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Opto-Electronics Review

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Opto-Electronics Review | 2022 | 30 | 2 |

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Abstract

The review exposes basic concepts and manifestations of the singular and structured light fields. The presentation is based on deep intrinsic relations between the singularities and the rotational phenomena in light; it involves essentially the dynamical aspects of light fields and their interactions with matter. Due to their topological nature, the singularities of each separate parameter (phase, polarization, energy flow, etc.) form coherent interrelated systems (singular networks), and the meaningful interconnections between the different singular networks are analysed. The main features of singular-light structures are introduced via generic examples of the optical vortex and circular vortex beams. The review describes approaches for generation and diagnostics of different singular networks and underlines the role of singularities in formation of optical field structures. The mechanical action of structured light fields on material objects is discussed on the base of the spin-orbital (canonical) decomposition of electromagnetic momentum, expressing the special roles of the spin (polarization) and spatial degrees of freedom. Experimental demonstrations spectacularly characterize the topological nature and the immanent rotational features of the light-field singularities. The review is based on the results obtained by its authors with a special attention to relevant works of other researchers.
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Authors and Affiliations

Oleg V. Angelsky
1 2
Aleksandr Ya. Bekshaev
3
Igor I. Mokhun
2
Mikhail V. Vasnetsov
4
Claudia Yu. Zenkova
1 2
Steen G. Hanson
5
Jun Zheng
1

  1. Taizhou Research Institute of Zhejiang University, Taizhou, China
  2. Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine
  3. Physics Research Institute, Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University, Odessa, Ukraine
  4. Department of Optical Quantum Electronics, Institute of Physics of the NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  5. DTU Fotonik, Department of Photonics Engineering, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark
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Abstract

An indoor localization system is proposed based on visible light communications, received signal strength, and machine learning algorithms. To acquire an accurate localization system, first, a dataset is collected. The dataset is then used with various machine learning algorithms for training purpose. Several evaluation metrics are used to estimate the robustness of the proposed system. Specifically, authors’ evaluation parameters are based on training time, testing time, classification accuracy, area under curve, F1-score, precision, recall, logloss, and specificity. It turned out that the proposed system is featured with high accuracy. The authors are able to achieve 99.5% for area under curve, 99.4% for classification accuracy, precision, F1, and recall. The logloss and precision are 4% and 99.7%, respectively. Moreover, root mean square error is used as an additional performance evaluation averaged to 0.136 cm.
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Authors and Affiliations

Alzahraa M. Ghonim
1
Wessam M. Salama
2
Ashraf A. M. Khalaf
1
Hossam M. H. Shalaby
3 4

  1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Minia 61111, Egypt
  2. Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Engineering, Pharos University, Alexandria, Egypt
  3. Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21544, Egypt
  4. Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST), Alexandria 21934, Egypt
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Abstract

The paper presents noise measurements in low-resistance photodetectors using a cross-correlation-based transimpedance amplifier. Such measurements usually apply a transimpedance amplifier design to provide a current fluctuation amplification. In the case of low-resistance sources, the measurement system causes additional relevant system noise which can be higher than noise generated in a tested detector. It mainly comes from the equivalent input voltage noise of the transimpedance amplifier. In this work, the unique circuit and a three-step procedure were used to reduce the floor noise, covering the measured infrared detector noise, mainly when operating with no-bias or low-bias voltage. The modified circuit and procedure to measure the noise of unbiased and biased detectors characterized by resistances much lower than 100 Ω were presented. Under low biases, the reference low-resistance resistors tested the measurement system operation and techniques. After the system verification, noise characteristics in low-resistance InAs and InAsSb infrared detectors were also measured.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Achtenberg 
1
ORCID: ORCID
Janusz Mikołajczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zbigniew Bielecki
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego St., 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

External light outcoupling structures provide a cost-effective and highly efficient solution for light extraction in organic light-emitting diodes. Among them, different microtextures, mainly optimized for devices with isotopically oriented emission dipoles, have been proposed as an efficient light extraction solution. In the paper, the outcoupling for a preferential orientation of emission dipoles is studied for the case of a red bottom-emitting organic light-emitting diode. Optical simulations are used to analyse the preferential orientation of dipoles in combination with three different textures, namely hexagonal array of sine-textures, three-sided pyramids, and random pyramids. It is shown that while there are minimal differences between the optimized textures, the highest external quantum efficiency of 51% is predicted by using the three-sided pyramid texture. Further improvements, by employing highly oriented dipole sources, are examined. In this case, the results show that the top outcoupling efficiencies can be achieved with the same texture shape and size, regardless of the preferred orientation of the emission dipoles. Using an optimized three-sided pyramid in combination with ideally parallel oriented dipoles, an efficiency of 62% is achievable. A detailed analysis of the optical situation inside the glass substrate, dominating external light outcoupling, is presented. Depicted results and their analysis offer a simplified further research and development of external light extraction for organic light-emitting devices with highly oriented dipole emission sources.
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Authors and Affiliations

Milan Kovačič
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Tržaška cesta 25, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Abstract

A theoretical analysis of the mid-wavelength infrared range detectors based on the HgCdTe materials for high operating temperatures is presented. Numerical calculations were compared with the experimental data for HgCdTe heterostructures grown by the MOCVD on the GaAs substrates. Theoretical modelling was performed by the commercial platform SimuAPSYS (Crosslight). SimuAPSYS fully supports numerical simulations and helps understand the mechanisms occurring in the detector structures. Theoretical estimates were compared with the dark current density experimental data at the selected characteristic temperatures: 230 K and 300 K. The proper agreement between theoretical and experimental data was reached by changing Auger-1 and Auger-7 recombination rates and Shockley-Read-Hall carrier lifetime. The level of the match was confirmed by a theoretical evaluation of the current responsivity and zero-bias dynamic resistance area product (R0A) of the tested detectors.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tetiana Manyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jarosław Rutkowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Madejczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Waldemar Gawron
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Martyniuk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 2. Kaliskiego St., 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
  2. VIGO System S.A., 129/133 Poznańska St., 05-850 Ożarów Mazowiecki, Poland
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Abstract

In this study, the copper doping effect on the NiAl structural stability, strength, and electronic structure was investigated. The samples were prepared using induction melting at 2073 K. This material presents good mechanical and physical properties such as high-temperature strength, fatigue or impact, and corrosion resistance which meet technical requirements of many applications. The microstructure of the Cu-doped nickel aluminide was studied using a metallurgical microscope and its lattice parameter was also studied and characterized using an X-ray diffractometer for different concentrations of Cu. The lattice constant of the existing phases was calculated, and it was found that the lattice distortion and gamma prime phase energy have high values allowing the increase of the entropy term of the alloy and subsequently increasing its hardness. From the ab-initio calculation, it was determined that the Cu atoms have the Al sites as a preferred site and prefer to bond with Ni atoms which leads to the improvement of the material hardness. Ab-initio density functional theory was applied to study the formation energy that revealed increasing with Cu amount.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zakaryaa Zarhri
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. CONACYT-Tecnológico Nacional de México/I.T. Chetumal; Insurgentes 330, C.P. 77013, Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico

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