Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2013 | vol. 62 | No 3 September
| 361-373
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2013-0029

Słowa kluczowe:
induction generator
single-phase
circuit modelling
self-excited
induction motor

The purpose of the paper is the investigation of possibility of utilization of a single-phase induction machine, designed and normally operating as a single-phase capacitor induction motor, as a self-excited single-phase induction generator, which can be used to generate electrical energy from non-conventional energy sources. The paper presents dq model of the self-excited single-phase induction generator for dynamic characteristics simulation and steady-state model based on double revolving field theory with two phase symmetrical components – a forward and backward revolving field for performance of the generator under resistive load. Excitation and load characteristics obtained by simulation showed considerable influence of method of capacitor configuration in the load stator winding on terminal voltage, current and output power of the generator under load. An specific construction of the stator windings together with capacitor requirements to obtain nominal output power at desired self-regulating terminal voltage over the operating range will be the aim of further research.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2013 | vol. 62 | No 3 September
| 375-386
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2013-0030

Słowa kluczowe:
thermal modeling
thermal network
finite element method
iron losses
permanent magnet excited synchronous machine (PMSM)

The purpose of this paper is to develop a dynamic thermal model of a permanent magnet excited synchronous motor (PMSM). The model estimates the temperature at specific points of the machine during operation. The model is implemented using thermal network theory, whose parameters are determined by means of analytical approaches. Usually thermal models are initialized and referenced to room temperature. However, this can lead to incorrect results, if the simulations are performed when the electrical machine operates under “warm” conditions. An approach is developed and discussed in this paper, which captures the model in critical states of the machine. The model gives feedback by online measured quantities to estimate the initial temperature. The paper provides an extended dynamic thermal model, which leads to a more accurate and more efficient thermal estimation.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2013 | vol. 62 | No 3 September
| 387-400
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2013-0031

Słowa kluczowe:
harmonic balance method
atrix converter
requency domain

The paper presents abilities and advantages following from the use of the harmonicbalance method for analysis of steady state of a multiphase system with switching devices on example of a matrix converter. Switching elements are modelled as resistances with step-wise variable parameters, what allows to describe the converter by a linear infinite set of equations. The analysis in frequency domain is presented on example of the one-periodic control strategy. External systems were also added using the Thevenin method approach. The numerical calculation results of a linear equations set were verified by the variable structure method in a time domain and the numerical convergence was confirmed. Furthermore, the exemplary complex system was analysed using the cascade method and current waveforms were obtained.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2013 | vol. 62 | No 3 September
| 401-415
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2013-0032

Słowa kluczowe:
subsynchronous resonances
parameter identification
equivalent circuit
standstill frequency response test
three phase short circuit test
evolutionary strategy

Long transmission lines have to be compensated to enhance the transport of active power. But a wrong design of the compensation may lead to subsynchronous resonances (SSR). For studies often park equivalent circuits are used. The parameters of the models are often determined analytically or by a three-phase short-circuit test. Models with this parameters give good results for frequencies of 50 Hz and 100 Hz resp. 60 Hz and 120 Hz. But SSR occurs at lower frequencies what arises the question of the reliability of the used models. Therefore in this publication a novel method for the determination of Park equivalent circuit parameters is presented. Herein the parameters are determined form time functions of the currents and the electromagnetic moment of the machine calculated by transient finite-element simulations. This parameters are used for network simulations and compared with the finite-element calculations. Compared to the parameters derived by a three-phase short-circuit a significant better accuracy of simulation results can be achieved by the presented method.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2013 | vol. 62 | No 3 September
| 417-424
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2013-0033

Słowa kluczowe:
linear actuators
thermal field models
heating curves calculation
finite element model

The transient thermal model of the permanent magnet linear actuator (PMLA) has been considered. The characteristics of heating have been calculated including the main subdomains of the actuator. The carcasses from various materials have also been considered. The calculations have been verified experimentally and a good conformity was obtained.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2013 | vol. 62 | No 3 September
| 425-437
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2013-0034

Słowa kluczowe:
electrical steel sheets
hysteresis loop
magnetization characteristics
Goss texture
anisotropy

The Goss texture is a characteristic feature of grain-oriented transformer steel sheets. Generator sheets, which are produced as non-oriented steel sheets, should have isotropic features. However, measurement results of generator sheets, confirmed by crystallographic studies, indicate that these sheets are characterized by certain, quite significant anisotropy. The first purpose of this paper is to present the influence of textures of generator and transformer steel sheets on their magnetization characteristics. The second aim is to propose a method which takes into account the sheet textures in the calculations of magnetization curves. In calculations of magnetization processes in electrical steel sheets, models in which the plane of a sheet sample is divided into an assumed number of specified directions are used. To each direction a certain hysteresis loop, the so-called direction hysteresis, is assigned. The parameters of these direction hystereses depend, among other things, on the texture type in these steel sheets. This paper discusses the method which calculates the parameters of these direction hystereses taking into account the given sheet texture. The proposed method gives a possibility of determining the magnetization characteristics for any direction of the field intensity changes.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2013 | vol. 62 | No 3 September
| 439-447
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2013-0035

Słowa kluczowe:
energy consumption
lamination
finite element method
optimal control

This research presents a 3D FE method for the simulation of the variable reluctance stepper motor dynamics. The proposed model is used to obtain the optimal minimum energy control law that minimizes the energy injected by the controller. The method is based on the strong coupling of field - circuit equations and extended to eddy current, motion and nonlinearity problem. The linearization technique for the coupled problem is presented. Also the lamination of the motor core is considered. In the paper the open - loop control problem is analyzed. The proposed model is validated by the comparison with measurements. Next, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal minimum energy control method is applied. In both cases, the examination of the variable reluctance stepper motor dynamics and the steel loss in the core is presented and compared.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2013 | vol. 62 | No 3 September
| 449-461
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2013-0036

Słowa kluczowe:
cogging torque
finite element method
harmonic components
PM synchronous motor

This study presents the dependence of the level and harmonic structure of the cogging torque in permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) to imperfections of permanent magnet (PM) dimensions and positions, which can not be avoided in massproduction. Slightly diverse dimensions and misplacements of PMs are introducing asymmetries in magnetic field distribution which cause additional harmonic components. A finite element method (FEM) and Fast Fourier transform (FFT) were used to calculate cogging torque harmonic components with regard to several combinations of PM assembly imperfections. It has been established and proved that unequal PMs cause magnetic asymmetries which give rise to additional cogging torque harmonic components and consequently increase the total cogging torque. It is also shown that in some particular combinations the influence of an individual PM imprecision could compensate with others due to different phase shifts which can result even in the decrease of cogging torque. Considering presented results it is possible to foresee which additional harmonic components will comprise the cogging torque of mass-produced PMSMs due to PM imperfections. In this way the designers are able to predetermine required manufacturing tolerances to keep the level of cogging torque in a admissible level. Simulation results were verified and confirmed by laboratory tests.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2013 | vol. 62 | No 3 September
| 463-472
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2013-0037

Słowa kluczowe:
kicker power supply
power source for pulse corona discharge
magnetic pulse compression
parallel connection of IGBT and MOSFET transistors

The paper presents an overview of a method of nanosecond-scale high voltage pulse generation using magnetic compression circuits. High voltage (up to 18 kV) short pulses (up to 1.4 μs) were used for Pulsed Corona Discharge generation. In addition, the control signal of parallel connection of IGBT and MOSFET power transistor influence on system losses is discussed. For a given system topology, an influence of core losses on overall pulse generator efficiency is analysed.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2013 | vol. 62 | No 3 September
| 473-486
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2013-0038

Słowa kluczowe:
semiconductor element
instantaneous power
equations of instantaneous power orthogonal components balance

Both a classical instantaneous power method and a method based on equations of instantaneous power orthogonal components balance have been used to analyze power processes in electric circuits with semiconductor elements. Automated method of forming instantaneous power harmonic components was used to obtain analytical expressions and numerical values of instantaneous power components of analyzed electric circuits. A coefficient for estimation of a semiconductor converter nonlinearity degree has been offered.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2013 | vol. 62 | No 3 September
| 487-496
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2013-0039

Słowa kluczowe:
electric machines
modelling magnetic non-linearity
dynamic inductances
non-linear inductances

The paper discuss a problem of determination of inductances for AC machine windings when saturation of magnetic circuit is not neglected. For such cases, computation of magnetic field distribution in the machine magnetic circuit is a starting point for post processing procedures leading to various values, among others the co-energy in a given area and linkage fluxes of windings. This paper shows how to determine winding inductances in a nonlinear magnetic circuit from these two values and also how to compute directly nonlinear inductances. Problem is not trivial because such inductances are not uniquely determined as for linear case. In the paper a definition of nonlinear inductances is proposed which makes the choice unique.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2013 | vol. 62 | No 3 September
| 497-504
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2013-0040

Słowa kluczowe:
wave transformer
integral-derivative operators of fractional order
convolution operators
time domain
digital filters

In this paper the way of modeling phenomena occurring during the voltage and current waves passing through a point connection of two lines, with different wave impedance operators, is presented. This connection point is called „the wave transformer”. The analyzes and the resulting formulas concern not the frequency domain, but the time domain. The appropriate transition matrices of waves through the wave transformer are defined. This matrices are the convolution integral-derivative operators of fractional order (the digital filters). For a lossless line the wave transition matrices through the wave transformer become number type instead of operator type. All matrix multiplications occurring in the formulas should be understood in convolution way.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2013 | vol. 62 | No 3 September
| 505-516
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2013-0041

Słowa kluczowe:
position
DC motor
controller
fractional order

The paper presents the problem of position control of DC motor with rated voltage 24 V loaded by flywheel. The fractional order PD controller implemented in National Instruments NI ELVIS II programmed in LabView is used for controlling. The simple method for determining stability regions in the controller parameters space is given. Knowledge of these regions permits tuning of the controller and ensures required the phase margin of the system.

**ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE)** (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., *Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines*, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., *Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor*, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., *Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor*, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

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[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., *Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets*, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

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[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., *Title of patent*, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).

*example*

[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).

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[7] Driesen J., *Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers*, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

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[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., *Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,*in IEE*E* Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259

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Preparation of manuscript for Archives of Electrical Engineering (AEE)