Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

Content

Polish Polar Research | 2021 | vol. 42 | No 1 |

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Abstract

The South Sandwich Trench located eastward of the Drake Passage in the Scotia Sea between Antarctica and South America is one of the least studied deep-sea trenches. Its geomorphological formation and present shape formed under the strong influence of the tectonic plate movements and various aspects of the geological setting, i.e., sediment thickness, faults, fracture zones and geologic lineaments. The aim of this paper is to link the geological and geophysical setting of the Scotia Sea with individual geomorphological features of the South Sandwich Trench in the context of the phenomena of its formation and evolution. Linking several datasets (GEBCO, ETOPO1, EGM96, GlobSed and marine freeair gravity raster grids, geological vector layers) highlights correlations between various factors affecting deep-sea trench formation and development, using the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) for cartographic mapping. The paper contributes to the regional studies of the submarine geomorphology in the Antarctic region with a technical application of the GMT cartographic scripting toolset.
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Authors and Affiliations

Polina Lemenkova
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences. Bolshaya Gruzinskaya St, 10, Bld. 1, Moscow, 123995, Russian Federation
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Abstract

The chemical composition of recent sediments of the Vygozero Reservoir, located in the North of Europe, in the Republic of Karelia (the catchment of Arctic Ocean), has been analysed. The level of enrichment and depletion of chemical elements, including trace elements, of the sediments relative to the Clarke numbers for the continental crust has been estimated. Elevated levels of Sb, Pb, Sn, Bi, W, Cu, and other elements in the sediments of the Vygozero Reservoir have been revealed in comparison with the concentrations of these elements in the background layers of the reservoir's sediments and their content in the sediments of small lakes of the south of the Republic of Karelia. It has been established that the main factor in the accumulation of these metals in the lake is the long-distance transport of pollutants from local anthropogenic sources located in Karelia, and from sources in neighbouring regions. In the vicinity of the town of Segezha, elevated V and Ni contents were revealed in the cores of the studied sediments, which indicates the impact on the reservoir of emissions from the fuel-oil thermal power plant. Based on the calculation of the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI), the level of pollution of the Vygozero Reservoir in the study areas was estimated. It was found that the northern part of the waterbody, where the settlements Segezha and Nadvoitsy and industrial enterprises associated with these towns are located, are subject to the greatest load.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zakhar Slukovskii
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Natalia Belkina
3
Maxim Potakhin
3

  1. Institute of the North Industrial Ecology Problems of Kola Science Center of RAS, 14a Academgorodok Street, Apatity, 184209, Russia
  2. Institute of Geology of Karelian Research Centre of RAS, 11, Pushkinskaya Street, Petrozavodsk, 185910, Russia
  3. Northern Water Problems Institute of Karelian Research Centre of RAS, 50, Alexander Nevsky Prospect, Petrozavodsk, 185030, Russia
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Abstract

This study investigated the details of the morphological and anatomical structure of the generative organs of the Subantarctic flowering plant, belonging to the family Caryophyllaceae - Colobanthus apetalus (Labill.) Druce. The research material was collected in hostile natural conditions in Subantarctic regions, and also was grown in the incubators and the greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland). C. apetalus forms tufts with soft and grassy leaves and small greenish flowers that are more obvious than in other Colobanthus species. C. apetalus forms open (chasmogamic) flowers in greenhouse cultivation. The flowers most often form five stamens with two microsporangia. Over a dozen pollen grains are formed in each microsporangium. Studies of the plant material originated from natural conditions conducted by means of a light microscope, have shown that the ovules of the analyzed representative of the genus Colobanthus are anatropous, crassinucellar, and the monosporic embryo sac develops according to the Polygonum type (the most common type in angiosperms). C. apetalus plants underwent a full development cycle in greenhouse cultivation and produced fertile, perispermic seeds. During the C. apetalus growth in conditions at increased air humidity, the vivipary was also observed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sylwia Milarska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Androsiuk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Irena Giełwanowska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Plant Physiology, Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
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Abstract

Interpersonal interaction performance is significantly determined by group members’ personality traits. If a group lives in long-term isolation, the influence of personality traits on interpersonal interaction performance will be even stronger. The current study identified and examined the impact of the personality traits of the personnel living at the Ukrainian Antarctic Akademik Vernadsky station (N = 35) on their interpersonal interactions during long-term Antarctic expeditions. The results show that expeditioners’ personality traits significantly determined their interpersonal interactions. However, the influence of personality traits on different areas of interactions can vary significantly among different groups of expeditioners, even sometimes in diametrically opposite directions. The main reason for this is a formed microclimate specific to each group and corresponding group norms for formal and informal relations due to significant differences in personality traits that are characteristic of different groups’ participants. We determined that eleven indicators, out of a total of 23 examined personality traits, significantly differed among expeditioners from different groups (different expeditions). The study results can be used to enable better psychological selection of Antarctic expedition participants and to provide psychological support for these individuals.
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Authors and Affiliations

Oleg Kokun
1
ORCID: ORCID
Larysa Bakhmutova
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Directorate, G.S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine
  2. Scientific and organizational department, National Antarctic Scientific Center of Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Ukraine

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