Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering


Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2021 | vol. 70 | No 3

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Lightning is one of the causes of transmission disorders and natural phenomena that cannot be avoided. The South Sulawesi region is located close to the equator and has a high lightning density. This condition results in lightning susceptibility of disturbances to electrical system lines, especially in high-voltage airlines and substations. An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) will show the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) based on the membership function type. This journal is to predict the value of the transmission tower lightning density using the ANFIS method. The value of the lightning strike density index can later be determined based on ANFIS predictions. Analysis of the value calculation system of structural lightning strikes in the South Sulawesi region of the Sungguminasa-Tallasa route can be categorized as three characteristics lightning density (Nd). The calculation system results for the value of structural lightning struck in the South Sulawesi region and validated between manual calculations and ANFIS with an average percentage of 0.0554%.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sri Mawar Said
Muhammad Bachtiar Nappu
Andarini Asri
Bayu Tri Utomo

  1. Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
  2. Ujung Pandang State Polytechnic, Indonesia
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This paper focuses on the invariance of the reachability and observability for fractional order positive linear electrical circuits with delays and their checking methods. By derivation and comparison, it shows that conditions and checking methods of reachability and observability for integer and fractional order positive linear electrical circuits with delays are invariant. An illustrative example is presented at the end of the paper.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tong Yuan
Hongli Yang

  1. Shandong University of Science and Technology, China
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A smart control based on neural networks for multicellular converters has been developed and implemented. The approach is based on a behavioral description of the different converter operating modes. Each operating mode represents a well-defined configuration for which an operating zone satisfying given invariance conditions, depending on the capacitors’ voltages and the load current of the converter, is assigned. A control vector, whose components are the control signals to be applied to the converter switches is generated for each mode. Therefore, generating the control signals becomes a classification task of the different operating zones. For this purpose, a neural approach has been developed and implemented to control a 2-cell converter then extended to a 3-cell converter. The developed approach has been compared to super-twisting sliding mode algorithm. The obtained results demonstrate the approach effectiveness to provide an efficient and robust control of the load current and ensure the balancing of the capacitors voltages.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kamel Laidi
Ouahid Bouchhida
Mokhtar Nibouche
Khelifa Benmansour

  1. University of Medea, Algeria
  2. University of the West of England, United Kingdom
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The axial-radial flux type permanent magnet synchronous machine (ARFTPMSM) can adjust the main magnetic field by controlling the axial flux, so it can overcome the problem that the flux of the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is difficult to adjust. Due to the existence of the axial device in the ARFTPMSM, the finite element method (FEM) is used to establish a three-dimensional model for analysis. By analyzing the magnetic density distribution of the rotor, it is found that there is a serious magnetic leakage phenomenon at both ends of the tangential permanent magnet. The rotor material at the end of the tangent permanent magnet is replaced by non-ferromagnetic material to reduce the magnetic leakage. On this basis, the influence of the width of the non-ferromagnetic material on the performance of the motor is compared. By Fourier decomposition of the back-EMF waveform, the total harmonic distortion (THD) rate of the back-EMF under different axial magnetomotive force (MMF) was calculated. Finally, the eddy current distribution and the eddy current loss of the rotor are analyzed, and the variation law of the eddy current loss is summarized. The conclusion can provide reference for the optimal design of the ARFTPMSM.
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Authors and Affiliations

Hongbo Qiu
Shubo Zhang

  1. Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, China
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This paper presents the optimal PID tuning study to improve the dynamic performance of an automatic voltage regulation (AVR) system. The system under study consists of a synchronous generator whose reference voltage changes in a step function and tries to overcome the transient behavior of its terminal voltage smoothly. To optimally control the performance, different optimization techniques are applied to tune the controller gains to obtain the minimum steady state error (main objective) and better dynamic characteristics (rise time, settling time, max overshoot, etc.). Then the AVR system responses with a PID controller based on different optimization techniques are compared to find out which is the best technique.
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Authors and Affiliations

Haya Hesham
M. Ezzat
Rania A. Swief

  1. Electrical Power and Machines Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, 1 Elsarayat St., Abbaseya, 11517 Cairo, Egypt
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The degradation process of wind turbines is greatly affected by external factors. Wind turbine maintenance costs are high. The regular maintenance of wind turbines can easily lead to over and insufficient maintenance. To solve the above problems, a stochastic degradation model (SDE, stochastic differential equation) is proposed to simulate the change of the state of the wind turbine. First, the average degradation trend is obtained by analyzing the properties of the stochastic degradation model. Then the average degradation model is used to describe the predictive degradation model. Then analyze the change trend between the actual degradation state and the predicted state of the wind turbine. Secondly, according to the update process theory, the effect of maintenance on the state of wind turbines is comprehensively analyzed to obtain the availability. Then based on the average degradation process, the optimal maintenance period of the wind turbine is obtained. The optimal maintenance time of wind turbines is obtained by optimizing the maintenance cycle through availability constraints. Finally, an onshore wind turbine is used as an example to verification. Based on the historical fault data of wind turbines, the optimized maintenance decision is obtained by analyzing the reliability and maintenance cost of wind turbines under periodic and non-equal cycle conditions. The research results show that maintenance based on this model can effectively improve the performance of wind turbines and reduce maintenance costs.
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Authors and Affiliations

Hongsheng Su
Xuping Duan
Dantong Wang

  1. Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China
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The article presents the analysis results of the effectiveness limitation of the step voltage by forming an electric field on the ground surface. For shaping the electric field, a method consisting of screens placed around the point of the earth current flow was used. The analysis was performed using an example of an MV/LV substation grounding system. This research was conducted applying a mathematical model of the grounding system and screens by means of the finite element method. The influence of metal, insulating screens and surface material on the step/touch voltage values for the considered grounding system was estimated. Most of the methods described can be applied in practice. In the opinion of the authors, the method of using screens made of insulating and conductive materials has not been sufficiently described in the literature. Moreover, in the available literature there is no in-depth analysis of the described electric field shaping methods.
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Authors and Affiliations

Roman Sikora
Przemysław Markiewicz

  1. Institute of Electrical Power Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowski str. 18/22, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
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The deviation from the ideal waveform causes disturbances and failure of end-user load equipment. Power traveling a long distance from the generation plant to the end-user leads to deterioration of its quality, and the intensive utilization of power leads to serious issues in the grid resulting in power quality problems. To make the system effective and able to meet modern requirements, flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices should be installed into the grid. The interline power flow controller (IPFC) is the latest FACTS device, which compensates for both active and reactive power among multi-line systems. The converters used in the IPFC are crucial as they can be adjusted to regulate the power flow among the lines. This paper proposes a cascaded IPFC with hysteresis and proportional resonant voltage controllers. Some main drawbacks of controllers like steady-state errors and reference tracking of converters can be easily achieved by the PR controller, which makes the system efficient and can be used for a wide range of grid applications. Hysteresis and PR controllers are explained in detail in the following sections. A comparative analysis is carried out among control algorithms to choose the suitable controller which maintains stability in the system.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sridhar Babu Gurijala
D. Ravi Kishore
Ramchandra Nittala
Rohith Reddy Godala

  1. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, AP, India
  2. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, St. Martin’s Engineering College, Dhulapally, near Kompally, Secunderabad, Telangana, India
  3. Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Institute of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia
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Food processing technologies for food preservation have been in constant development over a few decades in order to meet current consumer’s demands. Healthy competitive improvements are observed in both thermal and non-thermal food processing technology since past two decades due to technical revolution. Among these novel technologies, pulsed electric field food processing technology has shown to be a potential non-thermal treatment capable of preserving liquid foods. The high-voltage pulse generators specifically find their applications in pulsed electric field technology. So, this paper proposes a new structure of a high-voltage pulse generator with a cascaded boost converter topology. The choice of a cascaded boost converter helps in selecting low DC input voltage and hence the size and space requirement of the high-voltage pulse generator is minimized. The proposed circuit is capable of producing high-voltage pulses with flexibility of an adjusting duty ratio and frequency. The designed circuit generates a maximum peak voltage of 1 kV in the frequency range of 7.5–20 kHz and the pulse width range of 0.8–1.8 μs. Also, the impedance matching between the cascaded boost converter and the high-voltage pulse generator is found simple without further additional components. The efficiency can be improved in the circuit by avoiding low frequency transformers.
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Authors and Affiliations

S. Krishnaveni
V. Rajini

  1. Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, India
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Economic dispatch (ED) is an essential part of any power system network. ED is howto schedule the real power outputs from the available generators to get the minimum cost while satisfying all constraints of the network. Moreover, it may be explained as allocating generation among the committed units with the most effective minimum way in accordance with all constraints of the system. There are many traditional methods for solving ED, e.g., Newton-Raphson method Lambda-Iterative technique, Gaussian-Seidel method, etc. All these traditional methods need the generators’ incremental fuel cost curves to be increasing linearly. But practically the input-output characteristics of a generator are highly non-linear. This causes a challenging non-convex optimization problem. Recent techniques like genetic algorithms, artificial intelligence, dynamic programming and particle swarm optimization solve nonconvex optimization problems in a powerful way and obtain a rapid and near global optimum solution. In addition, renewable energy resources as wind and solar are a promising option due to the environmental concerns as the fossil fuels reserves are being consumed and fuel price increases rapidly and emissions are getting higher. Therefore, the world tends to replace the old power stations into renewable ones or hybrid stations. In this paper, it is attempted to enhance the operation of electrical power system networks via economic dispatch. An ED problem is solved using various techniques, e.g., Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique and Sine-Cosine Algorithm (SCA). Afterwards, the results are compared. Moreover, case studies are executed using a photovoltaic-based distributed generator with constant penetration level on the IEEE 14 bus system and results are observed. All the analyses are performed on MATLAB software.
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Authors and Affiliations

Abrar Mohamed Hafiz
M. Ezzat Abdelrahman
Hesham Temraz

  1. Electrical Power and Machines Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Egypt
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In this paper an attempt has been made towards the design and evaluation of a solar parabolic trough collector (PTC) system integrated with a conventional oil boiler (COB) to increase the energy utilization effectiveness and reduce the environmental emission of the existing conventional oil boiler in the Kombolcha textile factory, in Ethiopia. The factory uses 8500 ton/annum of heavy fuel oil to generate 26 ton/hour of pressurized hot water at 140°C temperature which causes an increase in greenhouse gas emissions, so the solar parabolic trough collector hot water generation system will be an appropriate solution for this application. Based on the available annual solar radiation, estimates of the solar fraction, solar energy unit price and system pay-back period have been carried out. The proposed system has the potential to save 1055.9 ton/year of fuel oil. The unit cost of PTC solar energy is estimated to be 0.0088 $/kWh and the payback period of the plant is five years. Since the unit price of oil energy (0.0424 $/kWh) is much greater than the unit price of solar energy by a substantial margin (0.033 $/kWh) in Ethiopia, therefore the water heating system by
a solar parabolic trough collector is a feasible alternative to heating by a conventional oil boiler.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mustefa Jibril Taha
Fiseha Bogale Kibret
Venkata Ramayya
Balewgize Amare Zeru

  1. Control Engineering, Dire Dawa University, Ethiopia
  2. Sustainable Energy Engineering, Kombolcha Institue of Technology (KIoT), Wollo University, P.O.Box 208, Kombolcha, Ethiopia
  3. Sustainable Energy Engineering, Jimma Institue of Technology (JiT), Jimma University, Ethiopia
  4. Thermal Engineering, Jimma Institue of Technology (JiT), Jimma University, Ethiopia
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It is not easy to make the insulators of the railway catenary for the dry and cold environment of the icy Qinghai-Tibet plateau, without causing serious ice-related flashover accidents. To study the operating status of catenary icing insulators, a two-dimensional icing model of catenary cantilever insulators was established based on the winter environmental characteristics of the Golmud station on the Qinghai-Tibet Railway. Compared different directions of ice growth, the spatial electric field distribution, and surface temperature distribution characteristics of icing insulatorswere analyzed by multi-physical field coupling simulation. The results show that as the thickness of the ice layer increases and the length of the icicle increases, the field intensity of the insulator gradually increases, and the surface temperature continues to rise. When the ice edge grows vertically downward, the electric field intensity of the insulator is the smallest, and the electric field intensity is the largest when the ice edge grows horizontally. Although the surface temperature of the insulator will rise with the increase of icing degree, it is lower than the freezing point and will not have a great impact on insulation performance. Secondly, when the cantilever insulator is arranged obliquely, the increase in the inclination angle will cause the electric field to increase and the temperature to rise slightly, so the inclination angle of the oblique cantilever should be reduced as much as possible during installation. Finally, the insulator with better insulation performance is obtained by optimizing the structure of the flat cantilever insulator.
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[4] Zhao Jiayao, Study on AC Flashover Characteristics of Nature Icing Suspension Insulator (Short) Strings, PhD Thesis, Chongqing University, Chongqing (2019).
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[6] Ciesielka W., Gołas A. et al., Reliability improvement of power distribution line exposed to extreme icing in Poland, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 68, no. 05, pp. 1113–1125 (2020).
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[8] Volat C., Farzaneh M. et al., Improved FEM models of one- and two-arcs to predict AC critical flashover voltage of ice-covered insulators, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 18, no. 02, pp. 393–400 (2011).
[9] Lu Jiazheng, Xie Pengkang et al., Electric field simulation and sheds optimization of anti- icing and anti- lightning insulator under heavy icing condition, Electric Power Automation Equipment, vol. 38, no. 03, pp. 199–204 (2018).
[10] Tu Yewei, Xia Qiangfeng, Simulation of Space Electric Field Distribution Around 220 kV Porcelain Insulator String (XP-160) and the Influencing Factors, High Voltage Apparatus, vol. 48, no. 03, pp. 67–74 (2012).
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[13] Luo Jian, The Optimization of the System Parameters and Cantilever and Positioning Device of Overhead Contact System of High-speed Railway, PhD Thesis, Southwest JiaotongUniversity, Chengdu (2017).
[14] Zhang Yuexin, Study on Catenary’s Construction Techniques in High-speed Electric Railway, PhD Thesis, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (2006).
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[19] An Dawei, Study on Needle-plate corona Discharge and Migration Characteristics of Ion Space Charge, PhD Thesis, Chongqing University, Chongqing (2017).

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Authors and Affiliations

Sihua Wang
Junjun Wang
Lijun Zhou
Long Chen
Lei Zhao

  1. Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China
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The in-wheel motor is installed in wheels, and road excitation acts on the in-wheel motor directly through a wheel, which affects the flow field characteristics of the motor’s liquid cooling system, and affects the thermal field characteristics of the in-wheel motor. Aiming at this problem, the in-wheel motor drive system is taken as the research object in this paper. Firstly, the heat flow coupling analysis model of the in-wheel motor drive system is established by using the heat flow coupling theory. Then the vibration response of in-wheel motor stator and shell under different road excitation obtained from the previous study is taken as the load. Finally, thermal field characteristics of the water-cooled the in-wheel motor under different working conditions are studied, and the influence law of different speed and road grades on the thermal field characteristics is obtained. The results show that under the road excitation, the maximum temperature of each component of the in-wheel motor decreases due to the vibration effect of road excitation on the flow field of the cooling system, and the decrease of the stator and winding is the most obvious. Additionally, the higher the speed, the greater the road roughness coefficient, the greater the temperature drop of each component of the in-wheel motor. However, the thermal field distribution of local parts of the motor is relatively uneven under road excitation, which leads to greater thermal stress of the local parts and increases the risk of motor damage.
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[2] Qiu Hongbo, Zhang Yong, Yang Cunxiang, Yi Ran, Performance analysis and comparison of PMSM with concentrated winding and distributed winding, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 303–317 (2020).
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Authors and Affiliations

Jie Feng
Di Tan
Meng Yuan

  1. Shandong University of Technology, School of Transportation and Vehicle Engineering, 266 Xincun West Road, Zhangdian District, Shandong Province, Zibo, China
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The paper presents a series of designed microstrip antennas with different gain and width radiation characteristics and intended for use in Wi-Fi systems. These antennas in a multilayer system were analyzed with the use of computer programs, and then the parameters and characteristics of these antennas were measured. At the same time, to check the correctness of work, additional measurements of the temperature of the radiators were used with a thermal imaging camera. The obtained results were compared with the results of calculations and measurements. They show high compliance with both calculations and measurements. At the same time, thermovision measurements show the weaknesses of the designed power lines.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marian Wnuk

  1. Military University of Technology, Poland
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Production deviations have a remarkable effect on the radiated sound of electrical machines, introducing additional signal components besides the fundamental field waves which significantly change and enrich the subjectively perceived sound characteristic. In literature these harmonics are mainly traced back to dynamic eccentricity, which modulates the fundamental fieldwaves. In this paper a thorough mechanic and electromagnetic analysis of a modern, well-constructed traction drive (permanent magnet synchronous machine) is performed to showthat for this typical rotor configuration dynamic eccentricity is negligible. Instead, deviations in the rotor magnetization are shown to be the dominant cause for vibration harmonics.
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Authors and Affiliations

Markus Jaeger
Pascal Drichel
Michael Schröder
Joerg Berroth
Georg Jacobs
Kay Hameyer

  1. Institute of Electrical Machines (IEM), RWTH Aachen University, Germany
  2. Institute of Systems Engineering and Machine Elements (MSE), RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Authors and Affiliations

Marian Łukaniszyn
Andrzej Demenko

  1. Technical University of Opole, 76 Prószkowska Street, 45–276 Opole, Poland
  2. Poznan University of Technology 3A Piotrowo Street, 60–965 Poznan, Poland

Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

Manuscript submission:

All manuscripts should be submitted electronically on Editorial System.

Submission of paper to the Archives of Electrical Engineering is understood to imply that the article is original, unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. All articles will be reviewed. Since 2013, Authors wishing to use the facility of colour printing should consult the editors.


Microsoft Word is recommended as a standard word processor to prepare the paper to the AEE journal. If you use the LaTex format, please transfer your document to Microsoft Word and then use Template AEE.

While editing your paper, make sure that all the mathematical characters (symbols, identifiers, variables, vectors, axis marks, etc.) have the required shape, thickness, and slant kept throughout the whole article. The same appearance of a given mathematic character must be retained regardless of its place (text, equations, tables or figures).

The articles that don’t conform to the above will not be processed and published.

The reviewing process:

Each paper submitted for publication in Archives of Electrical Engineering is subjected to the following review procedure:

a) the paper is reviewed by the editor in chief or guest editor for general suitability for publication in AEE

b) if it is judged suitable two reviewers are selected and a double blind peer review process takes place

c) based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the editor then decides whether the paper should be accepted in its present form, revised or rejected

d) the author(s) is(are) informed by e-mail on the results of the reviewing procedure.

The papers are published on average within 3 months after acceptance.

Requirements for preparation of manuscripts:

The manuscript submitted for publication should have no less than 12 pages and no more than 16 pages. In the case of the manuscript longer than 16 pages, please contact the AEE Editorial Board before submitting your paper. The manuscripts, written in UK English, should be typed using Template AEE according to the following instructions and should include: a title page with the title of a manuscript, a short title; abstract; key words, text; list of references. A DOI number as well as received and revised data will be completed by Editor. When you open Template.doc, select "Print Layout" from the "View" menu in the menu bar (View > Print Layout). Then type over sections of Template.doc or cut and paste from another document and then use markup styles (Home > Styles). For example, the style at this point in the document is "main text").

All papers submitted for publication are assessed on the basis of the mutual anonymity rule as to the names of reviewers and authors. Authors' names and affiliations should not appear in the attached text/tables/figures.

If English is not your first language, ask an English-speaking colleague to proofread your manuscript. The manuscripts that fail to meet basic standards of literacy are likely to be immediately declined or after the language assessment, sent to the authors for linguistic improvement.

The manuscripts are published on average within 3 months after their acceptance.

Do not change the font sizes or line spacing to squeeze more text into a limited number of pages. Leave some open space around your figures.

The AEE journal publishes an ORCID for all authors. You will need a registered ORCID in order to submit your paper for peer review. ORCID registration is free and only takes a minute. Please note that ORCIDs will be added in the course of the author's proofreads.


The pages must be numbered consecutively. Articles should be divided into numbered sections, and if necessary subsections, preferably: Introduction, Material, Methods, Results, Conclusion and References. Any special characters (e.g. Greek, script, etc.) should be named in the margin where the character first occurs in the text. Names of species are to be accentuated with wavy underlining (italics). Equations should be numbered serially (1), (2), ... on the right side of the page. Footnotes should be avoided, if required, they should be used only for brief notes which do not fit well into the text. Figures and tables have to be included into the text. If table is typed on a separate page its position in the text should be marked. Abbreviations should be explained when they first appear in the text.


Please use the MathML editor as well as MathType editor to build an equation in your manuscript.


Equations should be typed within the text, centred, and should be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Their numbers should be typed in parentheses, flush right. Equations should be referred to in text, e.g. (1), except at the beginning of a sentence: "Equation (1) is ...". All symbols appearing in equations have to be defined in the text, before or just after the equation.

If the symbols are written in Times New Roman use italic fonts. Symbols of vectors and matrices should be written in bold fonts. Do not italicize Greek fonts and mathematical symbols like e.g.: the derivative symbol d, max, min, etc. The indices of symbols that are indices themselves should be written in a clear manner.

Note that the equation is centered using a center tab stop. Please keep the same font in the formulas and text.

Unit Symbols, Abbreviations:

Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.

Si units are recommended for use in formulas, drawings and tables., for example the SI unit for magnetic field strength H is A/m. Apply the center dot to separate compound units.

Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: "Wb/m2" or "webers per square meter," not "webers/m2." Spell units when they appear in text: "...a few henries…", not "...a few H…".

Use a zero before decimal points: "0.25," not ".25." Use "cm3," not "cc."

Unit Symbols, SI Prefixes as well as Abbreviations should be writing in accordance with the IEEE standard

Tables, figures (illustrations) and captions:

The illustrations (line diagrams and photographs) should be suitable for direct reproduction. The lettering as well the details should have proportional dimensions to maintain their legibility after the usual reduction. All illustrations should be numbered consecutively (Fig. X). Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals.

All figures, figure captions, and tables in the text must be inserted into the correct places.

Figures, photos, tables or other parts of a manuscript that have previously appeared in another publication or are not the property of the authors must be properly acknowledged in the manuscript. Permission to republish these items must be obtained by the corresponding author from a person or institution holding the copyright, usually the publisher.

Authors are requested to send all drawings used in the article in additional files. Create a separate file for each image. Images should be submitted in a bitmap format (.jpeg) or/and in a vector format (.eps, .pdf or .cdr). Each file must be saved according to the number in the original article, e.g.: FIG1.JPG, FIG2.EPS, or FIG3.PDF. Bitmap illustrations must be “flattened”, which means no additional layers, for example, covering old descriptions.

Photographs, colour, and greyscale figures should be at least at a resolution of 400 dpi.

All colour figures should be generated in the RGB or CMYK colour space, while greyscale images in the greyscale colour space.

When preparing your figures/graphics etc., we suggest the use of the Arial 8 point font for axis numbers and Arial 9 point font for axis names. Figures/graphics etc. can be prepared in one of two proposed ways - see Template AEE.

Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals. Use 9 point Times New Roman for the title of the table and 9 point Times New Roman for the filling of the table (9 in the case of symbols with subscripts).

AEE journal allows an author to publish color figures in e-version at no charge, and automatically convert them to grayscale for print versions. Authors wishing to use the facility of color printing should consult the editors.


A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the manuscript, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion.


References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.

Please provide name(s) and initials of author(s), the title of the manuscript, editors (if any), the title of the journal or book, a volume number, the page range, and finally the year of publication in brackets.

You can use the rules presented on the site: IEEE standard.

Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

Journal manuscript

[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript

[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual

[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).


[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).


[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).


[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).


[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).


[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms

[8] Author A., Title of article, in Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].


[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259


[9], accessed April 2010.


Authors will receive proofs for correction, which should be returned promptly. All joint contributions must indicate the name and address of the authors to whom proofs should be sent.

Fees for printing the papers in Archives of Electrical Engineering:

AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors will be asked to a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article.

The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro.

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