Given the significance of teacher characteristics in student motivation for class attendance, the present paper aimed to investigate the roles of teacher success, credibility, and stroke in students’ Willingness to Attend Classes (WTAC). To this aim, a total number of 276 undergraduate students majoring in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) and English Language and Literature completed four scales: Characteristics of Successful EFL Teachers Questionnaire (Moafian & Pishghadam, 2008), Teacher Credibility Scale (McCroskey & Teven, 1999), Student Stroke Scale (Pishghadam & Khajavi, 2014), and WTAC Scale (Rajabnejad, Pishghadam, & Saboori, 2017). For data analysis, Pearson multiple correlation coefficients and path analysis were employed. The results of correlational analyses revealed a significantly positive correlation, first, between teacher success and students’ WTAC, secondly, between teacher credibility and students’ WTAC, and thirdly, between teacher stroke and students’ WTAC. Furthermore, the results of path analysis indicated that students’ WTAC was significantly predicted by teacher success, credibility, and stroke. At the end, the results were discussed in light of previous findings, and potential conclusions were made in the EFL context accordingly.
AIMS: The primary goal of the presented research was to investigate the memory effects of implicit negation, conveyed using implicatures, as compared to explicit negation. We also speculated that implicit negation might require more cognitive effort.
METHODS: Three experiments were conducted (total N = 181), in which participants were presented with a description containing implicit or explicit negation, followed by a memory recognition test of items present, negated or not mentioned in the description. We manipulated the pace at which the description was presented (own pace vs. fixed) and whether participants were informed about the upcoming recognition test.
RESULTS: We found no differences between explicit and implicit negation in the number of false alarms to negated and not mentioned items, response times or time spent reading the source material. Bayesian analyses indicated a 90% probability that there were no differences in the number of false alarms between explicit and implicit negation.
CONCLUSIONS: Implicit and explicit negation lead to a similar quality of recognition, and seem to require a similar amount of time to process, indicating comparable cognitive effort.
Starting in the early years of education, math anxiety is negatively related to mathematic outcomes, therefore there is a need for its adequate measurement in young children. This study presents the psychometric properties of the modified Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale for Elementary Children (mAMAS-E) for first- to third-grade children based on mAMAS. The validity of mAMAS-E was determined by a series of tests. The analysis confirmed its two-factor structure (Testing and Learning), positive relationships between mAMAS-E and math, general, and test anxiety, and a negative relationship with mathematical achievement. Children with a high level of math self-esteem and math self-confidence (but not Polish language self-esteem and self-confidence) have lower math anxiety in comparison to those with a moderate level. The results also indicate that girls have a higher level of math anxiety than boys. The validity and internal consistency of mAMAS-E are satisfactory; therefore, mAMAS-E may be a recommendable questionnaire for measuring math anxiety in young children.
In-group identification is necessary for in-group members to take responsibility for the past transgressions of the in-group. However, even among high identifiers, the reactions to reminders of the in-group’s transgression may differ depending on the beliefs members hold about their in-group. Results of a cross-sectional study (N = 441), indicate that collective narcissism (i.e., a belief that the in-group’s importance is not sufficiently recognized by others) versus in-group satisfaction (i.e., a belief that the in-group is of high value and a reason to be proud of) have opposite unique associations with the evaluation of the artistic value of films referring to Polish involvement in pogroms during the Second World War (Ida and The Aftermath, a proxy of an attitude towards knowledge about past national transgressions). Collective narcissism predicted lower, whereas in-group satisfaction predicted higher, perceived artistic value of the films. Those unique relationships could only be observed when the positive association between collective narcissism and in-group satisfaction was partialled out.
The aim of the paper was to analyse relations between power in professional work and in close sexual relationships. Power in professional work was analysed with respect to the managerial position, the number of subordinates and salary. Power in close sexual relationships was determined on the basis of a sense of reinforcement of power as a sexual motivation, a propensity for sexual domination, the sense of power in relations with a partner in a close relationship, sexual assertiveness, realization of one’s own sexual phantasies and inclination to initiate sexual activity. The research was carried out on a group of 205 participants in which 100 of respondents occupied managerial positions at work and 105 were subordinates. The following tools were used: the Sense of Power Scale (Anderson, John, & Keltner, 2012), the Multidimensional Sexuality Questionnaire (Snell, Fisher, & Walters, 1993), the AMORE scale (Hill & Preston, 1996), the Need for Power and Influence Questionnaire (Bennett, 1988) and a data sheet. The results showed that power in the workplace was correlated a more frequent initiation of sexual activity, greater assertiveness in sexual matters, more frequent realisation of one’s own phantasies and an increased propensity for sexual domination.
Job crafting is an employees activity aimed to change and improve own work which serves to find the meaning in job. Activities related to job crafting usually occur beyond the superiors’ knowledge so the feeling of autonomy of a worker may hinder or encourage them to craft job. The study aimed to determine the correlations between organizational rank and job crafting with respect to a mediating role of autonomy and organizational tenure as a moderator. Study 1 (N = 102) showed that people having managerial positions undertake task crafting more often than non-managers. Managers and non-managers are no different with regards to cognitive and relational crafting. Autonomy mediated the relationship between organizational rank and task crafting. Most of the results in study 2 (N = 99) was a replication of the results of study 1. The differences are probably related to a various length of organizational tenure for a current organization. The results of the presented studies indicate the role of autonomy in undertaking job crafting, what is being discussed in the literature worldwide and Polish studies.
We aimed to investigate whether educational activities in the form of guided tours through an exhibition change the appreciation of art when young experts (i.e. first-years students of artistic faculties) view contemporary art in a gallery. Participants viewed and assessed the artworks presented at the gallery twice – before and after taking part in a guided tour led by a gallery educator. The guide-led tour increased both understanding and ratings (the hedonic value) of the artworks, which is consistent with the “effort after meaning” hypothesis and also with the model of aesthetic appreciation and aesthetic judgments. Our results suggest that the reception of works of art by young experts is changed when they are under the influence of extensive contextual information.
This study examined the relationship between gender role conflict and attitude towards psychological help-seeking. This study involved 120 university students from a university. Gender Role Conflict Scale was used to measure gender role conflict and Attitude towards Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale-Short Form was used to measure attitude towards psychological help-seeking. The results found there is a significant negative relationship between gender role conflict and attitude towards seeking psychological help. The results suggest that it is essential for mental health professionals to recognise the impact of gender roles on the counselling process.
Previous research showed that children can exhibit preferences for social categories already at preschool age. One of the crucial factors in the development of children’s attitudes toward others is children’s observation and imitation of adults’ nonverbal messages. The aim of our study is to examine whether children’s tendency to perceive and follow nonverbally expressed attitudes toward other people is related to ingroup bias, i.e. the tendency to favor one’s own group over other groups. We examined 175 preschool children (age in months: 61–87; M = 72.6, SD = 6.53) presenting them with a video of a conversation between a message sender and a message recipient. The study was conducted in a minimal group paradigm. We found that children accurately identified the message sender’s attitude toward the recipient and also generalized this attitude to other members of the new group. We also found explicit ingroup bias among children from the message sender’s group. However, no generalization of the sender’s attitude to other ingroup members was found. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the role of imitation of adult’s non-verbal behavior for the development of social attitudes among children.
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