Applied sciences

Opto-Electronics Review


Opto-Electronics Review | 2019 | vol. 27 | No 4 |

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In the paper, an extended analysis of the polarization properties of a liquid crystal cell with a biconically tapered single-mode telecommunication optical fiber was presented. These properties are a result of a sample geometry and used LC materials. They were analyzed by using two theoretical models based on the matrix decomposition methods, i.e., polar and singular-value one. By measuring Mueller matrices, information about losses, depolarization, dichroism and birefringence was obtained. In the experiment two types of tested samples filled with well-known 6CHBT and E7 liquid crystals were prepared and all optical parameters were shown as the voltage dependence. The tested samples have dichroic properties and for both models calculated PDL is similar and it increases from 2.6 to 6.6 dB for E7 and from 0.4 to 2.7 dB for 6CHBT with voltage changes within the range of 40 – 190 V. Optical losses simultaneously decrease from 30 dB to 27 dB and from 36 dB to 28 dB, respectively. The birefringence properties cannot be directly comparable due to differences between both applied models but voltage fluctuations of these parameters are not significant. These results confirm expected dichroic properties of designed device and complete knowledge about its working principles. Moreover, presented analysis validates usefulness of the singular-value decomposition model applied to dichroic optical fiber elements.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Marć
K. Stasiewicz
J. Korec
L.R. Jaroszewicz
P. Kula
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We investigate the light-current-voltage characteristics and emission spectra of 2.3 THz quantum cascade laser operating in the negative differential resistance (NDR) region. It was shown that the formation of electric field domains (EFDs) leads to a large number of discontinuities on the current-voltage and the total optical power on current characteristics. Measurements of emission spectra at different current (before the NDR region and in the NDR region) shows that the formation of EFDs results in decrease of the output intensity, but does not influence on Fabry-Perot multi-mode structure of THz QCL. The developed theoretical model predicts the formation of EFDs in the NDR region and qualitatively explain the experimental results.

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Authors and Affiliations

R.A. Khabibullin
N.V. Shchavruk
D.S. Ponomarev
D.V. Ushakov
A.A. Afonenko
K.V. Maremyanin
O.Yu. Volkov
V.V. Pavlovskiy
A.A. Dubinov
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Different anchoring groups such as thiophene-2-acetic and malonic acid were investigated for synthesis of new photosensitizers. The new dyes (photosensitizers) were made pure and determined by various analytical techniques. The chemical structure of synthesized materials was certified by analytical studies. UV-Visible and fluorescence spectra revealed intense fluorescence and absorption for organic photosensitizers. The cyclic voltammetry results showed that the two photosensitizers were suitable for dye sensitized solar cell preparation. The work electrode was gathered using tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles in dye-sensitized solar cells structure. The new photosensitizers and tin (IV) oxide were used for photovoltaic devices preparation. The power conversion efficiency was obtained as about 4.12 and 4.29% for Dye 1 and Dye 2, respectively.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Movahedi
H. Haratizadeh
N. Falah
M. Hosseinnezhad
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The molecular dynamics of the well-known nematic liquid crystal 4-n-pentyl-4′-cyanobiphenyl geometrically restricted in Anopore and Synpor porous membranes with various pore structure and treated by different surfactants (namely decanoic acid and lecithin) is compared. In the Anopore membrane the chosen surfactants induce the homeotropic orientation of the molecules on the walls of the cylindrical pores and observed corresponding relaxation processes (librational modes) are practically the same. The dielectric measurements of lecithin treated Synpor membranes reveals the reorientation of the molecules from planar to homeotropic on the complex multilayer structure present in their volume. The dielectric strengths of the observed two molecular processes (δ-process and librational mode) are inversed in the ratio compared to the untreated membranes. The observed differences in molecular dynamics results from the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules in untreated and treated membranes and the structure of the membranes themselves.

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Authors and Affiliations

S.A. Różański
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In this work we propose and analyze the possibility of creating terahertz plasmon-emitting graphene-channel transistor. It is shown that at electric pumping the damping of the terahertz plasmons can give way to their amplification, when the real part of the dynamic conductivity of graphene becomes negative in the terahertz range of frequencies due to the interband population inversion.

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Authors and Affiliations

A.A. Dubinov
V.Ya. Aleshkin
S.V. Morozov
V. Ryzhii
T. Otsuji
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In this paper, of primary interest is to synthesis 8-(1H-indol-3-ylazo)-naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (INSA) and to evaluate the main parameters of Au/INSA/n-Si/Al diode in dark and under illumination. Different techniques are used for interpreting the proposed INSA chemical structure. The dark current-voltage measurements were achieved in the temperature range of 293−413 K. It is noticed that INSA films modify the interfacial barrier height of classical Au/n-Si junction. At low applied voltages, the I–V relation shows exponential behavior. The values ideality factor, n, and the barrier height, φ, are improved by heating. The abnormal trend of n and φ is discussed, and a homogenous barrier height of 1.45 eV is evaluated. The series resistance is also calculated using Norde's function and it changes inversely with temperature. The space charge limited current ruled with exponential trap distribution dominates at relatively high potentials, trap concentration and carriers mobility are extracted. The reverse current of the diode has illumination intensity dependence with a good photosensitivity indicating that the device is promising for photodiode applications.

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Authors and Affiliations

I.T. Zedan
E.M. El-Menyawy
H.H. Nawar
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In literature, it is known that a Light Emitting Diode (LED) could be used as a light sensor. It is also known that its emitted light spectrum and sensitivity spectrum can be partially overlapped. This work presents how commercial LEDs can be used as light emitters and simultaneously as sensors of the reflected portion of the light emitted by themselves. The realized devices present a unique characteristic: the transmitter and the receiver coincide spatially as they are the same device. This ensures the perfect overlapping between transmission and reception radiation lobes that could provide many benefits in several applications like as distance measurements or image sensors. Some simple electronic configurations that use LEDs as detectors of their own emitted light are presented. It has been also demonstrated how these LEDsTx-Rx can work as image sensors by acquiring an image of a simple test object, and how they can realize distance sensors with respect to other known techniques. Further advantages can be obtained by realizing LEDTx-Rx array in single integrated devices. With the realization of such devices, it will be also possible to experiment new constructive solutions for commonly used applications, without the need of using separate emitter and receiver.

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Authors and Affiliations

E. Vannacci
S. Granchi
M. Calzolai
E. Biagi
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This paper comprehensively presents key issues in design of an original optoelectronic measurement device built to assess amount of suspended particulate matter. The paper is introduced with a short explanation of concerns with a suspended particulate matter, what role it has in the air quality and how it affects health of human population. Then, problems of construction of the measurement device supported by a theoretical explanation on the basis of Mie theory are discussed. Subsequently, it is followed by an analysis of the device operation both in laboratory and in real conditions. Results obtained with the presented device are compared with the professional measurement equipment and an expensive, outdoor measurement station. Paper is concluded with observations of differences in spatio-temporal PM change at very close but significantly different city locations.

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Authors and Affiliations

L. Makowski
B. Dziadak
M. Suproniuk
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Two highly sensitive optical sensor topologies are proposed and simulated in this paper. The proposed structures are optimized to provide better performance characteristics such as sensitivity, detection limit, and quality factor. They are based on two-dimensional photonic crystals consisting of rectangular arrays of GaAs rods in SiO2 substrates. Such lattices have bandgaps for transverse magnetic modes. Two-dimensional finite difference time domain and plane wave expansion methods are used for the simulation and analysis of the refractive index sensors and particle swarm optimization method is used to optimize the structural parameters. The designed structures show a high sensitivity to refractive index variations. They are able to detect refractive indices from 1.33 to 1.5. An excellent figure of merit equal to 737 RIU−1 is observed for the proposed structure and a significant improvement is observed compared to the structures reported in the literature.

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Authors and Affiliations

F. Rahman-Zadeh
M. Danaie
H. Kaatuzian
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This paper presents a critical analysis of a current typical method to measure sensitivity of solar blind ultraviolet cameras using a high temperature blackbody as a calibrated source of ultraviolet light. It has been shown that measurement of sensitivity of solar-blind ultraviolet (SBUV) cameras defined as minimal detectable blackbody irradiance at optics plane of the tested SBUV camera generates inflated, misleading and prone to measurement errors' results that should not be used for evaluation of SBUV cameras' performance.

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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Chrzanowski
W. Chrzanowski

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Additional info

Opto-Electronics Review was established in 1992 for the publication of scientific papers concerning optoelectronics and photonics materials, system and signal processing. This journal covers the whole field of theory, experimental verification, techniques and instrumentation and brings together, within one journal, contributions from a wide range of disciplines. Papers covering novel topics extending the frontiers in optoelectronics and photonics are very encouraged. The main goal of this magazine is promotion of papers presented by European scientific teams, especially those submitted by important team from Central and Eastern Europe. However, contributions from other parts of the world are by no means excluded.

Articles are published in OPELRE in the following categories:

-invited reviews presenting the current state of the knowledge,

-specialized topics at the forefront of optoelectronics and photonics and their applications,

-refereed research contributions reporting on original scientific or technological achievements,

-conference papers printed in normal issues as invited or contributed papers.

Authors of review papers are encouraged to write articles of relevance to a wide readership including both those established in this field of research and non-specialists working in related areas. Papers considered as “letters” are not published in OPELRE.

Opto-Electronics Review is published quarterly as a journal of the Association of Polish Electrical Engineers (SEP) and Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS) in cooperation with the Military University of Technology and under the auspices of the Polish Optoelectronics Committee of SEP.

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