Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering


Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2021 | vol. 70 | No 2

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The traction power supply system based on Inductively Coupled Power Transfer (ICPT) technology is one of the new traction power supply technologies that will be developed in the future. As the core part of rail transit energy transfer and conversion, the traction power supply system is not only the critical system for the safe operation of rail transit, but also the main source of its failures, so it is of great significance to study its reliability. In this paper, the reliability analysis of the non-contact traction power supply system based on mobile ICPT technology is carried out using the method of (Fault Tree Analysis) FTA combined with triangular fuzzy theory and grey relational theory. Firstly, the fault tree of the system is established, and the minimum cut sets and structure function of the fault tree are obtained. Then the triangular fuzzy numbers are introduced to represent the probability of the bottom events, and the fuzzy probability of the top event and the fuzzy importance of the bottom events are determined, after that, the maximum probability of failure of the top event is obtained. Finally, the grey relational degrees of each minimum cut set are obtained and ranked. Furthermore, in order to prove the correctness of this method, the trapezoidal fuzzy FTA is introduced and compared with it. Both research results show that the loosely coupled transformer and Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) module are the weak links of the system. The results obtained are consistent and realistic, which proves the correctness of the method selected in this article.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yanxia Pei
Xin Li

  1. Key Laboratory of Opto-Technology and Intelligent Control Ministry of Education, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China
  2. School of New Energy and Power Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China
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The work is intended to extend the application of a smart transformer on a radial distribution system. In this paper, an updated algorithm on the backward/forward power flow is introduced. The so-called direct approach of power flow is employed and analyzed. In addition, the paper focused on integrating a smart transformer to the network and solving the updating network also using the direct approach load flow. The solution of the smart transformer using the direct approach power flow method is quite straightforward. This model is applied to radial distribution systems which are the IEEE 33- and IEEE 69-bus systems as a case study. Also, the paper optimizes the best allocation of the smart transformer to reduce the power losses of the grid.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ibrahem Mohamed A. Mahmoud
1 2
Tarek Saad Abdelsalam
Rania Swief

  1. Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, The British University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt
  2. Electrical Power and Machine Engineering Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
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In this study, the inverter in a microgrid was adjusted by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) based coordinated control strategy to ensure the stability of the isolated island operation. The simulation results showed that the voltage at the inverter port reduced instantaneously, and the voltage unbalance degree of its port and the port of point of common coupling (PCC) exceeded the normal standard when the microgrid entered the isolated island mode. After using the coordinated control strategy, the voltage rapidly recovered, and the voltage unbalance degree rapidly reduced to the normal level. The coordinated control strategy is better than the normal control strategy.
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Authors and Affiliations

Pan Wu
Xiaowei Xu

  1. Power Supply Co., Ltd.Luqiao District, Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China
  2. Power Supply Co., Ltd.Tonglu, Zhejiang Province, China
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The structure of the low-voltage distribution network often changes. The change of topology will affect fault detection, fault location, line loss calculation, etc. It leads to fault detection error, inaccurate positioning and abnormal line loss calculation. This paper presents a new method to automatically identify the topology of a low-voltage power grid by using the injection current signal. When the disturbance current signal is injected into the low-voltage line, the current upstream of the injection point will change, and the current downstream of the injection point will not be affected. It is proved theoretically by using the superposition principle. With this method, the disturbance current signal can be injected into the line in turn, and the topology can be identified by observing the change of the current in line. The correctness of the method is proved by Matlab simulation and laboratory verification.
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Authors and Affiliations

Haotian Ge
Bingyin Xu
Wengang Chen
Xinhui Zhang
Yongjian Bi

  1. Shandong University of Technology, China
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In order to optimise the operation state of the distribution network in the presence of distributed generation (DG), to reduce network loss, balance load and improve power quality in the distribution system, a multi-objective fruit fly optimisation algorithm based on population Manhattan distance (pmdMOFOA) is presented. Firstly, the global and local exploration abilities of a fruit fly optimisation algorithm (FOA) are balanced by combining population Manhattan distance ( PMD) and the dynamic step adjustment strategy to solve the problems of its weak local exploration ability and proneness to premature convergence. At the same time, Chebyshev chaotic mapping is introduced during position update of the fruit fly population to improve ability of fruit flies to escape the local optimum and avoid premature convergence. In addition, the external archive selection strategy is introduced to select the best individual in history to save in external archives according to the dominant relationship amongst individuals. The leader selection strategy, external archive update and maintenance strategy are proposed to generate a Pareto optimal solution set iteratively. Lastly, an optimal reconstruction scheme is determined by the fuzzy decision method. Compared with the standard FOA, the average convergence algebra of a pmdMOFOA is reduced by 44.58%. The distribution performance of non-dominated solutions of a pmdMOFOA, MOFOA, NSGA-III and MOPSO on the Pareto front is tested, and the results show that the pmdMOFOA has better diversity. Through the simulation and analysis of a typical IEEE 33-bus system with DG, load balance and voltage offset after reconfiguration are increased by 23.77% and 40.58%, respectively, and network loss is reduced by 57.22%, which verifies the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.
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Authors and Affiliations

Minan Tang
Kaiyue Zhang
Qianqian Wang
Haipeng Cheng
Shangmei Yang
Hanxiao Du

  1. School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou, China
  2. College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, China
  3. CRRC Qingdao Sifang Co., Ltd. Qingdao, China
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With the rapid development of distributed photovoltaic grids, more and more users join the power sales side, and the traditional power grid operation mode is no longer applicable. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the distributed photovoltaic grid under overload conditions, and further summarizes the problems that the distributed photovoltaic grid will face under these conditions. To solve these problems, the alliance chain technology was introduced into the distributed photovoltaic grid.At the same time, this paper establishes a photovoltaic pricing strategy that considers power transmission loss. Finally, the feasibility of the theory is verified by constructing a virtual model.
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[17] Yang Changhui, Ge Zhixiang, Research on online pricing of distributed photovoltaic power generation, Price Theory and Practice, no. 04, pp. 51–55 (2018).
[18] Ma Guoqing, Study on the pricing mechanism of green energy generation side, PhD Thesis, Hebei University of technology, Tianjin (2010).
[19] Zhang Hailong, Research on China’s new energy development, PhD Thesis, JilinUniversity, Changchun City, Jilin Province (2014).
[20] Xue Meidong, Research on optimal configuration and energy management of microgrid, PhD Thesis, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province (2015).
[21] Gerilemandahu, Research on investment benefit and financial support of distributed photovoltaic power generation, Master Thesis, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (2016).
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Authors and Affiliations

Ran Ding
Chaohan Feng
Dongsheng Wang
Rongfu Sun
Longyang Wang
Shaojun Yuan

  1. Dispatch Center, State Grid Jibei Electric Power Company, 56 Caishikou South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, China
  2. School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, China
  3. Chengde Power Supply Company, China
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Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) is utilized in finding the optimal combination of the real power generation that minimizes total generation cost, yet satisfying all equality and inequality constraints. It plays a significant role in planning and operating power systems with several generating stations. For simplicity, the cost function of each generating unit has been approximated by a single quadratic function. ELD is a subproblem of unit commitment and a nonlinear optimization problem. Many soft computing optimization methods have been developed in the recent past to solve ELD problems. In this paper, the most recently developed population-based optimization called the Salp Swarm Algorithm (SSA) has been utilized to solve the ELD problem. The results for the ELD problem have been verified by applying it to a standard 6-generator system with and without due consideration of transmission losses. The finally obtained results using the SSA are compared to that with the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. It has been observed that the obtained results using the SSA are quite encouraging.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ramesh Devarapalli
Nikhil Kumar Sinha
Bathina Venkateswara Rao
Łukasz Knypinski
Naraharisetti Jaya Naga Lakshmi
Fausto Pedro García Márquez

  1. Department of EE, B. I. T. Sindri, Dhanbad, Jharkhand – 828123, India
  2. Department of EEE, V R Siddhartha Engineering College (Autonomous), Vijayawada-520007, A.P., India
  3. Poznan University of Technology, Poland
  4. SR Engineering College: Warangal, Telangana, India
  5. Ingenium Research Group, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
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An essential task of the interconnected power system is about how to optimize power plants during operation time which is known as economic dispatch. In this study, the Fruit Fly Optimization method is proposed to solve problems of dynamic economic dispatch in an electrical power system. To measure the performance of the method, a simulation was conducted for two different electric systems of the existing Sulselbar 150 kV thermal power plant system in Indonesia with two objective functions, namely fuel costs and active power transmission losses, aswell as the 30-bus IEEE standard system with five objective functions namely fuel costs, transmission losses (active and reactive power), a reactive power reserve margin, and an emission index by considering a power generation limit and ramp rates as the constraints. Under tested cases, the simulation results have shown that the Fruit Fly Optimization method can solve the problems of dynamic economic dispatch better than other existing optimization methods. It is indicated by all values of the objective functions that are lowest for the Fruit Fly Optimization method. Moreover, the obtained computational time is sufficiently fast to get the best solution.
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Authors and Affiliations

Haripuddin Arsyad
1 2
Ansar Suyuti
Sri Mawar Said
Yusri Syam Akil

  1. Electrical Engineering Department, Hasanuddin University, Gowa, Indonesia
  2. Electrical Engineering Department, Makassar State University, Makassar, Indonesia
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In this paper,we proposed a modified meta-heuristic algorithm based on the blind naked mole-rat (BNMR) algorithm to solve the multiple standard benchmark problems. We then apply the proposed algorithm to solve an engineering inverse problem in the electromagnetic field to validate the results. The main objective is to modify the BNMR algorithm by employing two different types of distribution processes to improve the search strategy. Furthermore, we proposed an improvement scheme for the objective function and we have changed some parameters in the implementation of the BNMR algorithm. The performance of the BNMR algorithm was improved by introducing several new parameters to find the better target resources in the implementation of a modified BNMR algorithm. The results demonstrate that the changed candidate solutions fall into the neighborhood of the real solution. The results show the superiority of the propose method over other methods in solving various mathematical and electromagnetic problems.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohammad Taherdangkoo

  1. Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
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Accurate and reliable fault location is necessary for ensuring the safe and reliable operation of the VSC-HVDC transmission system. This paper proposed a single-terminal fault location method based on the fault transient characteristics of the two-terminal VSCHVDC transmission system. The pole-to-pole transient fault process was divided into three stages, the time-domain expression of the DC current during the diode freewheel stage was used to locate the fault point, and a criterion for judging whether the fault evolves to the diode freewheel stage was proposed. Taking into account the enhancing effect of the opposite system to the fault current, theDCside pole-to-ground fault networkwas equated to a fourth-order circuit model, the relationship of fault distance with the characteristic roots of fault current differential equationwas derived, and the Prony algorithmwas utilized for datafitting to extract characteristic roots to realize fault location. A two-terminal VSC-HVDC transmission system was modelled in PSCAD/EMTDC. The simulation result verifies that the proposed principle can accurately locate the fault point on the VSC-HVDC transmission lines.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yanxia Zhang
Anlu Bi
Jian Wang
Fuhe Zhang
Jingyi Lu

  1. School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, China
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To reduce the influence of the disorderly charging of electric vehicles (EVs) on the grid load, the EV charging load and charging mode are studied in this paper. First, the distribution of EV charging capacity and state of charge (SOC) feature quantity are analyzed, and their probability density function is solved. It is verified that both EV charging capacity and SOC obey the skew-normal distribution. Second, considering the space-time distribution characteristics of the EV charging load, a method for charging load prediction based on a wavelet neural network is proposed, and compared with the traditional BP neural network, the prediction results show that the error of the wavelet neural network is smaller, and the effectiveness of the wavelet neural network prediction is verified. The optimization objective function with the lowest user costs is established, and the constraint conditions are determined, so the orderly charging behavior is simulated by the Monte Carlo method. Finally, the influence of charging mode optimization on power grid operation is analyzed, and the result shows that the effectiveness of the charging optimization model is verified.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zhiyan Zhang
Hang Shi
Ruihong Zhu
Hongfei Zhao
Yingjie Zhu

  1. College of Electrical Information Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, China
  2. State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power Co., Ltd. Maintenance Branch Company, China
  3. Nanjing Electric Power Design Institute Co., Ltd. China
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High-frequency resonance is a prominent phenomenon which affects the normal operation of the high-speed railway in China. Aiming at this problem, the resonance mechanism is analyzed first. Then, model predictive control and selective harmonic elimination pulse-width modulation (MPC-SHEPWM) combined control strategy is proposed, where the harmonics which cause the resonance can be eliminated at the harmonic source. Besides, the MPC is combined to make the current track the reference in transients. The proposed control has the ability to suppress the resonance while has a faster dynamic performance comparing with SHEPWM. Finally, the proposed MPC-SHEPWM is tested in a simulation model of CRH5 (Chinese Railway High-speed), EMUs (electric multiple units) and a traction power supply coupled system, which shows that the proposed MPC-SHEPWM approach can achieve the resonance suppression and shows a better dynamic performance.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sitong Chen
Xiaoqiang Chen
Ying Wang
Ye Xiong

  1. School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou, China
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To evaluate the occupational safety of a high signal operator exposed to the electric field induced by contact wires with a frequency of 50 Hz and a voltage of 27.5 kV, this study established a model of a high signal operator working in the vicinity of singleand double-track railways. The electric field distribution in the operator’s body and his head were calculated and analyzed during the operation using the finite element method (FEM). The calculated results were compared with the international standard occupational exposure limits formulated by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and action levels (ALs), exposure limit values (ELVs) in Directive 2013/35/EU (EU Directive). In the case of a single-track railway exposure, the maximum electric field strength in the worker’s body, in the scalp layer, and inside the brain are 227 mV/m, 2.76 kV/m, and 0.14 mV/m, respectively. For a double-track railway exposure, the maximum internal electric field strength of the operator is 310 mV/m, which is 37.85% of the occupational exposure basic restriction limit. The maximum electric field strength in the head layers is 3.42 kV/m, which is 34.2% of the occupational exposure reference level and 34.2% of the low ALs. The maximum electric field strength of the brain is 0.19 mV/m, which is 0.19% of the occupational basic restriction limit and 0.135% of the sensory effects ELVs. Results show that the electric field exposure of the high signal operator to contact wires in single- and double-track railways is lower than the occupational exposure limits provided by the ICNIRP and EU Directive standards and is thus regarded as safe forworkers.
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Authors and Affiliations

Chang-Qiong Yang
Mai Lu

  1. Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China
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The static series synchronous compensator (SSSC) has demonstrated its capability in providing voltage support and improving power system stability. The objective of this paper is to analyze the dynamic interaction stability mechanism of a hybrid renewable energy system connected with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) energy with the SSSC. For this purpose, a linearized mathematical model of this modified hybrid single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB) power system is developed to analyze the physical mechanism of the SSSC in suppressing oscillations and the influence on the dynamic stability characteristics of synchronization. Typical impacting factors such as the series compensation level, the SOFC penetration and tie-line power are considered in the SMIB and two-area systems. The impact of dynamic interactions on enhancing damping characteristics and improving transient performance of the studied systems is demonstrated using eigenvalue analysis and dynamic time-domain simulations, which validates the validity of the proposed physical mechanism simultaneously.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ping He
Pan Qi
Yuqi Ji
Zhao Li

  1. Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No.5 Dongfeng Road, Jinshui District, Zhengzhou, 450002, China
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Due to the extensive use of nonlinear power consumers, there is currently an urgent problem of high harmonic content in power supply networks. The paper provides experimental investigations and a study of the nature of the change in the main harmonic components of the current in the neutral working wire of a three-phase four-wire network with a voltage of 0.38 kV. The purpose of this study is to compare the load readings on the amplitude-phase-frequency characteristics of the current in the neutral working wire of the 0.38 kV network with the linear and non-linear load. To study the effect of load changes on the amplitude-phase-frequency characteristics of currents in the linear and zero working wires at the input of the load node, measurements were carried out by certified electrical measuring instruments. The analysis of the results obtained for the load node whose power was formed mainly by a lighting system with fluorescent and LED lamps and a system of office electrical receivers (computers, copiers, printers, scanners, etc.) was performed. It can be concluded that a current comparable to the currents of the linear wires of the network flows from the load node with the predominant nonlinear power receivers through the zero-working wire. At the same time, in the zero-working wire of the network, the third harmonic currents prevail over the main frequency currents.
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[17] Florkowski M., Florkowska B., Zydron P., High voltage harmonics induced modifications of PD phase-resolved patterns, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 231–246 (2018).
[18] European Standard EN 62040-3, (2018).
[19] Zeng X.J., Zhai H.F., Wang M.X., Yang M., Wang M.Q., A system optimization method for mitigating three-phase imbalance in distribution network, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, no. 113, pp. 618–633 (2019).
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Authors and Affiliations

Igor V. Yudaev
Evgeny V. Rud
Mikhail A. Yundin
Tamara Z. Ponomarenko
Aleksandra M. Isupova

  1. Azov-Black Sea Engineering Institute of Don State Agrarian University, Russia
  2. ICPE Energy Institute for Advanced Studies of the PJSC “Kubanenergo”, Russia
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This article discusses the most important issues regarding the implementation of digital algorithms for control and drive technology in industrial machines, especially in open mining machines. The article presents the results of tests in which the algorithm and drive control parameter settings were not selected appropriately for voltage-fed induction motors, and where the control speed was not verified by any of the available motoring or simulation methods. We then show how the results can be improved using field-oriented control algorithms and deep parameters analysis for sensorless field-oriented performance.
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[1] Kaczynski P., Czmochowski J., Analysis of causes for cracks in the connection of the swivel drawbar with crawler beam of the feeder vehicle, Mechanical Faculty, Wrocław University of Technology, Mining and Geoengineering, Book 2, no. 33, pp. 169–177 (2009).
[2] Sokolski P., Sokolski M., Evaluation of resistance to catastrophic failures of large-size caterpillar chain links of open-pit mining machinery, Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc – Maintenance and Reliability 2014, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 80–84 (2014).
[3] Anuszczyk J., Jabłonski M., Modification of the sensorless algorithm for controlling the drives of the tracks of the ZGOT Roller, Mining Institute of the Wrocław University of Technology, no. 112, pp. 69–76 (2005).
[4] Anuszczyk J., Jabłonski M., Research of electromechanical power units of the ZGOT, International Congress of Surface Mining, Bełchatów (2009).
[5] Kanczewski P., Kowalczyk P., ZGOT-15400.120 first Polish 200,000, Scientific work of the Mining Institute PWr. III International Congress of Lignite Mining, Bełchatów, pp. 213–221 (2002).
[6] Jabłonski M., Borkowski P., Replacement of control systems with implementation of digital inverter drive technology in surface mining machines, Conference KOMTECH 2020, to be published.
[7] Paszek W., Dynamic of alternating current electrical machines, Helion, Gliwice (1998).
[8] Pełczewski W., Krynke M., Variable State Method in Drive System Analysis, WNT, Warszawa (1984).
[9] Tunia H., Kazmierkowski M., Automation of converter dries systems, PWN, Warszawa (1987).
[10] Technical documentation, engineering manual and compendium for SIMOVERT MASTERDRIVES, Automation and Drives, Variable-Speed Drive Systems, Erlangen 1999-2012, Siemens AG (2020).
[11] Technical documentation, engineering manual and compendium for SINAMICS drives, Automation and Drives, Variable-Speed Drive Systems, Erlangen 1999-2012, Siemens AG (2020).
[12] Jabłonski M., Analysis of functional parameters and modification of control algorithms of field-oriented inverter drive with induction motor, PhD., Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Computer Science and Automation PŁ, Łódz (2006).
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Authors and Affiliations

Mariusz Jabłoński
Piotr Borkowski

  1. Lodz University of Technology, Poland

Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

Manuscript submission:

All manuscripts should be submitted electronically on Editorial System.

Submission of paper to the Archives of Electrical Engineering is understood to imply that the article is original, unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. All articles will be reviewed. Since 2013, Authors wishing to use the facility of colour printing should consult the editors.


Microsoft Word is recommended as a standard word processor to prepare the paper to the AEE journal. If you use the LaTex format, please transfer your document to Microsoft Word and then use Template AEE.

While editing your paper, make sure that all the mathematical characters (symbols, identifiers, variables, vectors, axis marks, etc.) have the required shape, thickness, and slant kept throughout the whole article. The same appearance of a given mathematic character must be retained regardless of its place (text, equations, tables or figures).

The articles that don’t conform to the above will not be processed and published.

The reviewing process:

Each paper submitted for publication in Archives of Electrical Engineering is subjected to the following review procedure:

a) the paper is reviewed by the editor in chief or guest editor for general suitability for publication in AEE

b) if it is judged suitable two reviewers are selected and a double blind peer review process takes place

c) based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the editor then decides whether the paper should be accepted in its present form, revised or rejected

d) the author(s) is(are) informed by e-mail on the results of the reviewing procedure.

The papers are published on average within 3 months after acceptance.

Requirements for preparation of manuscripts:

The manuscript submitted for publication should have no less than 12 pages and no more than 16 pages. In the case of the manuscript longer than 16 pages, please contact the AEE Editorial Board before submitting your paper. The manuscripts, written in UK English, should be typed using Template AEE according to the following instructions and should include: a title page with the title of a manuscript, a short title; abstract; key words, text; list of references. A DOI number as well as received and revised data will be completed by Editor. When you open Template.doc, select "Print Layout" from the "View" menu in the menu bar (View > Print Layout). Then type over sections of Template.doc or cut and paste from another document and then use markup styles (Home > Styles). For example, the style at this point in the document is "main text").

All papers submitted for publication are assessed on the basis of the mutual anonymity rule as to the names of reviewers and authors. Authors' names and affiliations should not appear in the attached text/tables/figures.

If English is not your first language, ask an English-speaking colleague to proofread your manuscript. The manuscripts that fail to meet basic standards of literacy are likely to be immediately declined or after the language assessment, sent to the authors for linguistic improvement.

The manuscripts are published on average within 3 months after their acceptance.

Do not change the font sizes or line spacing to squeeze more text into a limited number of pages. Leave some open space around your figures.

The AEE journal publishes an ORCID for all authors. You will need a registered ORCID in order to submit your paper for peer review. ORCID registration is free and only takes a minute. Please note that ORCIDs will be added in the course of the author's proofreads.


The pages must be numbered consecutively. Articles should be divided into numbered sections, and if necessary subsections, preferably: Introduction, Material, Methods, Results, Conclusion and References. Any special characters (e.g. Greek, script, etc.) should be named in the margin where the character first occurs in the text. Names of species are to be accentuated with wavy underlining (italics). Equations should be numbered serially (1), (2), ... on the right side of the page. Footnotes should be avoided, if required, they should be used only for brief notes which do not fit well into the text. Figures and tables have to be included into the text. If table is typed on a separate page its position in the text should be marked. Abbreviations should be explained when they first appear in the text.


Please use the MathML editor as well as MathType editor to build an equation in your manuscript.


Equations should be typed within the text, centred, and should be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Their numbers should be typed in parentheses, flush right. Equations should be referred to in text, e.g. (1), except at the beginning of a sentence: "Equation (1) is ...". All symbols appearing in equations have to be defined in the text, before or just after the equation.

If the symbols are written in Times New Roman use italic fonts. Symbols of vectors and matrices should be written in bold fonts. Do not italicize Greek fonts and mathematical symbols like e.g.: the derivative symbol d, max, min, etc. The indices of symbols that are indices themselves should be written in a clear manner.

Note that the equation is centered using a center tab stop. Please keep the same font in the formulas and text.

Unit Symbols, Abbreviations:

Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.

Si units are recommended for use in formulas, drawings and tables., for example the SI unit for magnetic field strength H is A/m. Apply the center dot to separate compound units.

Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: "Wb/m2" or "webers per square meter," not "webers/m2." Spell units when they appear in text: "...a few henries…", not "...a few H…".

Use a zero before decimal points: "0.25," not ".25." Use "cm3," not "cc."

Unit Symbols, SI Prefixes as well as Abbreviations should be writing in accordance with the IEEE standard

Tables, figures (illustrations) and captions:

The illustrations (line diagrams and photographs) should be suitable for direct reproduction. The lettering as well the details should have proportional dimensions to maintain their legibility after the usual reduction. All illustrations should be numbered consecutively (Fig. X). Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals.

All figures, figure captions, and tables in the text must be inserted into the correct places.

Figures, photos, tables or other parts of a manuscript that have previously appeared in another publication or are not the property of the authors must be properly acknowledged in the manuscript. Permission to republish these items must be obtained by the corresponding author from a person or institution holding the copyright, usually the publisher.

Authors are requested to send all drawings used in the article in additional files. Create a separate file for each image. Images should be submitted in a bitmap format (.jpeg) or/and in a vector format (.eps, .pdf or .cdr). Each file must be saved according to the number in the original article, e.g.: FIG1.JPG, FIG2.EPS, or FIG3.PDF. Bitmap illustrations must be “flattened”, which means no additional layers, for example, covering old descriptions.

Photographs, colour, and greyscale figures should be at least at a resolution of 400 dpi.

All colour figures should be generated in the RGB or CMYK colour space, while greyscale images in the greyscale colour space.

When preparing your figures/graphics etc., we suggest the use of the Arial 8 point font for axis numbers and Arial 9 point font for axis names. Figures/graphics etc. can be prepared in one of two proposed ways - see Template AEE.

Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals. Use 9 point Times New Roman for the title of the table and 9 point Times New Roman for the filling of the table (9 in the case of symbols with subscripts).

AEE journal allows an author to publish color figures in e-version at no charge, and automatically convert them to grayscale for print versions. Authors wishing to use the facility of color printing should consult the editors.


A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the manuscript, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion.


References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.

Please provide name(s) and initials of author(s), the title of the manuscript, editors (if any), the title of the journal or book, a volume number, the page range, and finally the year of publication in brackets.

You can use the rules presented on the site: IEEE standard.

Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

Journal manuscript

[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript

[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual

[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).


[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).


[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).


[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).


[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).


[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms

[8] Author A., Title of article, in Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].


[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259


[9], accessed April 2010.


Authors will receive proofs for correction, which should be returned promptly. All joint contributions must indicate the name and address of the authors to whom proofs should be sent.

Fees for printing the papers in Archives of Electrical Engineering:

AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors will be asked to a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article.

The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro.

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