Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2008 | vol. 34 | Special Issue |

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The paper presents a mature concept of an intelligent monitoring system of air pollution inflow and its realization in the form of a SINZaP system lunched at Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (]ETU) in 2006. SINZaP is a real time operating system resembling a neural network. It is designed for modeling of pollutant emissions and air pollutants concentrations, addressed to specialists or decision makers responsible for air quality management. For modeling of emission and air pollutants concentrations in SIZNaP system, a back trajectory model -BackTrack has been used, which is based on YLSTRACK model. The essential feature ofthe BackTrack model is the application of back trajectories in the selection of emission sources influencing a given receptor. For modeling of trajectories BackTrack uses three-dimensional wind fields, friction velocity, MoninObukhov length and mixing layer height. SINZaP consists of four main modules: (I) data module including data scanner for reading public data accessible in the Internet, (2) module for preparation of meteorological data, (3) BackTrack module for simulations of pollutants emissions and simulations of air pollutants concentrations, and (4) Trainer module, the task ofwhich is correction of input parameters for adjusting modeling and observed data.
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Authors and Affiliations

Czeslaw Kliś
Joachim Bronder
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The paper presents the results of laboratory-scale tests of Polish hard coal steam gasification process combined with CO2 capture by absorption on CaO in a single step. Polish coal mine Piast was selected as a coal samples supplier based on the coal resources, quality, price and reactivity which makes it a potential supplier for a future full-scale gasification system. Steam gasification tests were conducted in a vertical fixed bed reactor at the temperature range of948-I I 73K in three series: with addition of CaO layered on a coal sample (II), mixed with a coal sample (111) and without adding CaO (I). The CaO increased both the hydrogen yield and content in gaseous products mixture in comparison with series l. As expected, mixing of CaO with coal sample improved the effects in terms of hydrogen yield and concentration in outlet gas when compared with CaO layered on a coal sample. An effective CO2 absorption was observed in tests with CaO mixed with a coal sample and at relatively low temperatures. At higher temperatures a reaction resulting in CO2 concentration increase in the produced gas mixture was observed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Adam Smoliński
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The paper is focused on use of renewable energy sources for energy production with special attention paid to the biomass wastes. Type and potential of wastes biomass, which can be used for production of electric and thermal energy, were generally characterized, use of the biomass as energy source in Poland was discussed, existing reserves were estimated and basic strategic-and-legal acts, which refer to the considered problem were presented. A type of possible activities to increase the amount of alternative energy produced in Poland, in the light of requirement to achieve a determined ecological-and-energy target resulting from international agreements and EU legislation, were indicated.
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Authors and Affiliations

Danuta Domańska
Tomasz Zacharz
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For majority of running waters point pollution sources are the main sources of pollution. Knowing the water self-purification capacity one can modify the quality of waters through proper management of the discharged pollutants. This study focuses on identifying such solutions for pollutant discharge into the Kłodnica and Bytomka rivers, which would allow for achieving at least the Ill class of surface water quality. Simulation of selected wastewater management scenarios was carried out. The best solutions for the water environment were identified. Only environmental effects which resulted in improvement of the water quality were analyzed. The economical aspect of actions, the undertaking ofwhich is indispensable for achieving the assumed goal, was not taken into account. The selection of the best solutions considering the cost effectiveness cannot be made until a feasibility study for particular undertakings has been completed. Sal i nity and biodegradable pollutants determined by BOD coefficient were taken into consideration. The simulation was carried out using an integrated simulation model IRM (Integrated River Model). In order to protect the river from excessive salinity the optimum solution for the Bytomka River would be desalination, whereas for the Kłodnica River- directing salty mining waters outside its catchment. For protection from biodegradable pollutants the only solution would be tightening the effectiveness criteria for municipal wastewater treatment. Meeting the minimum standards for wastewater treatment, currently obligatory in municipal wastewater treatment plants, will not ensure the assumed water purity level in these rivers.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rudolf Bujok
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The analysis of water self-purification process includes headstreams of rivers in the Upper Silesian agglomeration: the Bierawka, the Kłodnica, Bielszowicki creek and the Szotkówka. These are rivers characterized by small natural flows and a significant anthropogenic pol I utant load. Results of our own research on the self-purification rate were used. The attention was focused on biodegradable substances. The biodegradation rate coefficient k, and water assimilative capacity were determined. Within the same rivers, their particular parts differ in types of a riverbed and swift currents alternate with slow flows. In the case of Bielszowicki creek and the Szotkówka River impoundments were observed, which results in different self-purification conditions. In all investigated parts the rate of organic substance removal, characterized byk, coefficients, was usually much higher than the literature values for comparable rivers, which usually are below 2.0, rarely exceeding 3.0. The creek impoundments occurring in the watercourse beds do not always have a positive impact on the water quality. The role of the creek impoundments in the river self-purification process and their impact on water ecosystems require separate investigations.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rudolf Bujok
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The paper presents the way of water quality improvement in storage reservoirs, using pre-dams with plant filters. Pre-dams, built above the main reservoirs, reduce the inflow of pollutants transported by the river and take over most of biochemical processes responsible for eutrophication of the stored water. As a result, water flowing to the main reservoir contains smaller loads of pollutants. The above-mentioned method is more economic, requires relatively short construction time and is less laborious than generally used methods of surface water protection. It is specially recommended to improve the quality of water in small reservoirs, where quick silting and eutrophication occur. Proper functioning of pre-dams depends on proper selection of their parameters, such as: water storage time, water flow velocity, filling depth and type of plant filters. The authors estimated the effectiveness of a pre-dam reservoir situated above the main reservoir in Mściwojów on the Wierzbiak River. The pre-dam reservoir consists of a three-chamber sediment tank and three chambers with plant barriers. The purpose of the chambers is to decrease the quantity of sediments, the biogenie substances and other pollutants carried with water flowing to the main reservoir. Research carried out during the period 2000-2001 showed that pre-dams significantly contributed to the improvement of the water quality in the main reservoir - nitrates were eliminated in ca 65% and phosphates in ca 52%.
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Authors and Affiliations

Włodzimierz Czamara
Alicja Czamara
Mirosław Wiatkowski
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The aim of this study was to assess soil contamination with toxic metals in the area of Piekary Śląskie (Silesian Voivodeship), taking into consideration various land use patterns. The scope of research covered the determination of lead and cadmium concentration in soil in the following areas: allotment gardens, fallow lands and kindergarten playgrounds. The lead and cadmium concentrations in soil samples were determined using a flame atomic absorption spectrometry technique, after the aqua regia extraction in a MDS 2000 microwave digestion system. The metal contents in the analyzed soil samples varied remarkably, depending on the sampling location and its distance from the main emitter of toxic metals in Piekary Śląskie, i.e. "Orzel Bialy" Non-Ferrous Metal Smelter. Metal concentrations determined in all soil samples significantly exceeded the concentration levels accepted in Poland for arable lands and residential areas. The lead and cadmium concentrations in soil should become the basis for stopping edible plants cultivation in the area of Piekary Śląskie. The contaminated soil in kindergarten playgrounds can be an important source of lead and cadmium contamination, posing hazard to the children's health. Contamination of playgrounds with toxic metals should stimulate undertaking actions aimed at modernization of playgrounds and reduction of the children's contact with soil. In the context of the applied result assessment criteria the soil concentrations of these metals observed in the region of Piekary Śląskie should arouse great concern among its users and local authorities.
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Authors and Affiliations

Elżbieta Kulka
Jadwiga Gzyl

Instructions for authors

Archives of Environmental Protection
Instructions for Authors

Archives of Environmental Protection is a quarterly published jointly by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Committee of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Thanks to the cooperation with outstanding scientists from all over the world we are able to provide our readers with carefully selected, most interesting and most valuable texts, presenting the latest state of research in the field of engineering and environmental protection.

The Journal principally accepts for publication original research papers covering such topics as:
– Air quality, air pollution prevention and treatment;
– Wastewater treatment and utilization;
– Waste management;
– Hydrology and water quality, water treatment;
– Soil protection and remediation;
– Transformations and transport of organic/inorganic pollutants in the environment;
– Measurement techniques used in environmental engineering and monitoring;
– Other topics directly related to environmental engineering and environment protection.

The Journal accepts also authoritative and critical reviews of the current state of knowledge in the topic directly relating to the environment protection.

If unsure whether the article is within the scope of the Journal, please send an abstract via e-mail to:

Preparation of the manuscript
The following are the requirements for manuscripts submitted for publication:
• The manuscript (with illustrations, tables, abstract and references) should not exceed 20 pages. In case the manuscript exceeds the required number of pages, we suggest contacting the Editor.
• The manuscript should be written in good English.
• The manuscript ought to be submitted in doc or docx format in three files:
– text.doc – file containing the entire text, without title, keywords, authors names and affiliations, and without tables and figures;
– figures.doc – file containing illustrations with legends;
– tables.doc – file containing tables with legends;
• The text should be prepared in A4 format, 2.5 cm margins, 1.5 spaced, preferably using Time New Roman font, 12 point. Thetext should be divided into sections and subsections according to general rules of manuscript editing. The proposed place of tables and figures insertion should be marked in the text.
• Legends in the figures should be concise and legible, using a proper font size so as to maintain their legibility after decreasing the font size. Please avoid using descriptions in figures, these should be used in legends or in the text of the article. Figures should be placed without the box. Legends should be placed under the figure and also without box.
• Tables should always be divided into columns. When there are many results presented in the table it should also be divided into lines.
• References should be cited in the text of an article by providing the name and publication year in brackets, e.g. (Nowak 2019). When a cited paper has two authors, both surnames connected with the word “and” should be provided, e.g. (Nowak and Kowalski 2019). When a cited paper has more than two author, surname of its first author, abbreviation ‘et al.’ and publication year should be provided, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019). When there are more than two publications cited in one place they should be divided with a coma, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019, Nowak 2019, Nowak and Kowalski 2019). Internet sources should be cited like other texts – providing the name and publication year in brackets.
• The Authors should avoid extensive citations. The number of literature references must not exceed 30 including a maximum of 6 own papers. Only in review articles the number of literature references can exceed 30.
• References should be listed at the end of the article ordered alphabetically by surname of the first author. References should be made according to the following rules:

1. Journal:
Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title of the article, Journal Name, volume, number, pages, DOI.
For example:

Nowak, S.W., Smith, A.J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of the article, Archives of Environmental Protection, 10, 2, pp. 93–98. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330

If the article has been assigned DOI, it should be provided and linked with the website on which it is made available.

2. Book:
Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title, Publisher, Place and publishing year.
For example:

Kraszewski, J. & Kinecki, K. (2019). Title of book, Work & Studies, Zabrze 2019.

3. Edited book:

Surnames and initials of text authors. (publishing year). Title of cited chapter, in: Title of the book, Surnames and
initials of editor(s). (Ed.)/(Eds.). Publisher, Place, pages.
For example:

Reynor, J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of chapter, in: Title of the cited book, Kaźmierski, I. & Jasiński, C. (Eds.). Work & Studies, Zabrze, pp. 145–189.

4. Internet sources:
Surnames and initials or the name of the institution which published the text. (publication year). Title, (website address (accessed on)).
For example:

Kowalski, M. (2018). Title, ( (03.12.2018)).

5. Patents:

Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.
Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

6. Materials published in language other than English:
Titles of cited materials should be translated into English. Information of the language the materials were published in should be provided at the end.
For example:

Nowak, S.W. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of article, Journal Name, 10, 2, pp. 93–98. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330. (in Polish)

Not more than 30 references should be cited in the original research paper.

Submission of the manuscript
By submitting the manuscript Author(s) warrant(s) that the article has not been previously published and is not under consideration by another journal. Authors claim responsibility and liability for the submitted article.
The article is freely available and distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0,, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the article is properly cited, is not used for commercial purposes and no modification or adaptation are made.

© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0,, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial, and no modifications or adaptations are made

The manuscripts should be submitted on-line using the Editorial System available at Authors are asked to propose at least 4 potential reviewers, including 2 from Poland, together with their e-mail addresses. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

Review Process
All the submitted articles are assessed by the Editorial Board. If positively assessed by at least two editors, Editor in Chief, along with department editors selects two independent reviewers from recognized authorities in the discipline.
Review process usually lasts from 1 to 4 months.
Reviewers have access to PUBLONS platform which integrates into Bentus Editorial System and enables adding reviews to their personal profile.
After completion of the review process Authors are informed of the results and – if both reviews are positive – asked to correct the text according to reviewers’ comments. Next, the revised work is verified by the editorial staff for factual and editorial content.

Acceptance of the manuscript

The manuscript is accepted for publication on grounds of the opinions of independent reviewers and approval of Editorial Board. Authors are informed about the decision and also asked to pay processing charges and to send completed declaration of the transfer of copyright to the editorial office.

Proofreading and Author Correction
All articles published in the Archives of Environmental Protection go through professional proofreading process. If there are too many language errors that prevent understanding of the text, the article is sent back to Authors with a request to correct the indicated fragments or – in extreme cases – to re-translate the text.
After proofreading the manuscript is prepared for publishing. The final stage of the publishing process is Author correction. Authors receive a page proof copy of the article with a request to make final corrections.

Article publication charges
The publication fee of an article in the Journal is:
25 EUR/100 zł per page (black and white or in gray scale),
35 EUR/130 zł per page (color).

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Bank BGK
Account no.: 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001

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IBAN: PL 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001

Authors are kindly requested to inform the editorial office of making payment for the publication, as well as to send all necessary data for issuing an invoice.

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