Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2022 | vol. 48 | No 2 |

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Based on China’s provincial panel data from 2009 to 2019, this paper empirically tests and analyzes the effects of industrial agglomeration and other important economic variables on industrial green technology innovation efficiency from the perspective of spatial statistical analysis. The results show that the efficiency of China’s industrial green innovation has not changed much during the study period, exhibiting an obvious polarization phenomenon. Moreover, the improvement of the degree of industrial agglomeration is conducive to the regional green innovation efficiency level. This means that industrial agglomeration produces effective environmental and innovation benefits. In addition, the influence coefficient of enterprise-scale is negative, indicating that for Chinese industrial enterprises, the enlargement of the production scale weakens the promotion effect of R&D activities. The influence coefficient of human capital is negative, mainly because the direct effect has a small and positive value, while the indirect effect (spillover effect) has a negative and large value, indicating that the spillover effect of human capital between regions in China is deficient.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mingran Wu
Weidong Huang

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Soil contamination with hydrocarbons represents a worldwide problem, especially for oil-rich countries.Soil contamination becomes inevitable due to different accidents, aboveground spills, and leakage, threatening the fauna and flora. The purpose of this study is to remediate One-year aged contaminated soil with crude oil (23490 mg/kg) using the fluidization technique in a laboratory-scale column. Free water and surfactant solutions were used for washing at different operating conditions. The efficiency of the method was evaluated by the calculation of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal ratio. Without the addition of surfactant, the cleaning operation was not sufficiently efficient, especially at room temperature where the removal ratio was only about 18%. Raising the liquid temperature leads to some improvement where the TPH removal ratio reached 49% at 50°C. With the use of solutions containing Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES) as a surfactant, an important enhancement of removal ratio was noted, along with an important reduction in operating time, washing solution volume, and energy consumption. The use of alternatively working/stopping operation mode contributes to the improvement of efficiency. TPH removal ratios up to 99% were obtained under some favorable conditions. This research shows encouraging results for expanding towards the industrial level with clean and sustainable resources
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohammed Aouf
Salah Dounit

  1. Laboratory of Génie des Procédés, Faculty of Applied Sscience, Kasdi Merbah University, Algeria
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The increasing demand for noble metals boosts their price. In order to meet the increasing demand for elements, a number of technologies are being developed to recover elements already present in the environment.Traffic-related metal pollution is a serious worldwide concern. Roadside soils are constantly subjected to the deposition of metals released by tailpipe gases, vehicle parts, and road infrastructure components. These metals,especially platinum group elements from catalytic converters, accumulating in the soil pose a risk both for agricultural and residential areas. Phytomining is suggested as a novel technology to obtain platinum group metals from plants grown on the contaminated soil, rock, or on mine wastes. Interest in this method is growing as interest in the recovery of rare metals is also increasing. Based on the research of many authors, the sources and amounts of noble metals that accumulate in soil along communication routes have been presented. The paper presents also plants that can be used for phytomining.
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Authors and Affiliations

Stanisław Gawroński
Grzegorz Łutczyk
Wiesław Szulc
Beata Rutkowska

  1. Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie, Poland
  2. Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad, Poland
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With the increase in use and application of carbon nanomaterials and the frequent presence of fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines antibiotics in the aquatic environment, their interactions have attracted extensive attention. In this study, adsorption of two antibiotics: oxytetracycline (OTC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) by four carbon-based nanomaterials (graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, multiwalled carbon-nanotubes, oxidized multiwalled carbon-nanotubes) affected by pH was investigated. The experiment was performed in two steps: (i) adsorption of OTC and CIP at different pH values, (ii) adsorption isotherm studies of both antibiotics on four carbon-based nanomaterials. Both steps were conducted using the batch equilibration technique. The results showed that the adsorption of both antibiotics on studied adsorbents was highly pH-dependent. The highest adsorption was obtained at pH 7.0, implying the importance of the zwitterionic antibiotics forms to adsorption. Antibiotics adsorption isotherms at three given pH values followed the order of pH 7.0 > 1.0 > 11.0, which confirmed zwitterionic species of OTC and CIP as having the greatest ability to adsorb on carbonaceous nanomaterials. Electrostatic interaction, π-π EDA interaction, hydrophobic interaction for both antibiotics, and additionally hydrogen bond for CIP were possible mechanisms responsible for OTC and CIP adsorption onto studied nanomaterials. These results should be important to understand and assess the fate and interaction of carbon-based nanomaterials in the aquatic environment. This study can also be important for the use of carbon nanomaterials to remove antibiotics from the environment.
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Authors and Affiliations

Filip Gamoń
Mariusz Tomaszewski
Grzegorz Cema
Aleksandra Ziembińska-Buczyńska

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Gliwice, Poland
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The aim of the study was optimization of antimony speciation methodology in soils in areas subjected to industrial anthropopressure from traffic, metallurgy and recycling of electrowaste (e-waste) sources. Antimony speciation was carried out using the hyphenated HPLC-ICP-MS (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography- Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) technique for the determination of antimony species ((Sb(III), Sb(V), SbMe3). The extraction and determination of antimony species in soil was optimized and validated, taking into account the matrix effects. The best results in antimony extraction from soils were obtained using a mixture of 100 mM citric acid and 20 mM Na2EDTA. Ions were successfully separated in 6 minutes on Hamilton PRPX100 column with 0.11 μg/L, 0.16 μg/L, 0.43 μg/L limit of detection for Sb(III), Sb(V), SbMe3, respectively. The oxidized antimony form (Sb(V)) predominated in the soil samples. The reduced antimony form (Sb(III)) was present only in a few samples, characterized by the lowest pH. The methyl derivative of antimony (SbMe3) was present in the samples with the lowest redox potential from the area around WEEE (Waste of Electrical and Electronic Equipment) treatment plant. The methodology of extraction and determination of three antimony species in soils was developed, achieving low limits of quantification and very good recovery. The research showed a large variation in antimony content in the soils impacted by type of industrial anthroporessure. The antimony content was the highest in the area of the WEEE treatment plant, indicating this type of industrial activity as a significant source of soil contamination with antimony.
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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalena Jabłońska-Czapla
Katarzyna Grygoyć
Marzena Rachwał

  1. Institute of Environmental Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
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The article presents the results of research aimed at determining the catchment areas that pose a risk of nitrogen pollution of the waters of the Mała Panew river. The research was carried out in 13 permanent monitoring points located on the Mała Panew. The location of the points ensured the representativeness of the water quality results for parts of the catchment area with a homogeneous type of land use. Concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and total nitrogen (TN) were determined in the samples taken. The content of (NO3-N) in the third quarter of the year and its relation to the value obtained for the first year quarter may be an indicator of the impact of agricultural activities on the quality of water in streams. In the case of agricultural catchments, the lowest concentrations of NO3-N and TN occur in the third quarter of the year and are significantly lower than in the first quarter of the year. The demonstrated seasonal variability of nitrate nitrogen concentrations in agriculturally used areas may be used to determine the type of pressure not allowing to achieve good water status in the surface water body. It was shown that the highest unit increments occurred in areas with a high proportion of forest.
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Authors and Affiliations

Aleksandra Steinhoff-Wrześniewska
Maria Strzelczyk
Marek Helis
Anna Paszkiewicz-Jasińska
Łukasz Gruss
Krzysztof Pulikowski
Witold Skorulski

  1. Institute of Technology and Life Science – National Research Institute
  2. Institute of Environmental Engineering, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences
  3. ART Strefa Witold Skorulski
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Artificial water reservoirs pose impact on the natural environment. Impact of the artificial Czorsztyn Lake on groundwater and land management is assessed. The study is based on long-term observations of chemistry, groundwater levels and spring discharges during reservoir construction, filling, and 25-year-long exploitation. Land management changes caused by reservoir construction were recognized using remote sensing. Reservoir construction resulted in land management change in the study area. Built-up and forest areas gained prevalence over farmland areas. Two types of groundwater dominate: HCO3–Ca and HCO3–Ca–Mg, both before reservoir filling (68% analyses) and afterwards (95% analyses), and in control analyses from September 2020 (100% analyses). Gradual decrease in the occurrence of water types with the sulphate ion exceeding 20% mvals is documented, which points to water quality improvement trends. Moreover, changes of water saturation index values with regard to aquifer-forming mineral phases during reservoir construction and early exploitation phasei ndicate hydrochemical modifications. Decrease of groundwater level was related with transformation of the Dunajec river valley during reservoir construction and, accordingly, decrease of regional drainage base level. Groundwater level increased after reservoir filling, which points to coupled impact of the reservoir and increased precipitation recharge. Construction of the Czorsztyn Lake resulted in gradual land management transformation from farmlands into tourist-recreational areas. This change and river valley flooding by surface waters did not cause significant modifications in groundwater quantity and quality. Organization of water-sewage management related with reservoir construction resulted in noticeably improved quality trends.
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Authors and Affiliations

Włodzimierz Humnicki
Ewa Krogulec
Jerzy Małecki
Marzena Szostakiewicz-Hołownia
Anna Wojdalska
Daniel Zaszewski

  1. Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw, Poland
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The very high need for personal protective equipment (PPE) impacts the waste generated after using these tools. Therefore, to deal with mask waste during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study was carried out on the processing of mask waste using a thermal process and studied how the potential of this process was for the effectiveness of mask waste processing during the pandemic. This research was conducted on Honeymoon Beach by collecting data on mask waste generated during the pandemic, then measuring the waste proximate, ultimate, and calorific value and testing the thermal process using TGA and Piro GC-MS measurements. Most waste masks found on Honeymoon Beach are non-reusable masks, 94.74%, while reusable masks are 5.26%. The waste is then subjected to thermal processing and analysis using TGA and Piro GC-MS. Based on the data obtained, the thermal process can reduce the mass of non-reusable and reusable mask samples by 99.236% and 88.401%, respectively.The results of the Piro GC-MS analysis show that the lit mask waste will produce fragments of compounds that can be reused as fuel. The process is simple and easy and produces residues that can be reused to reduce environmental pollution due to waste generation during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mega Mutiara Sari
Takanobu Inoue
Iva Yenis Septiariva
I Wayan Koko Suryawan
Shigeru Kato
Regil Kentaurus Harryes
Kuriko Yokota
Suprihanto Notodarmojo
Sapta Suhardono
Bimastyaji Surya Ramadan

  1. Department of Environmental Engineering, Universitas Pertamina, Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia
  2. Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Japan
  3. Sanitary Engineering Laboratory, Study Program of Civil Engineering Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia
  4. Faculty of Vocational Studies, Indonesia Defense University, Indonesia
  5. Department of Environmental Engineering, Institut Technologi Bandung, Indonesia
  6. Department of Environmental Science, Universitas Sebelas Maret., Surakarta Central Java, Indonesia
  7. Department of Environmental Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
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Livestock production is the basis of global food production and it is a serious threat to the environment. Significant environmental pollutants are odors and ammonia (NH3) emitted from livestock buildings. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration and emission factors of ammonia and odors, in the summer season, from a deep-litter fattening house. The research was carried out during summer in a mechanically ventilated fattening piggery located in the Greater Poland Voivodeship. Ammonia concentrations were measured using photoacoustic spectrometer Multi Gas Monitor Innova 1312, and odor concentrations were determined by dynamic olfactometry according to EN 13725:2003 using a TO 8 olfactometer. The NH3 emission factors from the studied piggery, in summer, ranged from 8.53 to 21.71 g·day-1·pig-1, (mean value 12.54±4.89 g·day-1·pig-1). Factors related to kg of body mass were from 0.11 to 0.23 g·day-1·kg b.m.-1 (mean value 0.17±0.06 g·day-1·kg b.m.-1). Odor concentrations in the studied piggery were from 755 to 11775 ouE·m-3 and they were diversified (coefficient of variation 43.8%). The mean value of the momentary odor emission factors was 179.5±78.7 ouE·s-1·pig-1. Factor related to kg of body mass was 2.27±1.71 ouE·s-1·kg b.m.-1. In Poland and many other countries, the litter systems of pigs housing are still very popular. Therefore, there is a need to monitor the pollutant emissions from such buildings to identify the factors influencing the amount of this emission. Another important issue is to verify whether the reduction techniques, giving a measurable effect in laboratory research, bring the same reduction effect in production
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Authors and Affiliations

Paulina Mielcarek-Bocheńska
Wojciech Rzeźnik

  1. Institute of Technology and Life Sciences-National Research Institute, Poland
  2. Poznan University of Technology, Poland
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Hassi Messaoud oil field is one of the most important fields in Algeria and the world, because it covers an important quantity of total Crude Oil Production in Algeria. Furthermore, two-thirds of this oil field is underexplored or not explored. Therefore, the drilling process of petroleum wells in this field is a continuous process that results in significant drilling waste. This implies that enormous noxious quantities of drilling waste are produced daily that require treatment via solidification/stabilization (S/S) process before being landfilled. These types of wastes have pollution concentration that significantly exceeds the safety standards. In this study, we focus on the factors affecting the solidification/stabilization treatment of the drill cuttings obtained from Hassi Messaoud oil field and the process optimization. The solidification/stabilization is performed using the cement as binder, and sand, silicate, organophilic clay and activated carbon as additives.The study has been divided into two steps: (i) Determining the optimum ratio of each element used in the S/S process for the organic element (hydrocarbon) elimination, (ii) Combining the optimum ratios found in the previous step to determine the optimal mixture. The obtained results in the first step showed that the optimum ratio for the cement-to-drill cuttings mass ratio is 0.09:1. For the additives-to-drill cuttings mass ratios are 0.04:1, 0.006:1, 0.013:1 and 0.013:1 for the sand, sodium silicate, organophilic clay and activated carbon, respectively. An optimum formula is found whose main finding shows that the hydrocarbon content of our sample is dropped from 9.40 to 1.999%. Many tests’ results such as matrix permeability, resistance to free compression and heavy metals rate before and after S/S process were investigated before landfilling. Besides that, in the light of outcomes achieved by this assessment, these harmful cuttings can be converted into a useful product that helps in reducing the environmental foot prints.
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Authors and Affiliations

Abbas Hadj Abbas
1 2
Abidi Saad Aissa
Mohamed Khodja
Farad Sagala
5 6
Messaoud Hacini

  1. Laboratoire de géologie du Sahara, Université Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, Route de Ghardaia BP 511 Ouargla Algérie.
  2. Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary,
  3. Laboratoire de géologie du Sahara, Université Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, Route de Ghardaia BP 511 Ouargla Algérie
  4. SONATRACH/Institut Algérien du Pétrole, Avenue 1 Novembre 35000 Boumerdès, Algeria
  5. Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary
  6. Department of Energy, Minerals and Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Mbarara, University of Science and Technology (MUST), Kihumuro Campus, Mbarara, Uganda
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The chemical composition of bulk deposition is an important aspect of assessing ambient air pollution. It contributes significantly to the removal of pollutants from the atmosphere and their transfer to other ecosystems. Thus, it is a reliable determinant of environmental chemistry. Therefore, bulk deposition can be considered useful for tracking the migration path of substances from different sources. The aim of the study carried out at five measurement points in Zabrze and Bytom was to assess the content of selected physico-chemical parameters in bulk deposition. Samples were collected continuously from November 2019 to November 2020. In the collected samples the following were determined: COD, pH, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, inorganic carbon and total carbon; inorganic anions (Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, NO2-, Br-, PO43-) and cations (Li+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, NH4+), metals and metalloids (Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Cr, and Fe), and carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, oxalic). The obtained test results were statistically processed using Excel, and the normality of data distribution was verified by Shapiro-Wilk test. The results show that pollutants transported in the atmosphere and introduced with precipitation in the Zabrze and Bytom areas are a significant source of area pollution of the region.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rajmund Michalski
Paulina Pecyna-Utylska

  1. Institute of Environmental Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland

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Archives of Environmental Protection
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