Applied sciences

Opto-Electronics Review

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Opto-Electronics Review | 2022 | 30 | 3

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Abstract

An imaging polarimeter based on the principles of high-accuracy polarimetry well known in crystal optics is proposed. The application of scientific digital cameras for performance light measurements leads to precise data on polarizers quality, i.e., maps of extinction ratio and transmission axis. Processing of numerous images, acquired at various settings in the polarizer-sample-analyser system, allows to determine the two-dimensional distribution of the phase retardation of birefringent plates. Several results of imaging polarimetry experiments on birefringent plates demonstrate the impact of multiple light reflections on the measured phase retardation values. Experimental data for LiNbO 3 and SiO 2 crystal plates have been presented, demonstrating the capabilities of the proposed type of imaging polarimeter in the crystal optics studies. This technique also allows the measurement of the eigen wave ellipticities, associated with the optical activity of crystals.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mykola Shopa
1
ORCID: ORCID
Serhiy Kobyakov
2
ORCID: ORCID
Yaroslav Shopa
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 Gabriela Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
  2. Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw, 5 Dewajtis St., 01-815 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The explosive rise of wireless services necessitates a network connection with high bandwidth, high performance, low mistakes, and adequate channel capacity. Individual mobile users, as well as residential and business clusters are increasingly using the internet and multimedia services, resulting in massive increases in the internet traffic demand. Over the past decade, internet traffic has grown significantly faster than Moore’s law predicted. The current system is facing significant radio frequency spectrum congestion and is unable to successfully transmit growing amounts of (available) data to end users while keeping acceptable delay values in mind. Free space optics is a viable alternative to the current radio frequency technology. This technology has a few advantages, including fast data speeds, unrestricted bandwidth, and excellent security. Since free space optics is invisible to traffic type and data protocol, it may be quickly reliably and profitably integrated into an existing access network. Despite the undeniable benefits of free space optics technology under excellent channel conditions and its wide range of applications, its broad use is hampered by its low link dependability, especially over long distances, caused by atmospheric turbulence-induced decay and weather sensitivity. The best plausible solution is to establish a secondary channel link in the GHz frequency range that works in tandem with the primary free space optics link. A hybrid system that combines free space optics and millimeter wave technologies in this research is presented. The combined system offers a definitive backhaul maintenance, by drastically improving the link range and service availability.
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Authors and Affiliations

Isanaka Lakshmi Priya
1
ORCID: ORCID
Murugappa Meenakshi
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication, Anna University, Guindy, Chennai 600025, India
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Abstract

The solid dielectrics used in the capacitors exhibit rather high-frequency relaxations. This means that in the radio-frequency range, the capacitors exhibit a constant capacity. When a liquid crystal is put into the capacitors, it is observed that in the radio-frequency range the capacity changes (decreases with frequency). This is due to the fact that liquid crystals exhibit relaxation in the radio-frequency range. In this paper, the formulas for the electric response of a low-frequency RC filter with liquid crystal characterized by complex electric permittivity are derived. One Debye-type relaxation is assumed in the calculations. The influence of strengths and relaxation time (frequency) of relaxation mode in liquid crystal on the electric response of low-frequency filters is discussed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł J. Perkowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 2 gen. Kaliskiego St., 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing has been widely used in many radio frequency wireless communication standards as a preferable multicarrier modulation scheme. The modulated signals of a conventional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system are complex and bipolar. In intensity-modulated direct detection optical wireless communications, transmitted signals should be real and unipolar due to non-coherent emissions of an optical light emitting diode. In this paper, different hybrid optical systems have been proposed to satisfy real and unipolar signals. Peak-to-average power ratio is one of the biggest challenges for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communications. They are based on a combination of non-linear companding techniques with spreading or precoding techniques. Simulation evaluation is performed under direct current-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, and Flip-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems in terms of peak-to-average power ratio, bit error rate, and spectral efficiency. The proposed schemes are investigated to determine a scheme with a low peak-to-average power ratio and an acceptable bit error rate. MATLABTM software has been successfully used to show the validity of the proposed schemes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohamed Y. El-Ganiny
1
Ashraf A. M. Khalaf
2
Aziza I. Hussein
3
Hesham F. A. Hamed
4

  1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Higher Technological Institute, 10th of Ramadan City, Sharqia, Egypt
  2. Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Minia 61519, Egypt
  3. Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Effat University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  4. Department of Telecommunications Engineering, Egyptian Russian University, Badr City, Egypt

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Opto-Electronics Review was established in 1992 for the publication of scientific papers concerning optoelectronics and photonics materials, system and signal processing. This journal covers the whole field of theory, experimental verification, techniques and instrumentation and brings together, within one journal, contributions from a wide range of disciplines. Papers covering novel topics extending the frontiers in optoelectronics and photonics are very encouraged. The main goal of this magazine is promotion of papers presented by European scientific teams, especially those submitted by important team from Central and Eastern Europe. However, contributions from other parts of the world are by no means excluded.

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