Nauki Techniczne

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Zawartość

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2012 | No 3 |

Abstrakt

In the last decade of the XX-th century, several academic centers have launched intensive research programs on the brain-computer interface (BCI). The current state of research allows to use certain properties of electromagnetic waves (brain activity) produced by brain neurons, measured using electroencephalographic techniques (EEG recording involves reading from electrodes attached to the scalp - the non-invasive method - or with electrodes implanted directly into the cerebral cortex - the invasive method). A BCI system reads the user's “intentions” by decoding certain features of the EEG signal. Those features are then classified and "translated" (on-line) into commands used to control a computer, prosthesis, wheelchair or other device. In this article, the authors try to show that the BCI is a typical example of a measurement and control unit.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Remigiusz J. Rak
Marcin Kołodziej
Andrzej Majkowski

Abstrakt

Spatial light modulators (SLM) are devices used to modulate amplitude, phase or polarization of a light wave in space and time. Current SLMs are based either on MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) or LCD (liquid crystal display) technology. Here we report on the parameters, trends in development and applications of phase SLMs based on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) technology. LCoS technology was developed for front and rear projection systems competing with AMLCD (active matrix LCD) and DMD (Digital Mirror Device) SLM. The reflective arrangement due to silicon backplane allows to put a high number of pixels in a small panel, keeping the fill-factor ratio high even for micron-sized pixels. For coherent photonics applications the most important type of LCoS SLM is a phase modulator. In the paper at first we describe the typical parameters of this device and the methods for its calibration. Later we present a review of applications of phase LCoS SLMs in imaging, metrology and beam manipulation, developed by the authors as well as known from the literature. These include active and adaptive interferometers, a smart holographic camera and holographic display, microscopy modified in illuminating and imaging paths and active sensors.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Małgorzata Kujawińska
Rosario Porras-Aguilar
Weronika Zaperty

Abstrakt

We introduce numerical methods and algorithms to estimate the main parameters of fractal-like particle aggregates from their optical structure factor (i.e. light scattering diagrams). The first algorithm is based on a direct and simple method, but its applicability is limited to aggregates with large size parameter and intermediate fractal dimension. The second algorithm requires to build calibration curves based on accurate particle agglomeration and particle light scattering models. It allows analyzing the optical structure factor of much smaller aggregates, regardless of their fractal dimension and the size of the single particles. Therefore, this algorithm as well as the introduction of a criterial curve to detect the different scattering regimes, are thought to be powerful tools to perform reliable and reproducible analysis.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Janusz Mroczka
Mariusz Woźniak
Fabrice R.A. Onofri

Abstrakt

This article presents a linear strain measurement method insensitive to temperature variations and using fibre Bragg gratings. Two Bragg gratings were applied with periods selected to obtain partial coverage of their spectrum characteristics. One of the gratings was subjected to a tension strength. Placing both gratings in one thermal chamber allowed - through ensuring the same thermal conditions - to obtain insensitivity of the entire scheme to temperature variations. The gratings were recorded on the same optical fibre and reacted to temperature variations in the same degree. Value of strain was indicated based on the transmission spectrum characteristic of two grating schemes. The use of transmission, not reflectance, characteristics of the gratings allowed for a direct measurement of the spectrum, without having to use a coupler or optical circulators, and at the same time, this allowed to simplify the strain detection scheme. We proposed applying the continuous wavelet transform with characteristics of the spectrum scheme of two gratings for improvement of static properties. Especially, the thermal linearity and stability of the sensor was improved. For a strain range up to 750 μe, the non-linearity error of processing characteristic obtained was 0.45%. Thermal stability of the scheme proposed was defined as relative sensitivity of the power to temperature variations. The mean value of such relative sensitivity of the scheme proposed in the temperature scope of 21ºC-95ºC, amounted to 0.195.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Piotr Kisała

Abstrakt

In this paper we discuss some physical limits for scaling of transistors and conducting paths inside of semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs). Since 40 years only a semiconductor technology, mostly the CMOS and the TTL technologies, are used for fabrication of integrated circuits on an industrial scale. Miniaturization of electronic devices in integrated circuits has technological limits and physical limits as well. In 2010 best parameters of commercial ICs shown the Intel Core i5-670 processor manufactured in the technology of 32 nm. Its clock frequency in turbo mode is 3.73 GHz. A forecast of the development of the semiconductor industry (ITRS 2011) predicts that sizes of electronic devices in ICs circuits will be smaller than 10 nm in the next 10 years. At least 5 physical effects should be taken into account if we discuss limits of scaling of integrated circuits.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Waldemar Nawrocki
Yury M. Shukrinov

Abstrakt

This article presents a way of analyzing the transfer function of electronic signal amplifiers. It also describes the possibility of using signal precorrection which improves the parasitic harmonics in the THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) of the amplified signal by correcting linearity of the tested amplifier’s transfer function. The proposed method of analyzing and presenting the transfer function allows to diagnose the causes of generating parasitic harmonics, what makes it a useful tool when designing low distortion amplifier systems, such as e.g. amplifiers in measurement systems. The presented THD correction can be used in e.g. amplifier systems that cooperate with arbitrary generators.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Janusz Mroczka
Jarosław Zygarlicki

Abstrakt

Gabor Wigner Transform (GWT) is a composition of two time-frequency planes (Gabor Transform (GT) and Wigner Distribution (WD)), and hence GWT takes the advantages of both transforms (high resolution of WD and cross-terms free GT). In multi-component signal analysis where GWT fails to extract auto-components, the marriage of signal processing and image processing techniques proved their potential to extract autocomponents. The proposed algorithm maintained the resolution of auto-components. This work also shows that the Fractional Fourier Transform (FRFT) domain is a powerful tool for signal analysis. Performance analysis of modified fractional GWT reveals that it provides a solution of cross-terms of WD and blurring of GT.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Muhammad Ajab
Imtiaz Ahmad Taj
Nabeel Ali Khan

Abstrakt

This paper is devoted to measuring the continuous diagnosis capability of a system. A key metric and its calculation models are proposed enabling us to measure the continuous diagnosis capability of a system directly without establishing and searching the sequential fault tree (SFT) of the system. At first a description of a D matrix is given and its metric is defined to determine the weakness of a continuous diagnosis. Then based on the definition of a sequential fault combination, a sequential fault tree (SFT) is defined with its establishment process summarized. A key SFT metric is established to measure the continuous diagnosis capability of a system. Two basic types of dependency graphical models (DGMs) and one combination type of DGM are selected for characteristics analysis and establishment of metric calculation models. Finally, both the SFT searching method and direct calculation method are applied to two designs of one type of an auxiliary navigation equipment, which shows the high efficiency of the direct calculation method.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jun-You Shi
Xie-Gui Lin
Meng Shi

Abstrakt

The paper puts forward a method of designing and creating a complete computer system for monitoring and diagnosis of business and industrial facilities, as well as for control purposes. The proposed solution represents a computer-network system being a practical tool for communication, control and management of modern plants and enterprises. The applied concept of communication, based on the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), makes a new attempt to solve certain performance problems met when using a (previously developed) Networked Object Monitor (NOM). The principal idea of increasing the performance of NOM lies in employing a common data bus, refereed to as a Diagnostic Service Bus (DSB), in the NOM monitor. The paper also describes a preliminary concept of a network description language (SMOL), which is designed to describe the functions, mechanisms, and network devices and to be a basis for simulation and verification of the NOMmonitor function.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Zdzisław Kowalczuk
Jakub Wszołek

Abstrakt

The paper deals with the accuracy of measurements of strains (elongation and necking) and stresses (tensile strength) in static room-temperature tensile strength tests. We present methods for calculating measurement errors and uncertainties, and discuss the determination of the limiting errors of the quantities measured for circular and rectangular specimens, which is illustrated with examples.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Stanisław Adamczak
Jerzy Bochnia
Czesław Kundera

Abstrakt

Comparison studies of different measurement methods using a Coordinate Measuring Arm are presented. Studies were divided into two parts. The first was point measurements of contact and pseudo-scanning contact measurements. The second part consisted of point measurements of contact and non-contact scanning measurements. Contact research (point measurements and the pseudo-scanning) were accomplished with the use of PowerINSPECT software, whereas non-contact with use of Focus Handheld and Focus Inspection software. Handheld Focus was used to collect a point cloud and its processing, while the detection of set elements was made using the second software from the group of Focus. According to the developed procedure for both parts sample elements with known nominal values were measured (available CAD model of object of research). It became the basis for examining whether there are statistically significant differences between results of different methods in both parts. Statistical comparison of measurement methods was carried out using four tests: Comparison of Means, Comparison of Standard Deviations, Comparison of Medians and a Kolmogorov- Smirnov Test.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Eugeniusz Ratajczyk
Michał Rak
Tomasz Kowaluk

Abstrakt

A novel laser diode based length measuring interferometer for scientific and industrial metrology is presented. Wavelength the stabilization system applied in the interferometer is based on the optical wedge interferometer. Main components of the interferometer such as: laser diode stabilization assembly, photodetection system, measuring software, air parameters compensator and base optical assemblies are described. Metrological properties of the device such as resolution, measuring range, repeatability and accuracy are characterized.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marek Dobosz

Abstrakt

A new method of optical frequency beat counting based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis is described. Signals with a worse signal-to-noise ratio can be counted correctly comparing to the conventional counting method of detecting each period separately. The systematic error of FFT counting below 10 Hz is demonstrated and can be decreased. Additionally the modulation width of a frequency-stabilized laser with high frequency modulation index can be simultaneously measured during a carrier frequency measurement against an optical frequency synthesizer or other laser.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Petr Křen

Abstrakt

The electrical power drawn by an induction motor is distorted in case of appearance of a certain type of failures. Under spectral analysis of the instantaneous power one obtains the components which are connected with definite types of damage. An analysis of the amplitudes and frequencies of the components allows to recognize the type of fault.

The paper presents a metrological analysis of the measurement system used for diagnosis of induction motor bearings, based on the analysis of the instantaneous power. This system was implemented as a set of devices with dedicated software installed on a PC. A number of measurements for uncertainty estimation was carried out. The results of the measurements are presented in the paper. The results of the aforementioned analysis helped to determine the measurement uncertainty which can be expected during bearing diagnostic measurements, by the method relying on measurement and analysis of the instantaneous power of an induction machine.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ariel Dzwonkowski
Leon Swędrowski

Abstrakt

Ice thickness is one of the most critical physical indicators in the ice science and engineering. It is therefore very necessary to develop in-situ automatic observation technologies of ice thickness. This paper proposes the principle of three new technologies of in-situ automatic observations of sea ice thickness and provides the findings of laboratory applications. The results show that the in-situ observation accuracy of the monitor apparatus based on the Magnetostrictive Delay Line (MDL) principle can reach ±2 mm, which has solved the “bottleneck” problem of restricting the fine development of a sea ice thermodynamic model, and the resistance accuracy of monitor apparatus with temperature gradient can reach the centimeter level and research the ice and snow substance balance by automatically measuring the glacier surface ice and snow change. The measurement accuracy of the capacitive sensor for ice thickness can also reach ±4 mm and the capacitive sensor is of the potential for automatic monitoring the water level under the ice and the ice formation and development process in water. Such three new technologies can meet different needs of fixed-point ice thickness observation and realize the simultaneous measurement in order to accurately judge the ice thickness.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yinke Dou
Xiaomin Chang

Abstrakt

In this article, the authors present a model and a method of determining thermal parameters of a single point of the thermal touch screen for the blind and thermal parameters of selected parts of a human hand. Blind people, by using this device can “see” a pattern of dots by feeling hot spots. The thermal touch screen for the blind was used as a calorimeter and enables to calculate the amount of heat provided to a finger at a temperature ranging from 8°C to 52°C, that is the full range of temperature detected by humans. The authors designated thermal conductivity and heat capacity of both Peltier micromodule and parts of the user's hand. Results of the presented research allow optimizing the construction of the thermal touch screen for the blind and may be helpful for thermal modelling of the human body.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Boroń
Andrzej Kos

Abstrakt

Cardiac Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is a commonly used clinical procedure for treating many cardiac arrhythmias. However, the efficacy of RF ablation may be limited by two factors: small ventricular lesions and impedance rise, leading to coagulum formation and desiccation of tissue. In this paper, a high frequency (HF) energy ablation system operating at 27.12 MHz based on an automated load matching system was developed. A HF energy matched probe associated to the automated impedance matching device ensures optimal transfer of the energy to the load. The aim of this study was to evaluate this energy for catheter ablation of the atrioventricular junction.

In vivo studies were performed using 10 sheep to characterize the lesions created with the impedance matching system. No cardiac perforation was noted. No thrombus was observed at the catheter tip. Acute lesions ranged from 3 to 45 mm in diameter (mean ±SD = 10.3±10) and from 1 to 15 mm in depth (6.7±3.9), exhibiting a close relationship between HF delivered power level and lesion size. Catheter ablation using HF current is feasible and appears effective in producing a stable AV block when applied at the AV junction and large myocardial lesions at ventricular sites.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Rouane Amar
Bru Paul

Abstrakt

A novel magneto-optical current sensor (MOCS) with two sensing arms is proposed to improve the temperature stability. One of the arms, with a highly stable permanent magnet attached and orthogonal to the other one, is designed to provide a reference that follows the temperature characteristics of the sensing material. By a normalization operation between two arms, the temperature drift is compensated adaptively and a sensing output proportional to the measured current can be reached. A dual-input and dual-output structure is specially designed for the reference sensing arm to demodulate the DC Faraday rotation angle. This scheme compensates simultaneously two main temperature influence factors, the Verdet constant and linear birefringence. Validation tests were carried out and are discussed.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jinling Chen
Hongbin Li
Mingming Zhang
Yan Zhang

Redakcja

Editorial Board

Editor-in-Chief
Ryszard SZPLET
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: ryszard.szplet@wat.edu.pl

Vice Editor-in-Chief
Paweł KWIATKOWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: pawel.kwiatkowski@wat.edu.pl

Technical Editor and Webmaster

Dominik SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: dominik.sondej@wat.edu.pl

Language Editor

Andrzej ŁUKASZEWICZ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: andrzej.lukaszewicz@wat.edu.pl


International Programme Committee


Andrzej ZAJĄC,
Chairman Military University of Technology, Poland
Bruno ANDO
University of Catania, Italy
Martin BURGHOFF
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
Marcantonio CATELANI
University of Florence, Italy
Numan DURAKBASA
Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Janusz GAJDA AGH
University of Science and Technology, Poland
Domenico GRIMALDI
University of Calabria, Italy
Laszlo KISH
Texas A&M University, USA
Juha KOSTAMOVAARA
University of Oulu, Finland
Eduard LLOBET
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
Alex MASON
Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Janusz MROCZKA
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland
Antoni ROGALSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
Wiesław WOLIŃSKI
Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Associate Editors

Sławomir CIĘSZCZYK
Lublin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: s.cieszczyk@pollub.pl
Albin CZUBLA
Central Office of Measure, Poland
e-mail: albin.czubla@gum.gov.pl
Vladimir DIMCHEV
Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
e-mail: vladim@feit.ukim.edu.mk
Krzysztof DUDA AGH
University of Science and Technology, Poland
e-mail: kduda@agh.edu.pl
Agnieszka IWAN
Military University of Land Forces, Poland
e-mail: agnieszka.iwan@awl.edu.pl
Ireneusz JABŁOŃSKI
Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland
e-mail: ireneusz.jablonski@pwr.wroc.pl
Jacek JAKUBOWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: jacek.jakubowski@wat.edu.pl
Jussi-Pekka JANSSON
University of Oulu, Finland
e-mail: jussi.jansson@oulu.fi
Mieczysław JESSA
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: mieczyslaw.jessa@put.poznan.pl
Piotr KANIEWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: piotr.kaniewski@wat.edu.pl
Piotr KISAŁA
Lublin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: p.kisala@pollub.pl
Manoj KUMAR
Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Uttar Pradesh, India
e-mail: my.hunn.manoj@gmail.com
Grzegorz LENTKA
Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
e-mail:lentka@eti.pg.edu.pl
Czesław ŁUKIANOWICZ
Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: czeslaw.lukianowicz@tu.koszalin.pl
Rosario MORELLO
University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
e-mail: rosario.morello@unirc.it
Fernando PUENTE LEÓN
University Karlsruhe, Germany
e-mail: f.puente@me.com
Hamid M. SEDIGHI
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
e-mail: h.msedighi@scu.ac.ir
Petr SEDLAK
Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic
e-mail: sedlakp@feec.vutbr.cz
Tadeusz SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: tadeusz.sondej@wat.edu.pl
Mirosław SZMAJDA
Opole University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: m.szmajda@po.edu.pl
Michał STRZELECKI
Lodz University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: michal.strzelecki@p.lodz.pl
Grzegorz ŚWIRNIAK
Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: grzegorz.swirniak@pwr.wroc.pl
Michał WIECZOROWSKI
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: jmichal.wieczorowski@put.poznan.pl
Jacek WOJTAS
Military University of Technology, Poland

Kontakt

E-mail: metrology@wat.edu.pl
URL: www.metrology.wat.edu.pl

Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Military University of Technology
Faculty of Electronics
gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2
00-908 Warsaw
Poland

Instrukcje dla autorów

Sample article with Author guidelines

Types of contributions
Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:
• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).
Manuscript preparation
General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).
The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.

Figures
Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.

Equation
All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).

References
The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.

Journal

Publisher

ISSN

Metrologia

IOP Publishing

0026-1394

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

IEEE

0018-9456

Measurement

Elsevier

0263-2241

Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing

0957-0233

Metrology and Measurement Systems

PAS

0860-8229

Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing

0034-6748

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE

1557-9948

IET Science, Measurement & Technology

IET

1751-8822

Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing

1748-0221

Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter

1335-8871

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine

IEEE

1094-6969

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

PAS

2300-1917

Opto-Electronics Review

PAS

1896-3757

IEEE Sensors Journal

IEEE

1558-1748

Sensors

MDPI

1424-8220



References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.

Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: metrology@wat.edu.pl. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.

Polityka Open Access

Metrology and Measurement Systems jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Metrology and Measurement Systems is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

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