Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Foundry Engineering


Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2013 | No 3


The paper presents a research results concerning impact of volume modification (ceramic filter containning cobalt aluminate and hafniumpowder) and simultaneous surface and volume modification on solidification and stereological parameters of macrostructure of castingsmade from post-production scrap of nickel superalloy IN-713C. Research included investigation of the influence of chemical compositionon the temperature Tliq i Tsol and evaluation of following macrostructure parameters: the number of grains per mm2, average grain area andshape coefficient. Results indicate high influence of carbon content on Tliq. Macrostructure of sample castings indicate positive effect of surface and volume modification, however impact of surface modification is more pronounced.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

P. Gradoń
F. Binczyk


Slag refining slag with west materials was analysed used the DTA methods. In the paper a method of determining the reduction capability, with the Carbo-N-Ox method, of slag solutions was used. Some relations between the stimulators in the environment - slag - metal system allow to initiate mass exchange reactions in the process of slag refining.The presented in work course of behaviour permits on choice of basic composition of slaglite, the of necessary components stimulating quantities, as well as on accomplishment of opinion of ability refinement. The worked out programme Slag-Prop, after introduction of data with experiment, it allows on next corrections in composition of proposed mixtures also, should be put on properly elaborated factors of multistage reaction with essential usage of suitable stimulators.
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A.W. Bydałek
S. Biernat
P. Schlafka


During the slag refining process, in the real systems, the complex processes of mass exchange appear. Some relations between the stimulators in the environment - slag - metal system allow to initiate mass exchange reactions in the process of slag refining. Due to this kind of influences there is a possibility of direction and control of melting copper and it’s alloys.
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A.W. Bydałek
P. Schlafka


Mechanization of the process of core making with the use of inorganic and organic binders is based, almost solely, on core blowing machines. Presently the core blowing machines are equipped with tools and devices that allow for application of different technologies of core making. Cold-box, hot-box and warm-air technologies require that core blowing machines shall be additionally equipped with either core-box pre-heating system or gas purging and neutralization system, or hot air purging systems. Considering the possibility of using varied, the most advantageous technologies of core making, the production of universal core blowing machines equipped with replaceable devices has been undertaken in Poland. The universal core blowing systems allow for mechanization of core making process also with the use of sand, bonded by modern, eco-friendly binder systems. The paper presents selected results-based evaluation of core blowing process showing the scope of conducted design and implementation works.
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A. Fedoryszyn
R. Dańko
J. Dańko
M. Asłanowicz
T. Fulko
A. Ościłowski


This paper presents the results of the abrasive wear resistance of selected types of nodular cast iron, including ADI, cooperating with quartz sand and 100 grit abrasive paper. It has been shown that carbides in nodular cast iron cause an increase in wear resistance of 6 to 12% depending on the surface fraction of the carbides and type of the matrix. For the same unit pressure the mass loss of the cast iron cooperating with quartz sand is many times larger than the cast iron cooperating with abrasive paper. For both abrasives the highest wear resistance showed nodular cast iron with upper and lower bainite and carbides.
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G. Gumienny


The paper summarizes research realized by the author in laboratory and industrial conditions (foundries of cast steel and cast iron, castings up to 50 tons) on the effects of the chemically hardened molding sands regeneration using hard/soft rubbing in the dry reclamation. A reference was simultaneously made to advisability of application of the thermal regeneration in conditions, where chromite amount in the circulating (reclaimed) molding sand goes as high as above ten percent. An advisability of connecting standard and specialized methods of examination of the reclaimed sands and molding sands made using it was pointed out. A way of application of studies with the Hot Distortion Plus® method modified by the author for validation of modeling of the thermo-dynamic phenomena in the mold was shown.
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Z. Ignaszak
J-B. Prunier


One of the factors that contribute to the development of foundry moulding technology is environmental protection. The related challenges are effectively satisfied by a new inorganic binder that has been designed for castings made of non-ferrous metal alloys. This article presents in a concise way the test results, showing the ecological character of the new binder at the stage of making moulds, pouring them with metal and cooling of castings, indicating the possibilities for an economic re-use of waste materials formed during practical application of this technology. The results were compared with the results obtained on the sands with organic binders. Studies were carried out under the project POIG.01.01.02-00-015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies."
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I. Izdebska-Szanda
M. Angrecki
A. Palma
M. Żmudzińska


The paper presents the optimization of master alloy amount for the high nodular graphite yield (80-90%) in cast iron obtain in lost foam process. The influence of the gating system configuration and the shape of the reaction chamber, the degree of spheroidisation cast iron was examined. Research has shown that the, optimal of master alloy amount of 1.5% by mass on casting iron. The degree of spheroidisation is also influenced by the gating system configuration. The best spheroidisation effect was obtained for liquid cast iron was fed into the reaction chamber from the bottom and discharged from the top.
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P. Just
T. Pacyniak
R. Kaczorowski


In the article we were studing the impact of the remelting on transformations in Co-Cr-Mo prosthetics alloy. The TDA curves were analyzed, the microstructure was examined, the analysis of the chemical composition and hardness using the Brinell method was made. It was found that the obtained microstructure of the alloys that we studied do not differ significantly. In all four samples, microscopic images were similar to each other. The volume, size and distribution of the phases remain similar. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that all the samples fall within the compositions provided for the test alloy. Further to this the hardness of the samples, regardless of the number of remeltings did not show any significant fluctuations and remained within the error limit.After analyzing all the results, it can be concluded that the remeltings of the alloys should not have a significant impact on their properties. Secondarily melted alloys can be used for prosthetics works.
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B. Kacprzyk
G. Gumienny
T. Szymczak
L. Klimek


Metal alloys with matrix based on an Fe-Al system are generally considered materials for high-temperature applications. Their main advantages are compact crystallographic structure, long-range ordering and structural stability at high temperatures. These materials are based on an intermetallic phase of FeAl or Fe3Al, which is stable in the range from room temperature up to the melting point of 1240°C. Their application at high temperatures is also beneficial because of the low cost of production, very good resistance to oxidation and corrosion, and high mechanical strength. The casting alloy the structure of which includes the FeAl phase is, among others, highaluminium cast iron. This study has been devoted to the determination of the effect of vanadium and titanium on the transformation of the high-aluminium cast iron structure into an in-situ FeAl-VC composite.
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D. Kopyciński
E. Guzik
R. Gilewski
A. Szczęsny
J. Dorula


The article presents issues related to creating and realizing added value by logistic processes and processing in a casting enterprise. It discusses possibilities of improving systems of casts production by evaluating labour intensity of casts manufacture and analyzing manufacturing prime costs. Operations with added value, processes indirectly creating added value and operations without added value have been specified. The problem was presented on the example of materials flow design in a foundry, where casts are manufactured in expendable moulds and using automated foundry lines. On the basis of the Pareto analysis, a group of casts was specified whose manufacture significantly influences the functioning of the whole enterprise. Finishing treatment operations have been particularly underlined, as they are performed away from the line and are among the most labour-consuming processes during casts production.
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S. Kukla


Stereological description of dispersed microstructure is not an easy task and remains the subject of continuous research. In its practical aspect, a correct stereological description of this type of structure is essential for the analysis of processes of coagulation and spheroidisation, or for studies of relationships between structure and properties. One of the most frequently used methods for an estimation of the density Nv and size distribution of particles is the Scheil - Schwartz – Saltykov method. In this article, the authors present selected methods for quantitative assessment of ductile iron microstructure, i.e. the Scheil - Schwartz – Saltykov method, which allows a quantitative description of three-dimensional sets of solids using measurements and counts performed on two-dimensional cross-sections of these sets (microsections) and quantitative description of three-dimensional sets of solids by X-ray computed microtomography, which is an interesting alternative for structural studies compared to traditional methods of microstructure imaging since, as a result, the analysis provides a three-dimensional imaging of microstructures examined.
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B. Mrzygłód
P. Matusiewicz
A. Tchórz
I. Olejarczyk-Wożeńska


The method of pressure die casting of composites with AlSi11 alloy matrix reinforced with 10 vol. % of SiC particles and the analysis of the distribution of particles within the matrix is presented. The composite castings were produced at various values of the piston velocity in the second stage of injection, at diverse intensification pressure values, and various injection gate width values. The distribution of particles over the entire cross-section of the tensile specimen is shown. The index of distribution was determined on the basis of particle count in elementary measuring fields. The regression equation describing the change of the considered index was found as a function of the pressure die casting parameters. The conclusion presents an analysis of the obtained results and their interpretation.
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A. Pasieka
Z. Konopka


The paper presents the results of studies on the effect of the AlSi17Cu5 alloy overheating to atemperature of 920°C and modification with phosphorus (CuP10) on the resultingmechanical (HB, Rm, R0.2) and plastic (A5 and Z) properties. It has been shown that, so-called, "timethermal treatment" (TTT) of an alloy in the liquid state, consisting inoverheating the metal to about 250°C above Tliq,holding at this temperature by 30 minutes improvesthe mechanical properties. It has also been found that overheating of alloy above Tliq.enhances the process of modification, resulting in the formation of fine-grain structure. The primary silicon crystals uniformly distributed in the eutectic and characteristics ofthe α(Al) solution supersaturated with alloying elements present in the starting alloy composition (Cu, Fe) provide not only an increase of strength at ambient temperature but also at elevated temperature (250°C).
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J. Piątkowski
M. Jabłońska


According to the analysis of the current state of the knowledge shows that there is little information on the process of phase transformations

that occur during the cooling Cu-Al-Fe-Ni hypo-eutectoid bronzes with additions of Cr, Mo and/or W, made additions individually

or together, for the determination of: the type of crystallizing phases, crystallizing phases, order and place of their nucleation.

On the basis of recorded using thermal and derivative analysis of thermal effects phases crystallization or their systems, analysis of the

microstructure formed during crystallization - observed on the metallographic specimen casting ATD10-PŁ probe, analysis of the existing

phase equilibrium diagrams forming elements tested Cu-Al-Fe-Ni bronze, with additions of Cr, Mo, W and/or Si developed an original

model of crystallization and phase transformation in the solid state, the casting of high quality Cu-Al-Fe-Ni bronze comprising: crystallizing

type phase, crystallizing phase sequence, place of nucleation.

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B.P. Pisarek


The influence of aluminium added in amounts of about 1.6%, 2.1%, or 2.8% on the effectiveness of cast iron spheroidization

with magnesium was determined. The cast iron was melted and treated with FeSiMg7 master alloy under industrial conditions.

The metallographic examinations were performed for the separately cast rods of 20 mm diameter. They included the assessment of the

shape of graphite precipitates and of the matrix structure. The results allowed to state that the despheroidizing influence of aluminium

(introduced in the above mentioned quantities) is the stronger, the higher is the aluminium content in the alloy. The results of examinations

carried out by means of a computer image analyser enabled the quantitative assessment of the considered aluminium addition influence.

It was found that the despheroidizing influence of aluminium (up to about 2.8%) yields the crystallization of either the deformed nodular

graphite precipitates or vermicular graphite precipitates. None of the examined specimens, however, contained the flake graphite

precipitates. The results of examinations confirmed the already known opinion that aluminium widens the range of ferrite crystallization.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

M.S. Soiński
A. Jakubus


The problem considered in the paper is motivated by production planning in a foundry equipped with the furnace and casting line, which

provides a variety of castings in various grades of cast iron/steel for a large number of customers. The quantity of molten metal does not

exceed the capacity of the furnace, the load is a particular type of metal from which the products are made in the automatic casting lines.

The goal is to create the order of the melted metal loads to prevent delays in delivery of goods to customers. This problem is generally

considered as a lot-sizing and scheduling problem. The paper describes two computational intelligence algorithms for simultaneous

grouping and scheduling tasks and presents the results achieved by these algorithms for example test problems.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

A. Stawowy
J. Duda


The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism

of decohesion – the intergranular one – occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking

initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence

of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite

precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage

solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C

revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Z. Stradomski
G. Stradomski
S. Stachura


In this paper crystallization studies of low-alloyed construction cast steel were presented for different additions of chromium, nickel and

molybdenum modified with vanadium and titanium. Studies were conducted using developed TDA stand, which additionally enabled

evaluation of cooling rate influence on crystallization process of investigated alloys.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

A. Studnicki
M. Kondracki
J. Szajnar
T. Wróbel


It has been found that the area where one can look for significant reserves in the procurement logistics is a rational management

of the stock of raw materials. Currently, the main purpose of projects which increase the efficiency of inventory management is to

rationalise all the activities in this area, taking into account and minimising at the same time the total inventory costs. The paper presents

a method for optimising the inventory level of raw materials under a foundry plant conditions using two different control models. The first

model is based on the estimate of an optimal level of the minimum emergency stock of raw materials, giving information about the need

for an order to be placed immediately and about the optimal size of consignments ordered after the minimum emergency level has

occurred. The second model is based on the estimate of a maximum inventory level of raw materials and an optimal order cycle.

Optimisation of the presented models has been based on the previously done selection and use of rational methods for forecasting the time

series of the delivery of a chosen auxiliary material (ceramic filters) to a casting plant, including forecasting a mean size of the delivered

batch of products and its standard deviation

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

K. Nowacki
J. Szymszal
T. Lis
J. Przondziono
J. Kliś


Directional solidification of ledeburite was realised out using a Bridgman’s device. The growth rate for movement sample v=83.3 μm/s

was used. In one sample the solidification front was freezing. The value of temperature gradient in liquid at the solidification front was

determined. Interfacial distance λ on the samples was measured with NIS-Elements application for image analysis.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

M. Trepczyńska-Łent


The work is a part of research into the reduction of energy consumption in the production of EPSthrough the modernization

of technological equipment used. This paper presents the results of research and analysis of heat transfer process between the water vapor

that was provided to machine, the mold, the product and the environment. The paper shows the calculation of the heat balance of the

production cycle for two types of mold: standard and modernized. The performance tests used an infrared imaging camera.

The results were used to develop a computer image analysis and statistical analysis. This paper presents the main stages of the production

process and the construction of technological equipment used, changing the mold surface temperature field during the production cycle

and the structure of the heat balance for the mold and its instrumentation. It has been shown that the modernization of construction

of technological equipment has reduced the temperature field and as a consequence of decreased of demand for process steam production


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Autorzy i Afiliacje

R. Władysiak
T. Pacyniak
W. Bogus


In paper is presented idea of construction and influence of selected parts of stand of horizontal continuous casting on quality of pure Al and AlSi2

alloy ingots. The main parts of the made stand belong to induction furnace, which is also tundish, water cooled continuous casting mould, system

of recooling, system of continuous ingot drawing and cutting. Mainly was considered influence of electromagnetic stirrer, which was placed

in continuous casting mould on refinement of ingots structure. Effect of structure refinement obtained by influence of electromagnetic stirring was

compared with refinement obtained by use of traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing of additives i.e. Ti and B to metal bath. The

results of studies show possibility of effective refinement of Al and AlSi2 alloy primary structure, only with use of horizontal electromagnetic field

and without necessity of application of inoculants. This method of inoculation is important, because inoculants decrease the degree of purity

and electrical conductivity of pure aluminum and moreover are reason of point cracks formation during rolling of ingots.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

J. Szajnar
D. Bartocha
T. Wróbel
M. Stawarz


Investigations of operating parameters of widely used sand mixers reveal a wide variability range in the values of parameters associated

with their power demand. Power efficiency of manufacturing processes has received a great deal of attention lately, which encourages the

research efforts to optimise this aspects of operation of machines and installations as well. In the first place these machines

and installations have to work properly as a part of the process line- which applies also to moulding sand mixers. Experiments conducted

by the authors suggest that the same goal can be achieved at variable energy input levels. To obtain information about the power demands

of sand mixers requires the use of highly specialised equipment, methodology and result processing procedures. This study provides a brief

characteristic of measurement equipment and results of measurements taken on a unit AG-015 (based on a roller mixer) and a laboratory

rotor mixer.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

K. Smyksy
E. Ziółkowski
R. Wrona

Instrukcja dla autorów


To submit the article, please use the Editorial System provided here:

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Instructions for the preparation of an Archives of Foundry Engineering Paper

Zasady etyki publikacyjnej

Publication Ethics Policy

The standards of expected ethical behavior for all parties involved in publishing in the Archives of Foundry Engineering journal: the author, the journal editor and editorial board, the peer reviewers and the publisher are listed below.

All the articles submitted for publication in Archives of Foundry Engineering are peer reviewed for authenticity, ethical issues and usefulness as per Review Procedure document.

Duties of Editors
1. Monitoring the ethical standards: Editorial Board monitors the ethical standards of the submitted manuscripts and takes all possible measures against any publication malpractices.
2. Fair play: Submitted manuscripts are evaluated for their scientific content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, citizenship, political ideology or any other issues that is a personal or human right.
3. Publication decisions: The Editor in Chief is responsible for deciding which of the submitted articles should or should not be published. The decision to accept or reject the article is based on its importance, originality, clarity, and its relevance to the scope of the journal and is made after the review process.
4. Confidentiality: The Editor in Chief and the members of the Editorial Board t ensure that all materials submitted to the journal remain confidential during the review process. They must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the parties involved in the publishing process i.e., authors, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher.
5. Disclosure and conflict of interest: Unpublished materials disclosed in the submitted manuscript must not be used by the Editor and the Editorial Board in their own research without written consent of authors. Editors always precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards.
6. Maintain the integrity of the academic record: The editors will guard the integrity of the published academic record by issuing corrections and retractions when needed and pursuing suspected or alleged research and publication misconduct. Plagiarism and fraudulent data is not acceptable. Editorial Board always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.

Retractions of the articles: the Editor in Chief will consider retracting a publication if:
- there are clear evidences that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error)
- the findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (cases of redundant publication)
- it constitutes plagiarism or reports unethical research.
Notice of the retraction will be linked to the retracted article (by including the title and authors in the retraction heading), clearly identifies the retracted article and state who is retracting the article. Retraction notices should always mention the reason(s) for retraction to distinguish honest error from misconduct.
Retracted articles will not be removed from printed copies of the journal nor from electronic archives but their retracted status will be indicated as clearly as possible.

Duties of Authors
1. Reporting standards: Authors of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. The paper should contain sufficient details and references to permit others to replicate the work. The fabrication of results and making of fraudulent or inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and will cause rejection or retraction of a manuscript or a published article.
2. Originality and plagiarism: Authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others they need to be cited or quoted. Plagiarism and fraudulent data is not acceptable.
3. Data access retention: Authors may be asked to provide the raw data for editorial review, should be prepared to provide public access to such data, and should be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication of their paper.
4. Multiple or concurrent publication: Authors should not in general publish a manuscript describing essentially the same research in more than one journal. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.
5. Authorship of the manuscript: Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the report study. All those who have made contributions should be listed as co-authors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
6. Acknowledgement of sources: The proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. The authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the scope of the reported work.
7. Fundamental errors in published works: When the author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.

Duties of Reviewers
1. Contribution to editorial decisions: Peer reviews assist the editor in making editorial decisions and may also help authors to improve their manuscript.
2. Promptness: Any selected reviewer who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself/herself from the review process.
3. Confidentiality: All manuscript received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except those authorized by the editor.
4. Standards of objectivity: Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Reviewers should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.
5. Acknowledgement of sources: Reviewers should identify the relevant published work that has not been cited by authors. Any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper should be reported to the editor.
6. Disclosure and conflict of Interest: Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relations with any of the authors, companies, or institutions involved in writing a paper.

Procedura recenzowania

Review Procedure

The Review Procedure for articles submitted to the Archives of Foundry Engineering agrees with the recommendations of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education published in a booklet: ‘Dobre praktyki w procedurach recenzyjnych w nauce’ (MNiSW, Dobre praktyki w procedurach recenzyjnych w nauce, Warszawa 2011).

Papers submitted to the Editorial System are primarily screened by editors with respect to scope, formal issues and used template. Texts with obvious errors (formatting other than requested, missing references, evidently low scientific quality) will be rejected at this stage or will be sent for the adjustments.

Once verified each article is checked by the anti-plagiarism system Cross Check powered by iThenticate®. After the positive response, the article is moved into: Initially verified manuscripts. When the similarity level is too high, the article will be rejected. There is no strict rule (i.e., percentage of the similarity), and it is always subject to the Editor’s decision.
Initially verified manuscripts are then sent to at least four independent referees outside the author’s institution and at least two of them outside of Poland, who:

have no conflict of interests with the author,
are not in professional relationships with the author,
are competent in a given discipline and have at least a doctorate degree and respective
scientific achievements,
have a good reputation as reviewers.

The review form is available online at the Journal’s Editorial System and contains the following sections:

1. Article number and title in the Editorial System

2. The statement of the Reviewer (to choose the right options):

I declare that I have not guessed the identity of the Author. I declare that I have guessed the identity of the Author, but there is no conflict of interest

3. Detailed evaluation of the manuscript against other researches published to this point:

Do you think that the paper title corresponds with its contents?
Yes No
Do you think that the abstract expresses the paper contents well?
Yes No
Are the results or methods presented in the paper novel?
Yes No
Do the author(s) state clearly what they have achieved?
Yes No
Do you find the terminology employed proper?
Yes No
Do you find the bibliography representative and up-to-date?
Yes No
Do you find all necessary illustrations and tables?
Yes No
Do you think that the paper will be of interest to the journal readers?
Yes No

4. Reviewer conclusion

Accept without changes
Accept after changes suggested by reviewer.
Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review

5. Information for Editors (not visible for authors).

6. Information for Authors

Reviewing is carried out in the double blind process (authors and reviewers do not know each other’s names).

The appointed reviewers obtain summary of the text and it is his/her decision upon accepting/rejecting the paper for review within a given time period 21 days.

The reviewers are obliged to keep opinions about the paper confidential and to not use knowledge about it before publication.

The reviewers send their review to the Archives of Foundry Engineering by Editorial System. The review is archived in the system.

Editors do not accept reviews, which do not conform to merit and formal rules of scientific reviewing like short positive or negative remarks not supported by a close scrutiny or definitely critical reviews with positive final conclusion. The reviewer’s remarks are sent to the author. He/she has to consider all remarks and revise the text accordingly.

The author of the text has the right to comment on the conclusions in case he/she does not agree with them. He/she can request the article withdrawal at any step of the article processing.

The Editor-in-Chief (supported by members of the Editorial Board) decides on publication based on remarks and conclusions presented by the reviewers, author’s comments and the final version of the manuscript.

The final Editor’s decision can be as follows:
Accept without changes

The rules for acceptance or rejection of the paper and the review form are available on the Web page of the AFE publisher.

Once a year Editorial Office publishes present list of cooperating reviewers.
Reviewing is free of charge.
All articles, including those rejected and withdrawn, are archived in the Editorial System.

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