Applied sciences

Archives of Foundry Engineering

Content

Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2022 | vol. 22 | No 1 |

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Abstract

A classical algorithm Tabu Search was compared with Q Learning (named learning) with regards to the scheduling problems in the Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) manufacturing process. The first part comprised of a review of the literature concerning scheduling problems, machine learning and the ADI manufacturing process. Based on this, a simplified scheme of ADI production line was created, which a scheduling problem was described for. Moreover, a classic and training algorithm that is best suited to solve this scheduling problem was selected. In the second part, was made an implementation of chosen algorithms in Python programming language and the results were discussed. The most optimal algorithm to solve this problem was identified. In the end, all tests and their results for this project were presented.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Wilk-Kołodziejczyk
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
K. Chrzan
2
ORCID: ORCID
K. Jaśkowiec
2
ORCID: ORCID
Z. Pirowski
2
ORCID: ORCID
R. Żuczek
2
ORCID: ORCID
A. Bitka
2
ORCID: ORCID
D. Machulec
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
  2. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Krakow Institute of Technology, 73 Zakopiańska Str., 30-418 Kraków, Poland
  3. AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

Casting is the most economical way of producing parts for many industries ranging from automotive, aerospace to construction towards small appliances in many shares. One of the challenges is the achievement of defect-free cast parts. There are many ways to do this which starts with calculation and design of proper runner system with correct size and number of feeders. The first rule suggests starting with clean melt. Yet, rejected parts can still be found. Although depending on the requirement from the parts, some defects can be tolerated, but in critical applications, it is crucial that no defect should exist that would deteriorate the performance of the part. Several methods exist on the foundry floor to detect these defects. Functional safety criteria, for example, are a must for today's automotive industry. These are not compromised under any circumstances. In this study, based on the D-FMEA (Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) study of a functional safety criterion against fuel leakage, one 1.4308 cast steel function block, which brazed-on fuel rail port in fuel injection unit, was investigated. Porosity, buckling, inclusion and detection for leak were carried out by non-destructive test (NDT) methods. It was found that the best practice was the CT-Scan (Computed Tomography) for such applications.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

K.C. Dizdar
1
ORCID: ORCID
H. Sahin
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Ardicli
2
D. Dispinar
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
  2. Bosch Powertrain Solutions, Bursa, Turkey
  3. Foseco Non-Ferrous Metal Treatment, Netherlands
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Abstract

The application of ferritic-matrix vermicular graphite cast iron in the production of fireplace fireboxes improves their thermal output, but the consumer market for these products prioritises their price. Given this consideration, this work concerns a comparison of the quality of vermicular graphite cast iron types produced from 0.025%S pig iron (a less expensive material) and 0.010%S pig iron (a more expensive material) in terms of the number and shape of vermicular graphite precipitates varying with the magnesium level in the alloy. It turned out that the vermicular graphite cast iron made with the 0.025%S pig iron demonstrated a slightly lower number of vermicular graphite precipitates. For both vermicular graphite cast iron melts, 0.028%Mg and 0.020%Mg in the alloys provided a vermicular graphite precipitate share of approx. 50% and 95%, respectively.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Mróz
1
ORCID: ORCID
A.W. Orłowicz
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Tupaj
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Lenik
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Kawiński
2
M.. Kawiński
2

  1. Rzeszow University of Technology, Al. Powstańców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
  2. Cast Iron Foundry KAWMET, ul. Krakowska 11, 37-716 Orły, Poland
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Abstract

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a good reinforcement for metal matrix composite materials; they can significantly improve the mechanical, wear-resistant, and heat-resistant properties of the materials. Due to the differences in the atomic structure and surface energy between CNTs and aluminum-based materials, the bonding interface effect that occurs when nanoscale CNTs are added to the aluminum alloy system as a reinforcement becomes more pronounced, and the bonding interface is important for the material mechanical performance. Firstly, a comparative analysis of the interface connection methods of four CNT-reinforced aluminum matrix composites is provided, and the combination mechanisms of various interface connection methods are explained. Secondly, the influence of several factors, including the preparation method and process as well as the state of the material, on the material bonding interface during the composite preparation process is analyzed. Furthermore, it is explained how the state of the bonding interface can be optimized by adopting appropriate technical and technological means. Through the study of the interface of CNT-reinforced aluminum-based composite materials, the influence of the interface on the overall performance of the composite material is determined, which provides directions and ideas for the preparation of future high-performance CNT-reinforced aluminum-based composite materials.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rong Li
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zhilin Pan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Qi Zeng
2
ORCID: ORCID
Xiaoli Ye
1

  1. School of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering Guizhou Normal University, Guyiang, Guizhou, China
  2. Guiyang Huaheng Mechanical Manufacture CO.LTD, Guyiang, Guizhou, China
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Abstract

A method for the open-cell aluminum foams manufacturing by investment casting was presented. Among mechanical properties, compressive behaviour was investigated. The thermal performance of the fabricated foams used as heat transfer enhancers in the heat accumulator based on phase change material (paraffin) was studied during charging-discharging working cycles in terms of temperature distribution. The influence of the foam on the thermal conductivity of the system was examined, revealing a two-fold increase in comparison to the pure PCM. The proposed castings were subjected to cyclic stresses during PCM’s subsequent contraction and expansion, while any casting defects present in the structure may deteriorate their durability. The manufactured heat transfers enhancers were found suitable for up to several dozen of cycles. The applied solution helped to facilitate the heat transfer resulting in more homogeneous temperature distribution and reduction of the charging period’s duration.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Dmitruk
1
ORCID: ORCID
H. Kapłon
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Naplocha
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Lightweight Elements Engineering, Foundry and Automation, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland
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Abstract

The sodium silicate sands hardened by microwave have the advantages of high strength, fast hardening speed and low residual strength with the lower addition of sodium silicate. However, the sodium ion in the sands will absorb moisture from the atmosphere, which would lead to lower storing strength, so the protection of a bonding bridge of sodium silicate between the sands is crucial. Methyl silicone oil is a cheap hydrophobic industrial raw material. The influence of the addition amount of methyl silicone oil modifier on compressive strength and moisture absorption of sodium silicate sands was studied in this work. The microscopic analysis of modified before and after sodium silicate sands has been carried on employing scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and energy spectrum analysis(EDS). The results showed that the strength of modified sodium silicate sands was significantly higher than that of unmodified sodium silicate sands, and the best addition of methyl silicone oil in the quantity of sodium silicate was 15%. It was also found that the bonding bridge of modified sodium silicate sands was the density and the adhesive film was smooth, and the methyl silicone oil was completely covered on the surface of the sodium silicate bonding bridge to protect it.
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Authors and Affiliations

Huafang Wang
1
Xiang Gao
1
Lei Yang
1
Wei He
1
Jijun Lu
1

  1. School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Wuhan Textile University, China
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Abstract

There are mainly two different ways of producing sand cores in the industry. The most used is the shooting moulding process. A mixture of sand and binder is injected by compressed air into a cavity (core), where it is then thermally or chemically cured. Another relatively new method of manufacturing cores is the use of 3D printing. The principle is based on the method of local curing of the sand bed. The ability to destroy sand cores after casting can be evaluated by means of tests that are carried out directly on the test core. In most cases, the core is thermally degraded and the mechanical properties before and after thermal exposure are measured. Another possible way to determine the collapsibility of core mixtures can be performed on test castings, where a specific casting is designed for different binder systems. The residual strength is measured by subsequent shake-out or knock-out tests. In this paper, attention will be paid to the collapsibility of core mixtures in aluminium castings.
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Authors and Affiliations

T. Obzina
1
V. Merta
1
J. Rygel
1
P. Lichý
1
K. Drobíková
1

  1. VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
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Abstract

Nowadays, the best castings’ manufacturers have to meet very demanding requirements and specifications applicable to mechanical properties and other characteristics. To fulfill those requirements, more and more sophisticated methods are being used to analyze the internal quality of castings. In many cases, the commonly used Non-Destructive Methods, like X-ray or ultrasonic testing, are not enough to ensure precise and unequivocal evaluation. Especially, when the properties of the casting only slightly fail the specification and the reasons for such failures are very subtle, thus difficult to find without the modern techniques. The paper presents some aspects of such an approach with the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to analyze internal defects that can critically decrease the performance of castings. The paper presents the so-called bifilm defects in ductile and chromium cast iron, near-surface corrosion caused by sulfur, micro-shrinkage located under the risers, lustrous carbon precipitates, and other microstructure features. The method used to find them, the results of their analysis, and the possible causes of the defects are presented. The conclusions prove the SEM is now a powerful tool not only for scientists but it is more and more often present in the R&D departments of the foundries.
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Jezierski
1
M. Dojka
1
M. Stawarz
1
R. Dojka
2

  1. Department of Foundry Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 7 Towarowa, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  2. ODLEWNIA RAFAMET Sp. z o.o., 1 Staszica, 47-420 Kuźnia Raciborska, Poland
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Abstract

The possibilities of using an inorganic phosphate binder for the ablation casting technology are discussed in this paper. This kind of binder was selected for the process due to its inorganic character and water-solubility. Test castings were made in the sand mixture containing this binder. Each time during the pouring liquid alloy into the molds and solidification process of castings, the temperature in the mold was examined. Then the properties of the obtained castings were compared to the properties of the castings solidifying at ambient temperature in similar sand and metal molds. Post-process materials were also examined - quartz matrix and water. It has been demonstrated that ablation casting technology promotes refining of the microstructure, and thus upgrades the mechanical properties of castings (Rm was raised about approx. 20%). Properties of these castings are comparable to the castings poured in metal moulds. However, the post-process water does not meet the requirements of ecology, which significantly reduces the possibility of its cheap disposal.
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Bibliography


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Authors and Affiliations

S. Puzio
1
ORCID: ORCID
J. Kamińska
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Major-Gabryś
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Angrecki
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. ŁUKASIEWICZ Research Network - Foundry Research Institute, Zakopianska 73, 30-418 Cracow, Poland
  2. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow, Poland
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Abstract

The production of high pressure die casts also brings difficulties regarding the processing of the waste material. It is mainly formed by runners, overflows and other foundry supplements used and, in the case of machines using the cold chamber, also the remainder from this chamber. As this material is often returned to the production process, we refer to it as return material. In the production process, it is therefore essential to deal with the proportion issue of return material against primary material that can be added to the melt to maintain the required cast properties. The submitted article monitors the quality properties of the alloy, selected mechanical properties of casts and porosity depending on the proportion of the return material in the melt. At the same time, the material savings are evaluated with regards to the amount of waste and the economic burden of the foundries. To monitor the above-mentioned factors, series of casts were produced from the seven melting process variants with a variable ratio of return to the primary material. The proportion ratio of return material in the primary alloy was adjusted from 100% of the primary alloy to 100% of the return material in the melting process. It has been proven that with the increasing proportion of the return material, the chemical composition of the melt changes, the mechanical properties of the alloy decrease and the porosity of the casts increases. Based on the results of the tests and analyzes, the optimal ratio of return and primary material in the melting process has been determined. Considering the prescribed quality of the alloy and mechanical properties, concerning the economic indicator of the savings, the ratio is set at 70:30 [%] in favor of the primary material.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

S. Gaspar
1
ORCID: ORCID
J. Majerník
2
ORCID: ORCID
A. Trytek
3
ORCID: ORCID
M. Podaril
2
ORCID: ORCID
Z. Benova
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Manufacturing Technologies of the Technical University of Košice with the seat in Prešov, Slovak Republic
  2. Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice, Czech Republic
  3. The Faculty of Mechanics and Technology in Stalowa Wola, Poland

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