Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2023 | vol. 49 | No 3

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In the context of China’s new infrastructure construction developing rapidly, this paper explores the sustainable new infrastructure green development pattern. We establish qualitative and quantitative indicators for green technology innovation (GTI) at both the societal macro level and enterprise micro level, capturing the multidimensional nature of China’s green innovation dynamic. Additionally, we create an indicator system for China’s new infrastructure investment intensity (NTI) across three areas: information infrastructure, integration infrastructure, and innovation infra-structure. Using provincial panel data from 2010 to 2020, we construct a coupling coordination degree model (CCDM) to examine the level of coordination between NTI and GTI. Our findings reveal that: the degree of coordination between NTI and GTI follows a U-shaped curve, with both subsystems remaining far from highly coordinated during rapid development; the coupling level of NTI and GTI in China is currently at a near dissonance level overall; the degree of coupling and coordination between NTI and GTI is mainly influenced by policies, and the coupling level is higher on the enterprise side than on the societal side; the two parameters (α-NTI and β-GTI) widely used in prior studies have less of an effect on the coordinated coupling system than other factors considered herein.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kunjie Zhu
Simin Yang

  1. Department of Economics and Trade, Hunan University of Technology and Business, Hunan, China.
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Plastics are one of the most widely used materials, and, in most cases, they are designed to have long life spans. Since plastic and packaging waste pollute the environment for many years, their disposal is of great importance for the environment and human health. In this paper, a system was developed to store liquid fuel from plastic and organic waste mixes without solidification, which then can be used as fuel in motor vehicles and construction machinery. For this purpose, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and organic wastes and clay, zeolite, and MCS23-code materials (50% magnetite- %25 calcium oxide- %25 sodium chloride) were heated in a closed medium at temperatures ranging from 300 to400 oC and subsequently re-condensed. The study conducted twenty tests, involving various types and rates of plastic and organic materials, as well as different rates of catalysts. Among these tests, the highest liquid fuel yield (67.47%) was achieved in Test 9, where 50% PVC-50% PET waste, 75 g of clinoptilolite, and 500 g of MCS23 waste were collectively used. Notably, Test 12 exhibited the highest density value (79.8 kg/m3), while the best viscosity value (2.794 mm2/s) was observed in Test 2. Across all samples, flash point values were found to be below 40oC. The most favorable yield point value was recorded in Test 2 (-6oC). The samples displayed ash content within the range of 0 to0.01% (m/m)] and combustion heat values of 35.000> J/g which fall within the standard range. The incorporation of MCS23 with clinoptilolite additives is believed to have a significant impact on obtaining high-yield products with improved fuel properties.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mehmet Can Sarıkap
Fatma Hoş Çebi

  1. İstanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Turkey
  2. Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
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The zinc and lead industry generates substantial quantities of waste. Among the many types of wastes, such as dust or liquid, a large proportion are solid waste such as slags. The purpose of the study was the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the short rotary kiln slags and slags deposited in a hazardous waste landfill originating from zinc and lead metallurgy. This assessment represents the primary step in evaluating materials such as slags concerning their potential for substantial applications, such as process for metal separation. Additionally, this evaluation forms the basis for a comprehensive environmental study. The concentrations of the four predominant metals – Fe>Pb>Zn>Cu – and accompanying elements – Na>Ca>K>Ni>Mn>Cr – were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) after aqua regia digestion. A large variation was found in the phase analysis of the studied materials based on SEM, XRD, X-ray microanalysis, and BCR sequential extraction. The BCR analysis revealed the occurrence of major metals in four different fractions: acid-soluble, reducible, oxidizable, and residual. Pb was mainly present in the acid-soluble fraction, while Fe, Cu, and Zn were present in the residual fraction.
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Authors and Affiliations

Milena Nocoń
Irena Korus
Krzysztof Loska

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Energy, Department of Water and Wastewater Engineering, Poland
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The rapid, high increase in production costs and prices of mineral fertilizers leads to a reduction in their use by farmers, while fertilizer manufacturers consider the use of alternative raw materials and reducing the energy consumption of fertilizer production processes. Given these circumstances, special attention is warranted for suspension fertilizers. The manufacturing of suspension fertilizers is simplified and less energy intensive in comparison with solid fertilizers. This is achieved by omitting certain production stages such as granulation, drying, sifting, which usually contribute to more than half of the production costs. This paper presents the production procedure of suspension fertilizers tailored for cabbage cultivation, utilizing alternative raw materials such as sewage sludge ash and poultry litter ash. The final products are thoroughly characterized. The obtained fertilizers were rich in main nutrients (ranging from 23.38% to 30.60% NPK) as along with secondary nutrients and micronutrients. Moreover, they adhere to the stipulated standards concerning heavy metal content as outlined in the European Fertilizer Regulation. A distribution analysis has showed that suspension fertilizers contain nutrients in both liquid and solid phases. This arrangement facilitates their easy availability for plants and subsequent release upon dissolution in soil conditions. To assess process consistency, the production of the most promising fertilizer was upscaled. A preliminary technological and economic analysis was also conducted. The method of producing suspension fertilizers using alternative raw materials is a simple waste management solution offering nutrient recycling with the principles of circular economy. This approach not only encourages nutrient recycling but also curtails reliance on imported raw materials.
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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Gorazda
Halyna Kominko
Anna K. Nowak
Adam Wiśniak

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Poland
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Determining the level of solid pollution in beach sands located near artificial inland water bodies in order to maintain high safety standards is a difficult and expensive task. The tests aimed at determining beach pollution caused by solid wastes through analysis of toxic and chemical concentrations, are time-consuming and usually require several days before the results are available. In addition, the maintenance of the beach area involving beach raking or grooming, and the seasonal replenishment of sand makes it difficult to realistically determine the chemical or bacterial contamination of the tested material. Solid pollutants, such as glass, caps, cans, thick foil, metal, and plastic fragments, pose a greater health risk to beachgoers. The above-mentioned pollutants, especially small ones, are hardly visible on the surface or they are buried at shallow depths. Beach garbage poses a serious threat that can lead to infections from cuts and scratches. These injuries can become infected, further jeopardizing the health and lives of beachgoers due to risks like tetanus, staphylococcus, etc. The authors presented a new petrographic method aimed at assessing the quality of sand by examining the content of solid pollutants. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that the mentioned procedure can be used for a quick quantitative estimation of the content of potentially dangerous and undesirable pollutants in beach sands. Consequently, the method implemented to determent the amount of solid pollutants in beach sands has proven to be a valuable tool for recreational facility administrators, helping them in taking necessary measures to ensure the safety of beach users. Petrographic analysis of beach sands revealed the presence of pollutants of plant origin (0.4–1.8%), plastic (0.1–0.4%), paper (0.1–0.6%), charcoal (0.1–0.5%), glass (0.1–0.4%), metals (0.1–0.4%), rust (0.1–0.3%), ash and slag (0.1–0.3%), and fossil coals (0.1–0.2%).
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Authors and Affiliations

Sebastian Kuś
Zbigniew Jelonek
Iwona Jelonek
Edyta Sierka

  1. University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland
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Filtration through biologically active carbon (BAC) filters is an effective method of organic matter removal during drinking water treatment. In this study, the microbial community in the initial period of filters’ operation, as well as its role in the organic matter removal were investigated. Research was carried out in a pilot scale on two BAC filters (Filter 1 and Filter 2) which were distinguished by the type of inflowing water. It was observed that the number of heterotrophic plate count bacteria and total microbial activity were significantly higher in water samples collected from Filter 2, which received an additional load of organic matter and microorganisms. Despite the differences in the values of chemical and microbiological parameters of inflowing water, the composition of the microbiome in both filters was similar. The predominant taxon was a bacterium related to Spongiibacter sp. (Gammaproteobacteria) (>50% of relative abundance). In both filters, the efficiency of organic matter removal was at the same level, and the composition and relative frequency of predicted functional pathways related to metabolism determined using PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States Software) at level 3 of KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) Orthology – were also similar. The study demonstrated that a 40-day period of filter operation after filling with virgin granular activated carbon, was sufficient to initiate biofilm development. It was proved, that during the initial stage of filter operation, microorganisms capable of biodegradation of various organic compounds, including xenobiotics like nitrotoluene, colonized the filters
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Authors and Affiliations

Beata Mądrecka-Witkowska
Małgorzata Komorowska-Kaufman
Alina Pruss
Dorota Holc
Artur Trzebny
Miroslawa Dabert

  1. Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering and Building Installations, Poznań, Poland
  2. Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Faculty of Biology, Poznań, Poland
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are significant pollutants found in petroleum products. There is ample literature on the biodegradation of PAHs containing less than five rings, but little has been done on those with more than five rings. Coronene (CRN), a seven-ring-containing PAH, has only been shown to be degraded by one bacterial strain. In this study, a bacterial strain 10SCRN4D was isolated through enrichment in the presence of CRN and 10% NaCl (w/v). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene identified the strain as Halomonas caseinilytica. The strain was able to degrade CRN in media containing 16.5–165 μM CRN with a doubling time of 9–16 hours and grew in a wide range of salinity (0.5–10%, w/v) and temperature (30–50°C) with optimum conditions of pH 7, salinity 0.5%–10% (w/v), and temperature 37°C. Over 20 days, almost 35% of 16.5 μM CRN was degraded, reaching 76% degradation after 80 days as measured by gas chromatography. The strain was also able to degrade smaller molecular weight PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, and phenanthrene. This is the first report of Halomonas caseinilytica degrading CRN as the sole carbon source in high salinity, and thus highlights the potential of this strain in bioremediation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ajibola H. Okeyode
Assad Al-Thukair
Basheer Chanbasha
Mazen K. Nazal
Emmanuel Afuecheta
Musa M. Musa
Shahad Algarni
Alexis Nzila

  1. King Fahad University of Petroleums and Minerals, Department of Bioengineering, Saudi Arabia
  2. Applied Research Center for Environment and Marine studies, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia
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Atrazine (ATR) is a widely used chlorinated herbicide from the s-triazine group. Due to the widespread use of ATR, it leaks into the environment and is detected in drinking water, exceeding the WHO-acceptable concentration of atrazine in drinking water, which is 2 μg/L. The aim of our study was to determine toxicity, protein degradation and genotoxicity of ATR at concentrations of 10; 1; 0.1; 0.01 mg/L on Chlorella vulgaris and with the application of E. coli bioluminescent biosensor strains. We measured the content of chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids in Chlorella vulgaris and the inhibition of this algae culture growth. E. coli RFM443 strains with gene constructs grpE:luxCDABE, lac:luxCDABE, recA:luxCDABE and E. coli strain MM294 trc:luxCDABE were used to determine toxicity, degradation of cellular proteins and genotoxicity. On the base of the obtained results, we concluded that ATR in the tested concentrations shows a toxic effect in relation to Chlorella vulgaris. ATR is toxic and genotoxic in E. coli RFM443 strains with grpE, lac, recA promoters and causes degradation of cellular proteins. Moreover, we have detected ATR toxicity toward the GFP protein in E. coli strain MM294-GFP. Taking into account the toxicity and genotoxicity of ATR documented in our research and in the experiments of other authors, we conclude that the presence of this herbicide in surface waters and drinking water is a serious threat to living organisms.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marzena Matejczyk
Paweł Kondzior
Piotr Ofman
Edyta Juszczuk-Kubiak
Renata Świsłocka
Grażyna Łaska
Józefa Wiater
Włodzimierz Lewandowski

  1. Bialystok University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences,Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, Bialystok, Poland
  2. Bialystok University of Technology, Department of Environmental Engineering Technology,Bialystok, Poland
  3. Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology-State Research Institute, Laboratory of Biotechnologyand Molecular Engineering, Warsaw, Poland
  4. Department of Agri-Food Engineering and Environmental Management,Bialystok University of Technology, Bialystok, Poland
  5. Bialystok University of Technology, Department of Agricultural and Food Engineeringand Environmental Management, Bialystok, Poland
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Rising carbon dioxide emissions are driving climate change and there is growing pressure to find alternative energy sources. Co-combustion of waste with fuels is still occurring in some regions of the world, and it is important to know the compounds emitted from such combustion. This study investigated the emissions from the combustion of wood pellets with waste. The wood pellet was combusted with different additions of polyethylene terephthalate plastic and medium-density fiberboard (10 and 50%), in a low-power boiler (18W). Phenols, alkylphenols, phthalates, biomass burning markers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions were determined. Gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry detector was used to analyze these compounds after extraction and derivatization in the particulate matter and gas phase. The emissions of biomass burning markers and phthalates were the highest among all the compounds determined for MDF addition. The total emission of these compounds was 685 mg/h and 408 mg/h for 10% addition and 2401 mg/h and 337 mg/h for 50% addition, respectively. For the co-combustion of biomass with PET, PAHs and phenols had the highest emission; the emission was 197 mg/h and 114.5 mg/h for 10% addition and 268 mg/h and 200 mg/h for 50% addition, respectively. In our opinion, the obtained results are insufficient for the identification of source apportionment from household heating. After further study, tested compounds could be treated as markers for the identification of the fuel type combusted in households.
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Authors and Affiliations

Justyna Klyta
Katarzyna Janoszka
Marianna Czaplicka
Tomasz Rachwał
Katarzyna Jaworek

  1. Institute of Environmental Engineering PAS, Poland
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Studies on packaging made of polylactide (PLA) subjected to long-term influence of soil environment conditions have been presented in this paper. The scientific objective of this study was to determine changes in selected properties of the PLA packaging after long-term incubation in soil. These changes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and gel permeation chromatography. The structure, thermal properties, and disintegration degree of the packaging after their three-year incubation in soil have been discussed. It was found that the PLA packaging did not disintegrate significantly in the soil environment, and slight changes in their structure and lack of significant changes in thermal properties indicate that the efficiency of their degradation in soil conditions after three years is very low. This was mainly due to inadequate temperatures in the soil. It was also found (based on the results of scanning electron microscopy and gel permeation chromatography) that initiation of the biodegradation process took place and that this process is much faster than in the case of conventional non-biodegradable polymers. The results are confirmation that materials obtained of various biodegradable polymers (not only PLA) should be biodegradable only under strictly defined conditions, allocated to a specific type of polymer, i.e. those in which they are easily and quickly biodegradable
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Authors and Affiliations

Rafał Malinowski
Marta Musioł
Krzysztof Moraczewski
Volodymyr Krasinskyi
Lauren Szymańska
Krzysztof Bajer

  1. Łukasiewicz Research Network - Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials and Dyes, Toruń, Poland
  2. Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze, Poland
  3. Faculty of Materials Engineering, Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland
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This data article aimed to evaluate the influencing mechanisms of the nutrients and the level of eutrophication in the Yangtze River estuary. The seasonal characteristics of nutrients (dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), SiO32−–Si, and PO4 3–P) in the seawater of the Yangtze River estuary were analyzed by conducting surveys in spring and summer of 2019. The findings revealed that the concentrations of all nutrient at the surface and bottom layers were lower in spring compared to summer. NO3 −–N was typically the major form of DIN. Runoff was identified as the primary source of DIN and SiO3 2−–Si, while PO4 3−–P originated from a various sources.The SiO32−–Si/PO43−–P and DIN/PO43−–P values in the surface and bottom layers during the spring and summer were higher than the Redfield values, indicating an imbalanced nutrient distribution. Furthermore, discrepancies were observed in the distributions of DIN/PO4 3−–P, SiO3 2−–Si/DIN, and SiO3 2−–Si/PO4 3−–P in the Yangtze River estuary. Through an examination of the ratio of DIN/PO4 3−–P absorbed by phytoplankton, PO4 3−–P was identified as a potential limiting factor for nutrition in the sea area of the Yangtze River estuary during spring and summer. The Eutrophication Index (E) values for both spring and summer were found to be higher than the eutrophication threshold, indicating severe eutrophication in the studied sea area.
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Authors and Affiliations

Lei Li
Guodong Xv
Yingjie Zheng
Mei Jiang

  1. East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, China

Instructions for authors

Archives of Environmental Protection
Instructions for Authors

Archives of Environmental Protection is a quarterly published jointly by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Committee of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Thanks to the cooperation with outstanding scientists from all over the world we are able to provide our readers with carefully selected, most interesting and most valuable texts, presenting the latest state of research in the field of engineering and environmental protection.

The Journal principally accepts for publication original research papers covering such topics as:
– Air quality, air pollution prevention and treatment;
– Wastewater treatment and utilization;
– Waste management;
– Hydrology and water quality, water treatment;
– Soil protection and remediation;
– Transformations and transport of organic/inorganic pollutants in the environment;
– Measurement techniques used in environmental engineering and monitoring;
– Other topics directly related to environmental engineering and environment protection.

The Journal accepts also authoritative and critical reviews of the current state of knowledge in the topic directly relating to the environment protection.

If unsure whether the article is within the scope of the Journal, please send an abstract via e-mail to:

Preparation of the manuscript
The following are the requirements for manuscripts submitted for publication:
• The manuscript (with illustrations, tables, abstract and references) should not exceed 20 pages. In case the manuscript exceeds the required number of pages, we suggest contacting the Editor.
• The manuscript should be written in good English.
• The manuscript ought to be submitted in doc or docx format in three files:
– text.doc – file containing the entire text, without title, keywords, authors names and affiliations, and without tables and figures;
– figures.doc – file containing illustrations with legends;
– tables.doc – file containing tables with legends;
• The text should be prepared in A4 format, 2.5 cm margins, 1.5 spaced, preferably using Time New Roman font, 12 point. Thetext should be divided into sections and subsections according to general rules of manuscript editing. The proposed place of tables and figures insertion should be marked in the text.
• Legends in the figures should be concise and legible, using a proper font size so as to maintain their legibility after decreasing the font size. Please avoid using descriptions in figures, these should be used in legends or in the text of the article. Figures should be placed without the box. Legends should be placed under the figure and also without box.
• Tables should always be divided into columns. When there are many results presented in the table it should also be divided into lines.
• References should be cited in the text of an article by providing the name and publication year in brackets, e.g. (Nowak 2019). When a cited paper has two authors, both surnames connected with the word “and” should be provided, e.g. (Nowak and Kowalski 2019). When a cited paper has more than two author, surname of its first author, abbreviation ‘et al.’ and publication year should be provided, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019). When there are more than two publications cited in one place they should be divided with a coma, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019, Nowak 2019, Nowak and Kowalski 2019). Internet sources should be cited like other texts – providing the name and publication year in brackets.
• The Authors should avoid extensive citations. The number of literature references must not exceed 30 including a maximum of 6 own papers. Only in review articles the number of literature references can exceed 30.
• References should be listed at the end of the article ordered alphabetically by surname of the first author. References should be made according to the following rules:

1. Journal:
Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title of the article, Journal Name, volume, number, pages, DOI.
For example:

Nowak, S.W., Smith, A.J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of the article, Archives of Environmental Protection, 10, 2, pp. 93–98. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330

If the article has been assigned DOI, it should be provided and linked with the website on which it is made available.

2. Book:
Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title, Publisher, Place and publishing year.
For example:

Kraszewski, J. & Kinecki, K. (2019). Title of book, Work & Studies, Zabrze 2019.

3. Edited book:

Surnames and initials of text authors. (publishing year). Title of cited chapter, in: Title of the book, Surnames and
initials of editor(s). (Ed.)/(Eds.). Publisher, Place, pages.
For example:

Reynor, J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of chapter, in: Title of the cited book, Kaźmierski, I. & Jasiński, C. (Eds.). Work & Studies, Zabrze, pp. 145–189.

4. Internet sources:
Surnames and initials or the name of the institution which published the text. (publication year). Title, (website address (accessed on)).
For example:

Kowalski, M. (2018). Title, ( (03.12.2018)).

5. Patents:

Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.
Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

6. Materials published in language other than English:
Titles of cited materials should be translated into English. Information of the language the materials were published in should be provided at the end.
For example:

Nowak, S.W. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of article, Journal Name, 10, 2, pp. 93–98. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330. (in Polish)

Not more than 30 references should be cited in the original research paper.

Submission of the manuscript
By submitting the manuscript Author(s) warrant(s) that the article has not been previously published and is not under consideration by another journal. Authors claim responsibility and liability for the submitted article.
The article is freely available and distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0,, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the article is properly cited, is not used for commercial purposes and no modification or adaptation are made.

© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0,, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial, and no modifications or adaptations are made

The manuscripts should be submitted on-line using the Editorial System available at The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

Review Process
All the submitted articles are assessed by the Editorial Board. If positively assessed by at least two editors, Editor in Chief, along with department editors selects two independent reviewers from recognized authorities in the discipline.
Review process usually lasts from 1 to 4 months.
Reviewers have access to PUBLONS platform which integrates into Bentus Editorial System and enables adding reviews to their personal profile.
After completion of the review process Authors are informed of the results and – if both reviews are positive – asked to correct the text according to reviewers’ comments. Next, the revised work is verified by the editorial staff for factual and editorial content.

Acceptance of the manuscript

The manuscript is accepted for publication on grounds of the opinions of independent reviewers and approval of Editorial Board. Authors are informed about the decision and also asked to pay processing charges and to send completed declaration of the transfer of copyright to the editorial office.

Proofreading and Author Correction
All articles published in the Archives of Environmental Protection go through professional proofreading process. If there are too many language errors that prevent understanding of the text, the article is sent back to Authors with a request to correct the indicated fragments or – in extreme cases – to re-translate the text.
After proofreading the manuscript is prepared for publishing. The final stage of the publishing process is Author correction. Authors receive a page proof copy of the article with a request to make final corrections.

Article publication charges

The publication fee in the Journal of an article up to 20 pages is 520 EUR/2500 zł

Payments in Polish zlotys
Bank BGK
Account no.: 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001

Payments in Euros
Bank BGK
Account no.: 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001
IBAN: PL 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001

Authors are kindly requested to inform the editorial office of making payment for the publication, as well as to send all necessary data for issuing an invoice

Peer-review Procedure

The reviewing procedure for papers published in Archives of Environmental Protection

1) After accepting the paper as matching to the scope of the Journal Editor-in-Chief with Section Editors choose two independent Reviewers (authorities in the domain/discipline). The chosen Reviewers (from professors and senior academic staff members) have to guarantee:

  • autonomous opinion,
  • the lack of interests conflict – especially the lack of personal and business relations with the Authors of the paper,
  • the preservation of confidentiality about the paper content and the Reviewer opinion about the paper.

2) After the Reviewers selection, Assistant Editor send them (via e-mail) requests to review the paper. Reviewers receive the full text of the paper (without Author personal data) qualified for the reviewing process and referee form, sometimes supplemented with the additional questions connected with the article. In the e-mail Assistant Editor also determine the extent of the review and the deadline (usually a month).

3) The personal data of Reviewers are not open (double-blind review). It can be declassify only on Author’s special request and after the Reviewer agreement. It sometimes happen when the review outcome is: manuscript rejection or when the paper contain controversial issues.

4) The reviewer send the review to the Editorial Office via e-mail. After receiving the review the Assistant Editor:

  • inform Authors about it (in the case of the review without corrections or when there are only small, editorial changes needed),
  • send the reviews to Authors. Authors have to correct the paper according to Reviewers comment and prepare the reply to Reviewers,
  • send the paper corrected by Authors to Reviewers again – when Reviewer wanted to review it again.

5) The final decision about manuscript is made by the Editorial Board on the basis of the analysis of remarks contained in the review and the final version of the paper send by Authors. 6) The final version of the paper, after typesetting and text makeup is being sent to Authors, who make an author’s corrections. Afterwards the paper is ready to be printed in the specific issue.


All Reviewers in 2022

Alonso Rosa, Alwaeli Mohamed, Arora Amarpreet, Babu A., Barbieri Maurizio, Bień Jurand, Bogacki Jan, Bogumiła Pawluśkiewicz, Boutammine Hichem, Burszta-Adamiak Ewa, Cassidy Daniel, Chowaniec Józef, Czerniawski Robert, da Silva Elaine, Dąbek Lidia, Dannowski Ralf, Delgado-González Cristián Raziel, Dewil Raf, Djemli Samir, Du Rui, Egorin A. M., Fadillah‬ ‪Ganjar‬‬, Gangadharan Praveena, Garg Manoj, Gębicki Jacek, Generowicz Agnieszka, Gnida Anna, Golovatyi Sergey, Grabda Mariusz, Guo Xuetao, Gusiatin Mariusz, Han Lujia, Holnicki Piotr, Houali Karim, Iwanek Małgorzata, Janczukowicz Wojciech, Jan-Roblero J., Jarosz-Krzemińska Elżbieta, Jaspal Dipika, Jorge Dominguez, Kabała Cezary, Kalka Joanna, Karaouzas Ioannis, Khadim Hussein Jabar Khadim, Khan Moonis Ali, Kojić Ivan, Kongolo Kitala Pierre, Kozłowski Kamil, Kucharski Mariusz, Lu Fan, Łukaszewski Zenon, Majumdar Pradeep, Mannheim Viktoria, Markowska-Szczupak Agata, Mehmood Andleeb, Mol Marcos, Mrowiec Bożena, Nałęcz-Jawecki Grzegorz, Ochowiak Marek, Ogbaga Chukwuma, Oleniacz Robert, Pan Ligong, Paruch Adam, Pietras Dariusz, Piotrowska-Seget Zofia, Płaza Grażyna, Pohl Alina, Poikane Sandra, Poluszyńska Joanna, Dudzińska Marzenna, Rawtani Deepak, Rehman Khalil, Rogowska Weronika, Rzeszutek Mateusz, Saenboonruang Kiadtisak, Sebakhy Khaled, Sengupta D.K., Shao Jing, Sočo Eleonora, Sojka Mariusz, Sonesten Lars, Song Wencheng, Song ZhongXian, Spiak Zofia, Srivastav Arun, Steliga Teresa, Surmacz-Górska Joanna, Świątkowski Andrzej Symanowicz Barbara, Szklarek Sebastian, Tabina Amtul, Tang Lin, Torrent Sergi, Trafiałek Joanna, Vijay U., Vojtkova Hana, Wang Qi, Wielgosiński Grzegorz, Wilk Pawel, Wiśniewska Marta, Yin Xianqiang, Zając Grzegorz, Zalewski Maciej, Zegait Rachid, Zerafat Mohammad, Zgórska Aleksandra, Zhang Chunhui, Zhang Wenbo, Zhu Guocheng, Zwierzchowski Ryszard

All Reviewers in 2021

Adamkiewicz Łukasz, Aksoy Özlem, Alwaeli Mohamed, Aneta Luczkiewicz, Anielak Anna, Antonkiewicz Jacek, Avino Pasquale, Babbar Deepakshi, Badura Marek, Bajda Tomasz, Biedka Paweł, Błaszczak Barbara, Bodzek Michał, Bogacki Jan, Burszta-Adamiak Ewa, Cheng Gan, Chojecka Agnieszka, Chrzanowski Łukasz, Chwojnowski Andrzej, Ciesielczuk Tomasz, Cimochowicz-Rybicka Małgorzata, Curren Emily, Cydzik-Kwiatkowska Agnieszka, Czajka Agnieszka, Danielewicz Jan, Dannowski Ralf, Daoud Mounir, Değermenci Gökçe, Dejan Dragan, Deluchat Véronique, Demirbaş Ahmet, Dong Shuying, Dudzińska Marzenna, Dunalska Julita, Franus Wojciech, G. Uchrin Christopher, Generowicz Agnieszka, Gębicki Jacek, Giergiczny Zbigniew, Gierszewski Piotr, Glińska-Lewczuk Katarzyna, Godłowska Jolanta, Gokalp Fulya, Gospodarek Janina, Górecki Tadeusz, Grabińska-Sota Elżbieta, Grifoni M., Gromiec Marek, Guo Xuetao, Gusiatin Zygmunt, Hartmann Peter, He Jianzhong, He Yong, Heese Tomasz, Hybská Helena, Imhoff Silvia, Iurchenko Valentina, Jabłońska-Czapla Magdalena, Janowski Mirosław, Jordanov Igor, Jóżwiakowski Krzysztof, Juśkiewicz Włodzimierz, Kabsch-Korbutowicz Małgorzata, Kalinowski Radosław, Kalka Joanna, Kapusta Paweł, Karczewska Anna, Karczmarczyk Agnieszka, Kicińska Alicja, Kiciński Jan, Kijowska-Strugała Małgorzata, Klejnowski Krzysztof, Kłosok-Bazan Iwona, Kolada Agnieszka, Konieczny Krystyna, Kostecki Maciej, Kowalczewska-Madura Katarzyna, Kowalczuk Marek, Kozielska Barbara, Kozłowski Kamil, Krzemień Alicja, Kulig Andrzej, Kwaśny Justyna, Kyzioł-Komosińska Joanna, Ledakowicz Stanislaw, Leites Luchese Claudia, Leszczyńska-Sejda Katarzyna, Li Mingyang, Liu Chao, Mahmood Khalid, Majewska-Nowak Katarzyna, Makisha Nikolay, Malina Grzegorz, Markowska-Szczupak Agata, Mocek Andrzej, Mokrzycki Eugeniusz, Molenda Tadeusz, Molkenthin Frank, Mosquera Corral Anuska, Muhmood Atif, Myrta Anna, Narayanasamy Selvaraju, Nzila Alexis, OIkuski Tadeusz, Oleniacz Robert, Pacyna Jozef, Pająk Tadeusz, Pal Subodh Chandra, Panagopoulos Argyris, Paruch Adam, Paszkowski Waldemar, Pawęska Katarzyna, Paz-Ferreiro Jorge, Paździor Katarzyna, Pempkowiak Janusz, Piątkiewicz Wojciech, Piechowicz Janusz, Piotrowska-Seget Zofia, Pisoni E., Piwowar Arkadiusz, Pleban Dariusz, Policht-Latawiec Agnieszka, Polkowska Żaneta, Poluszyńska Joanna, Rajca Mariola, Reizer Magdalena, Riesgo Fernández Pedro, Rith Monorom, Rybicki Stanisław, Rydzkowski Tomasz, Rzepa Grzegorz, Rzeźnik Wojciech, Rzętała Mariusz, Sabovljevic Marko, Scudiero Rosaria, Sekret Robert, Sheng Yanqing, Sławomir Stelmach, Słowik Leszek, Sočo Eleonora, Sojka Mariusz, Sophonrat Nanta, Sówka Izabela, Spiak Zofia, Stachowski Piotr, Stańczyk-Mazanek Ewa, Stebel Adam, Sulieman Magboul, Surmacz-Górska Joanna, Szalinska van Overdijk Ewa, Szczerbowski Radosław, Szetela Ryszard, Szopińska Kinga, Szymański Kazimierz, Ślipko Katarzyna, Tepe Yalçin, Tórz Agnieszka, Tyagi Uplabdhi, Uliasz-Bocheńczyk Alicja, Urošević Mira, Uzarowicz Łukasz, Vakili Mohammadtaghi, Van Harreveld A.P., Voutchkova Denitza, Wang Gang, Wang X.K., Werbińska-Wojciechowska Sylwia, Wiatkowski Mirosław, Wielgosiński Grzegorz, Wilk Pawel, Willner Joanna, Wisniewski Jacek, Wiśniowska Ewa, Włodarczyk-Makuła Maria, Wojciechowska Ewa, Wojnowska-Baryła Irena, Wolska Małgorzata, Wszołek Tadeusz, Wu Yonghua, Yusuf Mohammad, Zuberi Amina, Zuwała Jarosław, Zwoździak Jerzy.

All Reviewers in 2020

Adamiec Ewa, Adamkiewicz Łukasz, Ahammed M. Mansoor, Akcicek Ekrem, Ameur Houari, Anielak Anna, Antonkiewicz Jacek, Avino Pasquale, Badura Marek, Barabasz Wiesław, Barthakur Manoj, Battegazzore Daniele, Biedka Paweł, Bilek Maciej, Bisschop Lieselot, Błaszczak Barbara, Błażejewski Ryszard, Bochoidze Inga, Bodzek Michał, Bogacki Jan, Borella Paola, Borowiak Klaudia, Borralho Teresa, Boyacioglu Hülya, Bunjongsiri Kultida, Burszta-Adamiak Ewa, Calderon Raul, Chatveera Burachat Chatveera, Cheng Gan, Chiwa Masaaki, Chojnicki Józef, Chrzanowski Łukasz, Ciesielczuk Tomasz, Czajka Agnieszka, Czaplicka Marianna, Daoud Mounir, Dąbek Lidia, Değermenci Gökçe, Dejan Dragan, Deluchat Véronique, Dereszewska Alina, Dębowski Marcin, Dong Shuying, Dudzińska Marzenna, Dunalska Julita, Dymaczewski Zbysław, El-Maradny Amr, Farfan-Cabrera Leonardo, Filizok Işık, Franus Wojciech, García-Ávila Fernando, Gariglio N.F., Gaya M.S, Gebicki Jacek, Giergiczny Zbigniew, Glińska-Lewczuk Katarzyna, Gnida Anna, Gospodarek Janina, Grabińska-Sota Elżbieta, Gusiatin Zygmunt, Harnisz Monika, Hartmann Peter, Hawrot-Paw Małgorzata, He Jianzhong, Hirabayashi Satoshi, Hulisz Piotr, Imhoff Silvia, Iurchenko Valentina, Jabłońska-Czapla Magdalena, Jacukowicz-Sobala Irena, Jeż-Walkowiak Joanna, Jordanov Igor, Jóżwiakowski Krzysztof, Kabsch-Korbutowicz Małgorzata, Kajda-Szcześniak Małgorzata, Kalinowski Radosław, Kalka Joanna, Karczewska Anna, Karwowska Ewa, Kim Ki-Hyun, Klejnowski Krzysztof, Klojzy-Karczmarczyk Beata, Korniłłowicz-Kowalska Teresa, Korus Irena, Kostecki Maciej, Koszelnik Piotr, Koter Stanisław, Kowalska Beata, Kowalski Zygmunt, Kozielska Barbara, Krzyżyńska Renata, Kulig Andrzej, Kwarciak-Kozłowska Anna, Kyzioł-Komosińska Joanna, Lagzdins Ainis, Ledakowicz Stanislaw, Ligęza Sławomir, Liu Xingpo, Loga Małgorzata, Łebkowska Maria, Macherzyński Mariusz, Makisha Nikolay, Makowska Małgorzata, Masłoń Adam, Mazur Zbigniew, Michel Monika, Miechówka Anna, Miksch Korneliusz, Mnuchin Nathan, Mokrzycki Eugeniusz, Molkenthin Frank, Mosquera Corral Anuska, Muhmood Atif, Muntean Edward, Myrta Anna, Nahorski Zbigniew, Narayanasamy Selvaraju, Naumczyk Jeremi, Nawalany Marek, Noubactep C., Nowakowski Piotr, Obarska-Pempkowiak Hanna, Orge C.A., Paul Lothar, Pawęska Katarzyna, Paździor Katarzyna, Pempkowiak Janusz, Peña A., Pietr Stanisław, Piotrowska-Seget Zofia, Pisoni E., Płaza Grażyna, Polkowska Żaneta, Reizer Magdalena, Renman Gunno, Rith Monorom, Romanovski Valentin, Rybicki Stanisław, Rydzkowski Tomasz, Rzętała Mariusz, Sadeghi Mahdi, Sakakibara Yutaka, Scudiero Rosaria, Semaan Mary, Seredyński Franciszek, Sergienko Ruslan, Shen Yujun, Sheng Yanqing, Sidełko Robert, Sočo Eleonora, Sojka Mariusz, Sówka Izabela, Spiak Zofia, Stegenta-Dąbrowska Sylwia, Steliga Teresa, Sulieman Magboul, Surmacz-Górska Joanna, Suryadevara Nagaraja, Suska-Malawska Małgorzata, Szalinska van Overdijk Ewa, Szczerbowski Radosław, Szetela Ryszard, Szpyrka Ewa, Szulczyński Bartosz, Szwast Maciej, Szyszlak-Bargłowicz Joanna, Ślipko Katarzyna, Świetlik Ryszard, Tabernacka Agnieszka, Tepe Yalçin, Tobiszewski Marek, Treichel Wiktor, Tyagi Uplabdhi, Uliasz-Bocheńczyk Alicja, Uzarowicz Łukasz, Van Harreveld A.P., Wang X. K., Wasielewski Ryszard, Wiatkowski Mirosław, Wielgosiński Grzegorz, Willner Joanna, Wisniewski Jacek, Witczak Joanna, Witkiewicz Zygfryd, Włodarczyk Małgorzata, Włodarczyk-Makuła Maria, Wojciechowska Ewa, Wojtkowska Małgorzata, Xinhui Duan, Yang Chunping, Yaqian Zhao Yaqian, Załęska-Radziwiłł Monika, Zamorska Justyna, Zasina Damian, Zawadzki Jarosław, Zdeb Monika M., Zheng Guodi, Zhu Ivan X., Ziułkiewicz Maciej, Zuberi Amina, Zwoździak Jerzy, Żabczyński Sebastian, Żukowski Witold, Żygadło Maria.

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Anti-plagiarism policy

In accordance with AEP requirements, the authors of all articles submitted to the Editorial Office declare that the paper is an original work. Articles that have been approved by the Editorial Board for further processing are checked for originality using the program and iThenticate. As plagiarism, the Editorial Board (according to the definition of plagiarism/anti-plagiarism) recognizes:

• claiming someone else's work or parts of it as your own;
• copying someone else's or your own (self-plagiarism) fragments of articles without reference to the publication (title of the work, names of authors) from which it was taken
• inserting fragments of other works into the article, changing only the order of the sentence or introducing only minor changes to it
• an article in which the copied fragments, despite citing their sources, constitute a significant/major part of the article.

In case of plagiarism/self-plagiarism, further work on this article is stopped and it is removed from the Editorial System. The authors of the article (via the corresponding author) submitted to the Editorial Office of the AEP are informed about the reasons for removing the article.

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