# Metrology and Measurement Systems

Słowa kluczowe:

### Abstrakt

The paper proposes an alternative approach to the dissemination of the mass unit in the context of the new definition of the kilogram. Considering the fact that redefinition allows mass to be directly realized at any value, the paper presents a model of the dissemination of mass which can be used for different series in grams, where the measurements are performed in the downward direction, but using 1 g as the reference standard (whose mass value is assumed to be determined after the redefinition using the capacitive or electrostatic techniques). The subdivision method presented (suitable for �� 1 weights) has as its starting point the approach used by Mihailov-Romanowski for the calibration of series in kilograms which uses an orthogonal system of equations. Thus, according to this method, a solution for obtaining the orthogonality of a system can be the use as defining standard of the ratio between the mass having the highest nominal value in the set and the standard (unit). The results obtained for a set of weights from 10 to 1 g using the subdivision method, in accordance with the Mihailov-Romanowski principle, are validated with those obtained with the multiplication method, where the measurements start from 1 to 10 g, as in the case of the kilogram series. The mass values obtained with both methods are equal, while the estimated uncertainties are slightly different, yet insignificant. The results obtained previously for the same sequence of weights using the traditional dissemination method, where the 1 kg standard is used as reference, are also presented in the paper. The results show that only three weights out of six have a mass value insignificantly different by 1 x 10 -4 mg compared to those obtained with the methods presented in this article, but, in terms of uncertainty, there are some differences. The way of disseminating the mass unit presented in this article can be extended to other different sequences of nominal values such as: (5...1) g, (20...1) g, (50...1) g or (500...100) g if the reference standard is 100 g.
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### Autorzy i Afiliacje

1

1. Romanian Measurement Society – RMS, Unirii Bv. no. 61, 030828, Bucharest, Romania (formerly National Institute of Metrology, Romania)
Słowa kluczowe:

### Abstrakt

2D position error in the Global Positioning System (GPS) depends on the Horizontal Dilution of Precision (HDOP) and User Equivalent Range Error UERE. The non-dimensional HDOP coefficient, determining the influence of satellite distribution on the positioning accuracy, can be calculated exactly for a given moment in time. However, the UERE value is a magnitude variable in time, especially due to errors in radio propagation (ionosphere and troposphere effects) and it cannot be precisely predicted. The variability of the UERE causes the actual measurements (despite an exact theoretical mathematical correlation between the HDOP value and the position error) to indicate that position errors differ for the same HDOP value.
The aim of this article is to determine the relation between the GPS position error and the HDOP value. It is possible only statistically, based on an analysis of an exceptionally large measurement sample. To this end, measurement results of a 10-day GPS measurement campaign (900,000 fixes) have been used. For HDOP values (in the range of 0.6–1.8), position errors were recorded and analysed to determine the statistical distribution of GPS position errors corresponding to various HDOP values.
The experimental study and statistical analyses showed that the most common HDOP values in the GPS system are magnitudes of: 0.7 (�� = 0•353) and 0.8 (�� = 0•432). Only 2.77% of fixes indicated an HDOP value larger than 1. Moreover, 95% of measurements featured a geometric coefficient of 0.973 – this is why it can be assumed that in optimal conditions (without local terrain obstacles), the GPS system is capable of providing values of HDOP ≤ 1, with a probability greater than 95% (2��). Obtaining a low HDOP value, which results in a low GPS position error value, calls for providing a high mean number of satellites (12 or more) and low variability in their number.
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### Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mariusz Specht
1

1. Department of Transport and Logistics, Gdynia Maritime University, Morska 81-87, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland
Słowa kluczowe:

### Abstrakt

Digital metrologywas applied to evaluate 3D models of the unique skull of a fossil tetrapod, Madygenerpeton pustulatum, generated using various 3D digitization methods. The skull surface is covered by minute tubercles making it challenging for digitization with appropriate accuracy. Uniqueness and fragility of the specimen preclude the use of tactile measuring systems for creating a standardized reference model. To overcome this problem, comparative analysis of the triangulated models generated from the clouds of points obtained with seven different devices was conducted using the Geomagic Studio and Autodesk PowerShape CAD software. In the proposed approach, geometrically and dimensionally closest-fitting models underwent detailed statistical analysis between surface polygons in three steps. First, 3D models obtained from different scanning methods were compared with each other in couples. Next, statistical analysis of the differences between the coupled models was performed. Finally, a rating list of the models related to the required accuracy was prepared. The proposed approach is applicable to any other scanned object, especially in palaeontological applications, where each object is unique and exhibits individual features.
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### Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yaroslav Garashchenko
1
Ilja Kogan
2 3
Mirosław Rucki
4

1. National Technical University, Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute, Department of Integrated Technologies of Mechanical Engineering, Kyrpychova Str. 2, Kharkiv, 61002, Ukraine
2. TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Geological Institute, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 2, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
3. Kazan Federal University, Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies, Kremlyovskaya Str. 4/5, 420008 Kazan, Russia
4. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kazimierz Pulaski University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, ul. Stasieckiego 54, 26-600 Radom, Poland
Słowa kluczowe:

### Abstrakt

Effective recognition of tags in the dynamic measurement system would significantly improve the reading performance of the tag group, but the blurred outline and appearance of tag images captured in motion seriously limit the effectiveness of the existing tag group recognition. Thus, this paper proposes passive tag group recognition in the dynamic environment based on motion blur estimation and improved YOLOv2. Firstly, blur angles are estimated with a Gabor filter, and blur lengths are estimated through nonlinear modelling of a Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN). Secondly, tag recognition based on YOLOv2 improved by a Gaussian algorithm is proposed. The features of the tag group are analyzed by the Gaussian algorithm, the region of interest of the dynamic tag is effectively framed, and the tag foreground is extracted; Secondly, the data set of tag groups are trained by the end-to-end YOLOv2 algorithm for secondary screening and recognition, and finally the specific locations of tags are framed to meet the effective identification of tag groups in different scenes. A considerable number of experiments illustrate that the fusion algorithm can significantly improve recognition accuracy. Combined with the reading distance, the research presented in this paper can more accurately optimize the three-dimensional structure of the tag group, improve the reading performance of the tag group, and avoid the interference and collision of tags in the communication channel. Compared with the previous template matching algorithm, the tag group recognition ability put forward in this paper is improved by at least 13.9%, and its reading performance is improved by at least 6.2% as shown in many experiments.
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### Autorzy i Afiliacje

Lin Li
1 2
Xiao-Lei Yu
1 2
Zhen-Lu Liu
1
Zhi-Min Zhao
1
Ke Zhang
1
Shan-Hao Zhou
1

1. College of Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
2. National Quality Supervision and Testing Center for RFID Product Jiangsu, Nanjing 210029, China
Słowa kluczowe:

### Abstrakt

This work proposes a systematic assessment of stereophotogrammetry and noise-floor tests to characterize and quantify the uncertainty and accuracy of a vision-based tracking system. Two stereophotogrammetry sets with different configurations, i.e., some images are designed and their sensitivity is quantified based on several assessments. The first assessment evaluates the image coordinates, stereo angle and reconstruction errors resulting from the stereophotogrammetry procedure, and the second assessment expresses the uncertainty from the variance and bias errors measured from the noise-floor test. These two assessments quantify the uncertainty, while the accuracy of the vision-based tracking system is assessed from three quasi-static tests on a small-scaled specimen. The difference in each stereophotogrammetry set and configuration, as indicated by the stereophotogrammetry and noise-floor assessment, leads to a significant result hat the first stereophotogrammetry set measures the RMSE of 3.6 mm while the second set identifies only 1.6 mm of RMSE. The results of this work recommend a careful and systematic assessment of stereophotogrammetry and noise-floor test results to quantify the uncertainty before the real test to achieve a high displacement accuracy of the vision-based tracking system.
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### Autorzy i Afiliacje

Luna Ngeljaratan
1
Mohamed A. Moustafa
1

1. University of Nevada, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Reno, NV 89557, USA
Słowa kluczowe:

### Abstrakt

An adsorber in which sorption processes occur is one of the key components of an adsorption chiller. Precise real-time monitoring of and supervision over these processes are particularly important to ensure their proper execution. The article describes the experimental stand used for the measurement of the adsorber’s operating parameters and analyses pressure measurement uncertainties, taking into account the impact of the temperature on the test system filled with the adsorbent in the form of silica gel, while concurrently considering the influence of other factors (e.g. the environment, the A/A, and A/D conversion, or data processing) on measurement uncertainties. A complex analysis of uncertainties was carried out, including the results of the statistical analysis of the measurement data obtained from long-term experimental tests of the object and the uncertainties of the pressure measuring chain by the type B method, involving the consideration of interactions between the system components and the temperature impact on the propagation of uncertainties. As part of the analysis, the characteristic stages of the data collection and processing operations related to the sampling rate and measurement intervals were separated. The article presents the prototype test stand and original pressure measurement system for the verification of a single-bed adsorber working below10 hPa.The novel construction of a single-bed adsorberwas used as a test object. Furthermore, in this paper, the developed algorithm of the research method implemented in the system was discussed and positively verified.
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### Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mirosław Cezary Neska
1
2

1. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute for Sustainable Technologies, K. Pułaskiego 6/10, 26-600 Radom, Poland
2. Kazimierz Pulaski University of Technology and Humanities, Stasieckiego 54, 26-600 Radom, Poland
Słowa kluczowe:

### Abstrakt

Sensitive MEMS-based thermal flow sensors are the best choice for monitoring the patient’s respiration prompt diagnosis of breath disturbances. In this paper, open space micro-calorimetric flow sensors are investigated as precise monitoring tools. The differential energy balance equation, including convection and conduction terms, is derived for thermal analysis of the considered sensor. The temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of the thin silicon-oxide membrane layer is considered in the energy balance equation. The derived thermal non-linear differential equation is solved using a well-known analytical method, and a finite-element numerical solution is used for the confirmation. Results show that the presented analytical model offers a precise tool for evaluating these sensors. The effects of flow and thin membrane film parameters on thermo-resistive micro-calorimetric flow sensors’ performance and sensitivity are evaluated. The optimization has been performed at different flow velocities using a genetic algorithm method to determine the optimum configuration of the considered flow sensor. The geometrical parameters are selected as a decision variable in the optimization procedure. In the final step, using optimization results and curve-fitting, the expressions for the optimum decision variables have been derived. The sensor’s optimum configuration is achieved analytically based on flow velocity with the analytical terms for optimum decision variables.
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### Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mojtaba Babaelahi
1
2

1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Qom, Qom, Iran
2. Thermal Cycle and Heat Exchangers Department, Niroo Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
Słowa kluczowe:

### Abstrakt

This work presents a method for measuring the magnetic susceptibility of soil samples based on interactions of magnetic particles contained in a tested sample with a weighed permanent magnet placed in the balance mechanical design. The MYA 2.4Y microbalance manufactured by Radwag Wagi Elektroniczne, Poland, was used to perform mass measurements. The weighing system was adjusted for mass indication using a certified mass standard, and for magnetic susceptibility indication using a certified magnetic susceptibility standard. The volume of each analysed soil sample was 3.93 cm 3 and was similar to the volume and the size of the magnetic susceptibility standard. The research was carried out for 10 soil samples with a magnetic susceptibility range varying from 20 to 1600x10 -8 m 3 kg -1. The soil samples contained technogenic magnetic particles and particles of natural magnetite of geogenic origin. The study was performed for a field of 2 mT.
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### Autorzy i Afiliacje

Sławomir Janas
1
2
3

1. Radwag Wagi Elektroniczne, Centre for Metrology Research and Certification, Torunska 5, 26-600 Radom, Poland
2. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Environmental Engineering, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 34, 41-819 Zabrze, Poland
3. University of Technology and Humanities, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Physics, Stasieckiego 54, 26-600 Radom, Poland
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### Abstrakt

This paper presents a new interim check device for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) built from an AISI 1020 carbon steel bar with the incorporation of calibrated spheres. This artifact’s construction was made to make the interim checks of machines of this type faster and cheaper. Three devices were designed based on the ISO 10360-2 standard, the good practice guide No. 42 (NPL), and prominent authors’ research on the subject. The three options are presented in detail, but only one was built due to budget, size, and adaptability restrictions. An exploratory study was conducted to verify the device’s usability in two CMMs and concluded that the differences between the measurements are not significant. However, one machine had absolute variation values and a total standard deviation higher than the other, generating a larger expanded uncertainty.
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### Autorzy i Afiliacje

Rodrigo Schons Arenhart
1
Morgana Pizzolato
1
Fernanda Hänsch Beuren
2
3
Leandro Cantorski da Rosa
1

1. Federal University of Santa Maria, Department of Production Engineering and Systems, Roraima Avenue, 1000, Santa Maria, Brazil
2. State University of Santa Catarina, Department of Industrial Technology, Fernando Hastreiter Street, São Bento do Sul, Brazil
3. Federal University of Santa Maria, Statistics Department, Roraima Avenue, 1000, Santa Maria, Brazil
Słowa kluczowe:

### Abstrakt

The arbitrary waveform generator is characterised by its flexible signal generation, high frequency resolution and rapid frequency switching speed and is wildly used in fields like communication, radar systems, quantum control, astronautics and biomedicine.With continuous development of technology, higher requirements are placed on to the arbitrary waveform generator. Sampling rate determines the bandwidth of the output signal, spurious-free dynamic range determines the quality of generated signal. Due to above, these two indicators’ improvement is vital. However, the existing waveform generation methods cannot generate signals with quality good enough due to their technical limitations, and in order to realize a high system sampling rate, to accomplish waveform generation process in FPGA, multipath parallel structure is needed. Therefore, we proposed a parallel waveform synthesis structure based on digital resampling, which fixed the problems existing in the current methods effectively and achieved a high sampling rate as well as high quality arbitrary waveform synthesis. We also built up an experimental test bench to validate the proposed structure.
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### Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wenhao Zhao
1
Shulin Tian
1
Guangkun Guo
1
Jiajing You
1
Qiong Wu
1
Ke Liu
1

1. University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Automation Engineering, Chengdu 611731, China
Słowa kluczowe:

### Abstrakt

Turbines and generators operating in the power generation industry are a major source of electrical energy worldwide. These are critical machines and their malfunctions should be detected in advance in order to avoid catastrophic failures and unplanned shutdowns. A maintenance strategy which enables to detect malfunctions at early stages of their existence plays a crucial role in facilities using such types of machinery. The best source of data applied for assessment of the technical condition are the transient data measured during start-ups and coast-downs. Most of the proposed methods using signal decomposition are applied to small machines with a rolling element bearing in steady-state operation with a shaft considered as a rigid body. The machines examined in the authors’ research operate above their first critical rotational speed interval and thus their shafts are considered to be flexible and are equipped with a hydrodynamic sliding bearing. Such an arrangement introduces significant complexity to the analysis of the machine behavior, and consequently, analyzing such data requires a highly skilled human expert. The main novelty proposed in the paper is the decomposition of transient vibration data into components responsible for particular failure modes. The method is automated and can be used for identification of turbogenerator malfunctions. Each parameter of a particular decomposed function has its physical representation and can help the maintenance staff to operate the machine properly. The parameters can also be used by the managing personnel to plan overhauls more precisely. The method has been validated on real-life data originating from a 200 MW class turbine. The real-life field data, along with the data generated by means of the commercial software utilized in GE’s engineering department for this particular class of machines, was used as the reference data set for an unbalanced response during the transients in question.
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### Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tomasz Barszcz
1
Mateusz Zabaryłło
2

1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
2. GE Power, ul. Stoczniowa 2, 82-300 Elblag, Poland
Słowa kluczowe:

### Abstrakt

Three phase induction motors are widely used in industrial processes and condition monitoring of these motors is especially important. Broken rotor bars, eccentricity and bearing faults are the most common types of faults of induction motors. Stator current and/or vibration signals are mostly preferred for the monitoring and detection of these faults. Fourier Transform (FT) based detection methods analyse the characteristic harmonic components of stator current and vibration signals for feature extraction. Several types of simultaneous faults of induction motors may produce characteristic harmonic components at the same frequency (with varying amplitudes). Therefore, detection of multiple faults is more difficult than detection of a single fault with FT based diagnosis methods. This paper proposes an alternative approach to detect simultaneous multiple faults including broken rotor bars, static eccentricity and outer/inner-race bearing faults by analysing stator current and vibration signals. The proposed method uses Hilbert envelope analysis with a Normalized Least Mean Square (NLSM) adaptive filter. The results are experimentally verified under 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% load conditions.
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### Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ahmet Kabul
1
Abdurrahman Ünsal
2

1. Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 15030, Burdur, Turkey
2. Kütahya Dumlupınar University, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 43100, Kütahya, Turkey
Słowa kluczowe:

### Abstrakt

While cycloid pin-wheel precision reducers (referred to as RV reducers) are widely used in industrial robots, a widely accepted design standard or verification method of their test platforms is not available. In this study, a comprehensive sliding-separation test platform of RV reducers was developed. The test platform can test various measurement items such as transmission error, static measurement of lost motion, dynamic measurement of lost motion, torsional rigidity, no-load running torque, starting torque, backdriving torque, and transmission efficiency of the RV reducer for robots. The principle and method of dynamic measurement of lost motion tests based on the two-way transmission error method were studied and this test function was successfully integrated with the comprehensive test platform in order to increase the test items of the dynamic performance parameters of RV reducers. The measurement results of the no-load running torque of the RV reducer were consistent with the Stribeck curve. Based on the concept of optimal measurement speed, a decomposition test method of the geometric component of the dynamic measurement of lost motion and the elastic component of the dynamic measurement of lost motion was proposed in the dynamic measurement test of lost motion. Through precision calibration, function test and repeatability test, the results were compared with the data of enterprise’s samples. The consistent results have proved that the test platform met engineering requirements and measurement accuracy requirements. Based on the new test principle, the developed platform can test more parameters of RV reducers with high precision and display the comprehensive test performance.
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### Autorzy i Afiliacje

Huijun Yue
1
Xiangkai Wu
1
Zhaoyao Shi
1
Yue Zhang
1
Yong Ye
1
Lintao Zhang
1
Ying Fu
1

1. Beijing University of Technology, Beijing Engineering Research Center of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, 100, Ping Le Yuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100124, China
Słowa kluczowe:

### Abstrakt

Ventilation rate is a physical index that is strictly controlled during cigarette manufacturing because an abnormal ventilation rate can affect the release of mainstream smoke, tar, and other components harmful to human health. Therefore, the standard rod is used for measuring the ventilation rate, which necessitates accurate and effective periodic inspections. In this study, we designed and built a set of special tobacco ventilation rate standard rods to assess the standard device during its verification period and used a digital thermal flowmeter as the flow standard.We determined the micro-pressure adjustment interval through fluid simulation, and conducted an experimental verification based on the simulation results. At the adjustment point where the differential pressure value was 0 Pa, the period verification device was tested under the standard values of 27.38%, 58.83%, and 71.95%. The results show that the measurement errors of the device are –0.42%, 0.55%, and –0.13% respectively, which all meet the verification regulation requirements and indicate that the device is applicable in practical situations.
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### Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jiacheng Hu
1
Ying Sha
1
Jinhui Cai
1
Ying Liu
2
Suijun Liu
2

1. China Jiliang University, NO.258 XueYuan Street, Hangzhou, China
2. Nanyang Cigarette Factory of Henan China Tobacco Industry, No. 6 Xinhua East Road, Nanyang, China

### Instrukcja dla autorów

Sample article with Author guidelines

Author guidelines

Types of contributions

Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:

• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation

General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).

The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.

Figures
Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.

Equation
All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).

References
The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.

 Journal Publisher ISSN IOP Publishing 0026-1394 IEEE 0018-9456 Elsevier 0263-2241 IOP Publishing 0957-0233 Metrology and Measurement Systems PAS 0860-8229 IOP Publishing 0034-6748 IEEE 1557-9948 IET 1751-8822 SISSA, IOP Publishing 1748-0221 Walter de Gruyter 1335-8871 IEEE 1094-6969 PAS 2300-1917 PAS 1896-3757 IEEE 1558-1748 MDPI 1424-8220

References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License ( CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.

Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: metrology@wat.edu.pl. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.