Opis

Archives of Control Sciences welcomes for consideration papers on topics of significance in broadly understood control science and related areas, including: basic control theory, optimal control, optimization methods, control of complex systems, mathematical modeling of dynamic and control systems, expert and decision support systems and diverse methods of knowledge modelling and representing uncertainty (by stochastic, set-valued, fuzzy or rough set methods, etc.), robotics and flexible manufacturing systems. Related areas that are covered include information technology, parallel and distributed computations, neural networks and mathematical biomedicine, mathematical economics, applied game theory, financial engineering, business informatics and other similar fields.

Aims and Scope: Archives of Control Sciences publishes papers in the broadly understood field of control science and related areas while promoting the closer integration of the Polish, as well as other Central and East European scientific communities with the international world of science.

ISSN

ISSN 1230-2384

Wydawcy

Committee of Automatic Control and Robotics PAS

Słowa kluczowe:
discrete-time switched linear systems
L2 performance
average dwell time
controller state reset
linear matrix inequalities

This paper addresses weighted L2 gain performance switching controller design of discrete-time switched linear systems with average dwell time (ADT) scheme. Two kinds of methods, so called linearizing change-of-variables based method and controller variable elimination method, are considered for the output-feedback control with a supervisor enforcing a reset rule at each switching instant are considered respectively. Furthermore, some comparison between these two methods are also given.

Słowa kluczowe:
chos
hyperjerk system
multi-stable
control
synchronization
circuit design

Researchers have paid significant attention on hyperjerk systems, especial hyperjerk ones with chaos. A new hyperjerk system with seven terms and two parameters is analyzed. Chaotic attractors as well as coexisting attractors are displayed by the hyperjerk system. Thus it is a new multi-stable chaotic hyperjerk system. Further properties of the proposed hyperjerk system such as circuit design and backstepping-based control and synchronization are reported.

Słowa kluczowe:
generalized fractional controller
Smith predictor
time delay system
generalized inverse
Bode’s ideal transfer function

This paper proposes a generalized fractional controller for integer order systems with time delay. The fractional controller structure is so adopted to have a combined effect of fractional filter and Smith predictor. Interestingly, the resulting novel controller can be decomposed into fractional filter cascaded with an integer order PID controller. The method is applied to two practical examples i.e. liquid level system and Shell control fractionator system. The closed- loop responses resulting from the proposed method are compared with that of the available methods in the literature. For quantitative evaluations of the proposed method, Integral Absolute Error (IAE) and Integral Square Control Input (ISCI) performance criteria are employed. The proposed method effectively enhances the closed-loop response by improving the IAE values, reducing the control effort inputs to achieve the desired output. The disturbance rejection and robustness tests are also carried out. The robustness test reveals a significant improvement in the maximum absolute sensitivity measure. That is displayed in numerical simulations of the paper.

Słowa kluczowe:
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)
Genetic Algorithm (GA)
Global Path Planning (GPP)
Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO)
Sliding Mode Control (SMC)
waypoints

In global path planning (GPP), an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) tracks a predefined path. The main objective of GPP is to generate a collision free sub-optimal path with minimum path cost. The path is defined as a set of segments, passing through selected nodes known as waypoints. For smooth planar motion, the path cost is a function of the path length, the threat cost and the cost of diving. Path length is the total distance travelled from start to end point, threat cost is the penalty of collision with the obstacle and cost of diving is the energy expanse for diving deeper in ocean. This paper addresses the GPP problem for multiple AUVs in formation. Here, Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) algorithm is used to find the suboptimal path for multiple AUVs in formation. The results obtained are compared to the results of applying Genetic Algorithm (GA) to the same problem. GA concept is simple to understand, easy to implement and supports multi-objective optimization. It is robust to local minima and have wide applications in various fields of science, engineering and commerce. Hence, GA is used for this comparative study. The performance analysis is based on computational time, length of the path generated and the total path cost. The resultant path obtained using GWO is found to be better than GA in terms of path cost and processing time. Thus, GWO is used as the GPP algorithm for three AUVs in formation. The formation follows leader-follower topography. A sliding mode controller (SMC) is developed to minimize the tracking error based on local information while maintaining formation, as mild communication exists. The stability of the sliding surface is verified by Lyapunov stability analysis. With proper path planning, the path cost can be minimized as AUVs can reach their target in less time with less energy expanses. Thus, lower path cost leads to less expensive underwater missions.

Słowa kluczowe:
hand landmarks
tracking
fingertip detection
hand gesture
gesture recognition
HMI
HCI

The field of research of this paper combines Human Computer Interface, gesture recognition and fingertips tracking. Most gesture recognition algorithms processing color images are unable to locate folded fingers hidden inside hand contour. With use of hand landmarks detection and localization algorithm, processing directional images, the fingertips are tracked whether they are risen or folded inside the hand contour. The capabilities of the method, repeatibility and accuracy, are tested with use of 3 gestures that are recorded on the USB camera. Fingertips are tracked in gestures presenting a linear movement of an open hand, finger folding into fist and clenched fist movement. In conclusion, a discussion of accuracy in application to HCI is presented.

6
Motion control algorithm and tuning rules for mechanical devices with low sampling-rate electronics

Słowa kluczowe:
motion control
cascade control loops
discrete-time systems
stability
mechatronic systems

Controlling mechanical systems with position and velocity cascade loops is one of the most effective methods to operate this type of systems. However, when using low-rate sampling electronics, the implementation is not trivial and the resulting performance can be poor. This paper proposes effective tuning rules that only require establishing the bandwidth of the inner velocity loop and an estimation of the inertia of the mechanism. Since discrete-time mechatronic systems can also exhibit unstable behavior, several stability conditions are also derived. By using the proposed methodology, a P-PI control algorithm is developed for a desktop haptic device, obtaining good experimental performance with low sampling-rate electronics.

Słowa kluczowe:
constrained output systems
convergence analysis
iterative learning control
robot manipulators

Iterative Learning Control (ILC) is a well-known method for control of systems performing repetitive jobs with high precision. This paper presents Constrained Output ILC (COILC) for non-linear state space constrained systems. In the existing literature there is no general solution for applying ILC to such systems. This novel method is based on the Bounded Error Algorithm (BEA) and resolves the transient growth error problem, which is a major obstacle in applying ILC to non-linear systems. Another advantage of COILC is that this method can be applied to constrained output systems. Unlike other ILC methods the COILC method employs an algorithm that stops the iteration before the occurrence of a violation in any of the state space constraints. This way COILC resolves both the hard constraints in the non-linear state space and the transient growth problem. The convergence of the proposed numerical procedure is proved in this paper. The performance of the method is evaluated through a computer simulation and the obtained results are compared to the BEA method for controlling non-linear systems. The numerical experiments demonstrate that COILC is more computationally effective and provides better overall performance. The robustness and convergence of the method make it suitable for solving constrained state space problems of non-linear systems in robotics.

Słowa kluczowe:
KdV equation
Boussinesq equation
Frasca’s method
short time expansion
traveling wave
heuristic method
distributed control
constrained controllability

In this paper, we study the constrained exact and approximate controllability of traveling wave solutions of Korteweg-de Vries (third order) and Boussinesq (fourth order) semi-linear equations using the Green’s function approach. Control is carried out by a moving external source. Representing the general solution of those equations in terms of the Frasca’s short time expansion, system of constraints on the distributed control is derived for both types of controllability. Due to the possibility of explicit solution provided by the heuristic method, the controllability analysis becomes straightforward. Numerical analysis confirms theoretical derivations.

Editor-in-Chief prof. dr hab. inż. Andrzej Świerniak

**Deputy/ Managing Editor**

Zbigniew Ogonowski, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland

**Editorial Advisory Board**

Andrzej Bargiela, University of Nottingham, UK

Roman Barták, Charles University, Prague, Czech Rep.

Jacek Błażewicz, Poznań University of Technology, Poland

Reggie Davidrajuh, University of Stavanger, Norway

Andreas Deutsch, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany

Moritz Diehl, University of Freiburg, Germany

Władysław Findeisen, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Marcelo D.Fragoso, LNCC/MCT, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Avner Friedman, MBI Ohio State University, Columbus, USA

Alberto Gandolfi, IASI, Rome, Italy

Ryszard Gessing, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland

Henryk Górecki, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

David Greenhalgh, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK

Mats Gyllenberg, University of Helsinki, Finland

Wassim M. Haddad, Georigia University, Atlanta, USA

Raimo P. Hämäläinen, Aalto University School of Science, Finland

Alberto Isidori, Università di Roma "La Sapienza" Italia

Laszlo Kevicky, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary

Marek Kimmel, Rice University Houston, USA

Jerzy Klamka, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland

Józef Korbicz, University of Zielona Góra, Poland

Irena Lasiecka, University of Virginia, USA

Urszula Ledzewicz, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, USA

Magdi S Mahmoud, KFUM, Dahram, Saudi Arabia

Krzysztof Malinowski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Wojciech Mitkowski, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Bozenna Pasik-Duncan, University of Kansas, Lawrence, USA

Ian Postlethwaite, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK

Eric Rogers, University of Southampton, UK

Heinz Schaettler, Washington University, St Louis, USA

Ryszard Tadeusiewicz, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Jan Węglarz, Poznań University of Technology, Poland

Liu Yungang, Shandong University, PRC

Valery D. Yurkevich, Novosibirsk State Technical University, Russia

Institute of Automatic Control

Silesian University of Technology

Akademicka 16

44-101 Gliwice, Poland

acs@polsl.pl

http://acs.polsl.pl/

Each paper submitted is subject to a review procedure, and the publication decision is based on reviers' comments on the paper. To avoid delay, please prepare the manuscript carefully following the suggestions listed below.

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Papers should be sent to:

**Zbigniew Ogonowski**

Institute of Automatic Control

Silesian University of Technology

Akademicka 16

44-101 Gliwice, Poland