presented. On the basis of these results it might be said that the medical conference poster could be considered a discourse colony as it shares some of its properties.
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