Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

Content

Polish Polar Research | 1990 | vol. 11 | No 1-2 |

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Abstract

Based on the results of CTD measurements (in situ) made during r/v „Oceania" cruises in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas in 1986—1988 selected aspects of termohaline structure and water dynamics of chosen regions of the seas were described. Examples of space-time variations of temperature and salinity fields were presented and water masses geostrophic transport on the limits of the Norwegian Sea (upon the Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea) was estimated.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Jankowski
Sławomir Swerpel
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Abstract

Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production in some Arctic soils were measured in different thermic and humidity conditions. Testing temperatures was following: 4, 8 and 12°C. The rate of metabolic processes was temperature and humidity dependent. In the temperature of 4°C the metabolic processes intensity was negatively correlated with humidity, however in higher temperatures the higher was the humidity the higher was also the intensity of metabolic processes. The interaction of humidity and temperature is probably to great extent responsible for low rate of decomposition processes of organic matter in polar conditions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zofia Fischer
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Abstract

Studies on the thermics, humidity and refreezing rate of two types of periglacial soils of the marine lowlands of the Hornsund area (SW Spitsbergen) were carried out during spring ablation of the snow cover (1.06.—30.06.1987). Structural soil and peat soil (moss community) were chosen. The soils were studied in places almost completely devoid of the snow cover. A considerable differentiation of temperature in vertical profile and of humidity of surface layer in both soils were found. The dynamics of ground water table and the course and depth of spring refreezing of both soils were also different. The differences reflect the different origin of soils and consequently, their different grain-size distribution, physical properties and morphology of both types of soils as well as their water balance.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Angiel
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Abstract

The annual rate of decomposition in five soil types of tundra situated in the Fugleberget drainage area (Hornsund Fjord, South Spitsbergen) was investigated by use of the method of standard cellulose samples. The rate of decomposition varied from 15% to over 65% a year and was closely connected with a contents of nitrogen in soil, amount of which varied from 0.33% to 3.44%. The results presently obtained are much higher than those obtained by the same method in other polar regions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Bieńkowski
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Abstract

This paper contains the results of phytosociological studies carried out on the model fragment of Spitsbergen tundra at Bellsund. In the area of 4800 m2 19 plant communities have been distinguished through association analysis and these communities, in turn, have been compared according to cluster analysis. Also, ecological groups of species have been distinguished.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ireneusz R. Moraczewski
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Abstract

The frequency of wind occurrence at sectors each 30° as well as mean air temperature at particular wind direction were accounted for the warmest and the coldest year of the investigation period 1978—1987 at Polish Antarctic „Arctowski" Station. The effect of orography on wind direction and air temperature was determined. A great rate of dependence of air temperature and wind direction upon atmospheric circulation type was found. High air temperature at the winds from 300° and 330° directions is related both to the kind of air mass and foehn phenomena.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Styszyńska
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Abstract

In the Admiralty Bay 36 taxa of macroalgae were found. Among them the most common were: green alga Monostroma hariotti, red algae — Georgiella confluens, Iridaea cordata, Leptosarca simplex and Plocamium cartilagineum, and brown algae — Adenocystis utricularis, Ascoseira mirabilis, Desmarestia anceps, D. ligulata, D. menziesii and Himatothallus grandifolius. The bottom surface covered with macroalgae (in the orthogonal projection on the water mirror) amounts to 36,9 km2 i.e. 31% of the total surface of the bay. In the central part of the Admiralty Bay the macroalgae aggregations occupy 35% of the bottom surface and are most abundant in respect to the density, biomass, number of taxa (33) and diversity. There were distinguished 3 zones of vertical distribution of phytobenthos in the Admiralty Bay. I zone includes the macroalgae in epilittoral, littoral and sublittoral to the depth of 10 m. II and III zones are situated in sublittoral within the depths of 10 60 m and 60—90 m, respectively. Each zone is characterized by the occurrence of different aggregation of taxa. The bottom areas belong to I, II and III zone of macroalgae make 28%, 64% and 8% respectively in relation to the total surface of phytobenthos in the bay. Vertical range of the distinguished zones varies in different parts of the Bay in relation to the bottom character. Macroalgae occur down to the depth of 90 —100 m. The composition of the macroalgae flora evidences for its transitory character between the benthic subantarctic flora and that of the areas adjacent to the Antarctic continent.

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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Zieliński
ORCID: ORCID
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Abstract

Schistidium urnulaceum (C. Muell.) B. G. Bell, a species hitherto known from the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia, is reported for the first time from King George Island, South Shetland Islands, in the Antarctic botanical zone. A description of the species together with illustrations, notes on habitat and a distribution map are provided. Taxonomic notes to assist in the identification of S. urnulaceum are also given.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ryszard Ochyra
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Abstract

The results of chemical and biological analyses of lake water samples, taken in the Bunger Hills during January—March 1987 by the participants of the 32-nd Soviet Antarctic Expedition from the new seasonal station „Oasis-2" (66°16'S and 110°45'E) are presented. It was discovered that the sea contributed considerably to the formation of intraoasis isolated reservoirs. The water of the epishelf lake — Transkripcii Bay — consists of two layers: upper freshwater (0,3—l,0‰) and lower salt water (19‰); the bottom water contains H2S. The phosphate concentration varied from 3—8 mg 1-1 in freshwater lakes to 37 mg 1-1 in Rybij Chvost Bay (Pass Cove), where the high concentration of chlorophyll „a" (up to 10 mg 1-1) was found.

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Authors and Affiliations

Valery Klokov
Enn Kaup
Rudolf Zierath
Dieter Haendel

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