Applied sciences

Archives of Mining Sciences


Archives of Mining Sciences | 2021 | vol. 66 | No 4

Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The article presents a numerical model of a U-ventilated longwall, taking into account detailed elements such as arch yielding support, roof supports and shearer. What distinguishes it from previous models is the mapping of adjacent goafs. This model considers the current state of knowledge regarding spatial height distribution, porosity and permeability of goafs. Airflow calculations were carried out using the selected turbulence models to select appropriate numerical methods for the model. Obtained results show possibilities of conducting extensive numerical calculations for the flow problems in the mine environment, taking into account more complex descriptions and the interpretation of the calculation results carried out with simpler models.
Go to article


[1] Ansys Inc, Ansys Fluent Theory Guide. Ansys Inc (2019).
[2] M. Baścik, 3D laser scanning in underground mines – practical experience. School of Underground Mining 2013. The Mineral And Energy Economy Research Institute of Polish Academy of Sciences (2013).
[3] P.Y. Chou, On velocity correlations and the solutions of the equations of turbulent fluctuations. Quarterely of Applied Mathematics (1945).
[4] N .S. Dhamakar, G.A. Blasdell, A.S. Lyrintzis, An Overview of Turbulent Inflow Boundary Conditions for large Eddy Simulations. Proc of the 22 nr AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference AIAA Paper (2015).
[5] W. Dziurzyński, Prognozowanie procesu przewietrzania kopalni głębinowej w warunkach pożaru podziemnego. Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energią PAN, Kraków (1998).
[6] J. Janus, PhD thesis, Modelling of flow phenomena in mine drifts using the results of laser scanning. Strata Mechanics Research Institute of Polish Academy of Sciences (2018).
[7] J. Janus, The Application of laser scanning in the process of constructing a mine drift numerical model. 24th World Mining Congress PROCEEDINGS – Underground Mining, Brazilian Mining Association, Rio de Janeiro (2016).
[8] J. Janus, The application of laser scanning in the process of construction a mine drift numerical model. Transactions of the Strata Mechanics Research Institute 18, 3 (2016).
[9] J. Janus, Assessment of the possibilities of using laser scanning for numerical models constructions. Transactions of the Strata Mechanics Research Institute 17, (1-2) (2015).
[10] J. Janus, Wpływ zapory przeciwwybuchowej wodnej na pole prędkości i warunki przewietrzania wyrobiska kopalnianego. Archives of Mining Sciences, Seria: Monografia, Nr 19 (2019).
[11] J. Janus, J. Krawczyk, An Analysis of the Mixing of Air and Methane in the Stream Produced by the Mine Injector Station – Present Results of Measurements and Modeling. The Australian Mine Ventilation Conference 2013, The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (2013).
[12] J. Janus, J. Krawczyk, Measurement and Simulation of Flow in a Section of a Mine Gallery. Energies 14, 4894 (2021). DOI:
[13] J. Janus, J. Krawczyk, The numerical simulation of a sudden inflow of methane into the end segment of a longwall with Y – type ventilation system. Archives of Mining Sciences 59, (4) (2014).
[14] A. Kidybiński, Podstawy geotechniki kopalnianej. Wydawnictwo Śląsk, Katowice (1982).
[15] J. Krawczyk, J. Janus, An example of defining boundary conditions for a flow in a mine gallery. Abstract in the XXIII Fluid Mechanics Conference Materials, Zawiercie (2018).
[16] J. Krawczyk, J. Janus, Velocity field in the area of artificially generated barrier on the mine drift floor. Przegląd Górniczy 71, (11) (2015).
[17] J. Krawczyk, Single and multiple-dimensional models of unsteady air and gas flows in underground mines. Archives of Mining Sciences, Seria: Monografia, No 2 (2007).
[18] F. Menter, Turbulence Modeling for Engineering Flows. ANSYS 2012 Inc. (2012). [19] F. Menter, Best Practice – Scale-Resolving Simulations in ANSYS CFD – Application Brief Version 2.0 (2015).
[20] J. Pokorný, L. Brumarová, P. Kučera, J. Martinka, A. Thomitzek, P. Zapletal, The effect of Air Flow Rate on Smoke Stratification in Longitudinal Tunnel Ventilation. Acta Montanistica Slovaca 24, (3) (2019).
[21] T. Ren, R. Balusu, C. Claassen, Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling of Gas Flow Dynamics in Large Longwall Goaf Areas. 35th APCOM Symposium (2011).
[22] P. Skotniczny, Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of the Mass Exchange Between Longwall Headings and Goafs, in the Presence of Methane Drainage in A U-Type Ventilated Longwall. Archives of Mining Sciences 58, (3) (2013).
[23] V. Sokoła-Szewioła, J. Wiatr, Application of laser scanning method for the elaboration of digital spatial representation of the shape of underground mining excavation. Przegląd Górniczy 8 (2013).
[24] J. Szlązak, PhD thesis, Wpływ uszczelniania chodników przyścianowych na przepływ powietrza przez zroby. AGH Kraków (1980).
[25] N. Szlązak, J. Szlązak, Wentylacja wyrobisk ścianowych w kopalniach węgla kamiennego, w warunkach zagrożenia metanowego i pożarowego. Górnictwo i Geologia (2) (2019).
[26] K. Wierzbiński, Wpływ geometrii chodnika wentylacyjnego i sposobu jego likwidacji na rozkład stężenia metanu w rejonie wylotu ze ściany przewietrzanej sposobem U w świetle obliczeń numerycznych CFD. Zeszyt Naukowy Instytutu Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energią Polskiej Akademii Nauk, No 94 (2016).
[27] M.A. Wala, S. Vytla, C.D. Taylor, G. Huang, Mine face ventilation: a comparison of CFD results against benchmark experiments for the CFD code validation. Mining Engineering (2007).
[28] D.M. Worrall, E.W. Wachel, U. Ozbay, D.R. Munoz, J.W. Grubb, Computational fluid dynamic modeling of sealed longwall gob in underground coal mine – A progress report. 14th United States/North American Mine Ventilation Symposium, Calizaya & Nelson (2012).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Jakub Janus

  1. Strata Mechanics Research Institute, 27 Reymonta Str., 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Recent works aimed to investigate geotechnical properties of Transitional Group A-2-7 (TGA-2-7) soil affected by the use of hydrated lime and fly ash class F, by-products from quarries and a cement factory in Jordan, to compensate for the gap in the granular distribution. Host soil was exposed to various proportions of fly ash and lime powder. The blended specimens were subjected to different tests related to index properties, including Atterberg limits, compaction properties and California bearing ratio. The results demonstrate that 2% fly ash led to a reduction in the plasticity index from 19% to 10%, while lime powder reduced it from 19% to 13%. A sufficient improvement of maximum dry density was observed at 20% lime addition and increased from 15.11 kN/m3 to 16.29 kN/m3. California bearing ratio that measures the strength soil linearly increased up to 10% induced by 20% lime addition.
Go to article


[1] J.I. Chang, G.C. Cho, Geotechnical Engineering Behaviors of Gellan Gum Biopolymer Treated Sand. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 53 (10), 1-38 (2016a). DOI:
[2] J.I. Chang, G.C. Cho, Introduction of Microbial Biopolymers in Soil Treatment for Future Environmentally-Friendly and Sustainable Geotechnical Engineering. Sustainability 8, 251-273 (2016b). DOI:
[3] C. Guo, Y. Cui, Pore Structure Characteristics of Debris Flow Source Material in the Wenchuan Earthquake Area. Engineering Geology 267, 105499 (2020). DOI:
[4] J. Park, J.C. Santamarina, Revised Soil Classification System for Coarse-Fine Mixtures. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 143 (8), 04017039 (2017). DOI:
[5] D . Peng, Q. Xu, F. Liu, Y. He, S. Zhang, X. Qi, K. Zhao, X. Zhang, Distribution and Failure Modes of the Landslides in Heitai Terrace, China. Eng. Geol. 236, 97-110 (2018). DOI:
[6] Y . F.Cui, X.J. Zhou, C.X. Guo, Experimental Study on the Moving Characteristics of Fine Grains in Wide Grading Unconsolidated Soil Under Heavy Rainfall. J. Mt. Sci. 14 (3), 417-431 (2017). DOI:
[7] W.B. Chen, K. Liu, W.Q. Feng, L. Borana, J.H. Yin, Influence of Matric Suction on Nonlinear Time-Dependent Compression Behavior of a Granular Fill Material. Acta Geotechnica 15 (3), 615-633 (2020). DOI:
[8] Z. Zhou, H. Yang, X. Wang, B. Liu, Model Development and Experimental Verification for Permeability Coefficient of Soil-Rock Mixture. Int. J. Geomech. 17 (4), 04016106 (2017). DOI:
[9] R . Salgado, P. Bandini, A. Karim, Shear Strength and Stiffness of Silty Sand. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 126 (5), 451-462 (2000). DOI:
[10] T. Ueda, T. Matsushima, Y. Yamada, Effect of Particle Size Ratio and Volume Fraction on Shear Strength of Binary Granular Mixture. Granular Matter 13 (6), 731-742 (2011). DOI:
[11] P . Ruggeri, D. Segato, V.M.E. Fruzzetti, G. Scarpelli, Evaluating the Shear Strength of a Natural Heterogeneous Soil Using Reconstituted Mixtures. Géotechnique 66 (11), 941-946 (2016). DOI:
[12] M.M. Monkul, G. Ozden, Compressional Behaviour of Clayey Sand and Transition Fines Content. Engineering Geology 89 (3), 195-205 (2007). DOI:
[13] T.G. Ham, Y. Nakata, R.P. Orense, M. Hyodo. Influence of Gravel on the Compression Characteristics of Decomposed Granite Soil.” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 136 (11), 1574-1577 (2010). DOI:
[14] N.J. Jiang, K. Soga, M. Kuo, Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation for Seepage-Induced Internal Erosion Control in Sand-Clay Mixtures. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 143 (3), 04016100 (2016). DOI:
[15] X .S. Shi, J. Yin, Experimental and Theoretical Investigation on the Compression Behavior of Sand-Marine Clay Mixtures Within Homogenization Framework. Comput. Geotech 90 (Oct), 14-26 (2017). DOI:
[16] X .S. Shi, I. Herle, D. Muir Wood, A Consolidation Model for Lumpy Composite Soils in Open-Pit Mining. Géotechnique 68 (3), 189-204 (2018). DOI:
[17] H .K. Dash, T.G. Sitharam, B.A. Baudet, Influence of Nonplastic Fines on the Response of a Silty Sand to Cyclic Loading. Soils and Foundations 50 (5), 695-704 (2010). DOI:
[18] L . Zuo, B.A. Baudet, Determination of the Transitional Fines Content of Sand-non-Plastic Fines Mixtures. Soils Found. 55 (1), 213-219 (2015). DOI:
[19] C. Chu, Z. Wu, Y. Deng, Y. Chen, Q. Wang, Intrinsic Compression Behavior of Remolded Sand-Clay Mixture. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 54 (7), 926-932 (2017). DOI:
[20] Z. Wu, Y. Deng, Y. Cui, Y. Chen, Q. Wang, Q. Feng, Investigations on Secondary Compression Behaviours of Artificial Soft Sand-Clay Mixtures. Soils Found. 59 (2), 326-336 (2019). DOI:
[21] W. Zhou, K. Xu, G. Ma, L. Yang, X. Chang, Effects of Particle Size Ratio on the Macro- and Microscopic Behaviors of Binary Mixtures at the Maximum Packing Efficiency State. Granular Matter 18 (4), 81 (2016). DOI:
[22] X .S. Shi, J. Yin, Estimation of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Sand-Marine Clay Mixtures with a Homogenization Approach. Int. J. Geomech. 18 (7), 04018082 (2018). DOI:
[23] X .S. Shi, J. Yin, J. Zhao, Elastic Visco-Plastic Model for Binary Sand-Clay Mixtures with Applications to One- Dimensional Finite Strain Consolidation Analysis. J. Eng. Mech. 145 (8), 04019059 (2019a). DOI:
[24] X .S. Shi, J. Zhao, J. Yin, Z. Yu, An Elastoplastic Model for Gap-Graded Soils Based on Homogenization Theory. Int. J. Solids Struct. 163 (May), 1-14 (2019b). DOI:
[25] T.S. Nagaraj, F.J. Griffiths, R.C. Joshi, A. Vatsala, B.R.S. Murthy, Change in Pore-Size Distribution due to Consolidation of Clays Discussion. Géotechnique 40 (2), 303-309 (1990). DOI:
[26] M. Topolnicki (3-ed edition), In Situ Soil Mixing, In: K. Kirsch, A. Bell (Eds.), Ground Improvement, CRC Press, London (2013).
[27] FHWA-HRT-13-046, Federal Highway Administration Design Manual: Deep Mixing for Embankment and Foundation Support, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration (2013).
[28] B .B. Broms, Deep Soil Stabilization: Design and Construction of Lime and Lime/Cement Columns. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden (2003).
[29] Cement Deep Mixing (CDM), Design and Construction Manual for CDM Institute. Partial English Translation, Cement Deep Mixing Association of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, (1985).
[30] A.J. McGinn, T.D. O’Rourke, Performance of Deep Mixing Methods at Fort Point Channel. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC (2003).
[31] T. Kawasaki, A. Niina, S. Saitoh, R. Babasaki, Studies on Engineering Characteristics of Cement-Base Stabilized Soil. Takenaka Technical Research Report 19, 144-165 (1978).
[32] K. Uddin, A.S. Balasubramaniam, D.T. Bergado, Engineering Behavior of Cement-Treated Bangkok Soft Clay. Geotech. Eng. 28 (1), 89-119 (1997). DOI:
[33] N. Cristelo, S. Glendinning, L. Fernandes, A.T. Pinto, Effects of Alkaline- Activated Fly Ash and Portland Cement on Soft Soil Stabilization. Acta Geotechnica 8 (4), 395-405 (2013). DOI:
[34] M. Zhang, H. Guo, T. El-Korchi, G. Zhang, M. Tao, Experimental Feasibility Study of Geopolymer as the Next- Generation Soil Stabilizer. Constr. Build. Mater. 47, 1468-1478 (2013). DOI:
[35] S. Rios, N. Cristelo, T. Miranda, N. Arau, J. Oliveira, E. Lucas, Increasing the Reaction kinetics of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash Binders for Stabilization of a Silty Sand Pavement Sub-Base. Road Mater. Pavement Desing. 19 (1), 201- 222 (2016). DOI:
[36] H .H. Abdullah, M.A. Shahin, P. Sarker, Stabilisation of Clay with Fly-Ash Geopolymer Incorporating GGBFS. In: Proceedings of the second Proceedings of the Second World Congress on Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering (CSEE’17), 1-8 (2017).
[37] A.B. Moghal, State of the Art Review on the Role of Fly Ashes in Geotechnical and Geo Environmental Applications. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 29 (8), 04017072 (2017). DOI:
[38] S. Pourakbar, A. Asadi, B.B. Huat, N. Cristelo, M.H. Fasihnikoutalab, Application of Alkali-Activated Agro-Waste Reinforced with Wollastonite Fibers in Soil Stabilization. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 29 (2), 04016206 (2016). DOI:
[39] Elkhebu, A. Zainorabidin, I. Bakar, B.K. Huat, L. Abdeldjouad, W. Dheyab, Alkaline Activation of Clayey Soil Using Potassium Hydroxide and Fly Ash. International Journal of Integrated Engineering 10 (9), 99-104 (2019). DOI:
[40] L . Abdeldjouad, A. Asadi, R.J. Ball, H. Nahazanan, B.K. Huat, W. Dheyab, A. Elkhebu, Effect of Clay Content on Soil Stabilization with Alkaline Activation. International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering 5, (2019b). DOI:
[41] L . Abdeldjouad, A. Asadi, R.J. Ball, H. Nahazanan, B.K. Huat, Application of Alkali-Activated Palm Oil Fuel Ash Reinforced with Glass Fibers in Soil Stabilization. Soils and Foundations 59 (5), 1552-1561 (2019c). DOI:
[42] B .R. Phanikumar, E. Ramanjaneya, Compaction and Strength Characteristics of An Expansive Clay Stabilized with Lime Sludge and Cement. Soils and Foundations 60, 129-138 (2020). DOI:
[43] D .N. Little, E.H. Males, J.R. Prusinski, B. Stewart Cementitious Stabilization, A Research Report, A2J01, Committee on Cementitious stabilization. Louisiana State University (2016).
[44] Z.D. Zhu, S.Y. Liu, Utilisation of a New Soil Stabilizer for Silt Subgrade. Eng. Geol. 97 (3-4), 192-198 (2008). DOI:
[45] X .B. Yu, B. Zhang, D. Cartweight, Beneficial Utilization of Lime Sludge for Subgrade Stabilization: A pilot investigation. Ohio Department of Transportation, Office of Research and Development (2010).

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Omar Asad Ahmad

  1. Amman Arab University, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, P.O Box. 2234, Amman 11953, Jordan
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The deformation properties of rocks play a crucial role in handling most geomechanical problems. However, the determination of these properties in laboratory is costly and necessitates special equipment. Therefore, many attempts were made to estimate these properties using different techniques. In this study, various statistical and soft computing methods were employed to predict the tangential Young Modulus (Eti, GPa) and tangential Poisson’s Ratio (vti) of coal measure sandstones located in Zonguldak Hardcoal Basin (ZHB), NW Turkey. Predictive models were established based on various regression and artificial neural network (ANN) analyses, including physicomechanical, mineralogical, and textural properties of rocks. The analysis results showed that the mineralogical features such as the contents of quartz (Q, %) and lithic fragment (LF, %) and the textural features (i.e., average grain size, d50, and sorting coefficient, Sc) have remarkable impacts on deformation properties of the investigated sandstones. By comparison with these features, the mineralogical effects seem to be more effective in predicting the Eti and vti. The performance of the established models was assessed using several statistical indicators. The predicted results from the proposed models were compared to one another. It was concluded that the empirical models based on the ANN were found to be the most convenient tools for evaluating the deformational properties of the investigated sandstones.
Go to article


[1] K . Zorlu, C. Gökçeoglu, F. Ocakoglu, H.A. Nefeslioglu, S. Acikalin, Prediction of uniaxial compressive strength of sandstones using petrography-based models. Eng. Geol. 96, 141-158 (2008). DOI :
[2] N . Ceryan, Application of support vector machines and relevance vector machines in predicting uniaxial compressive strength of volcanic rocks. J. African Earth. Sci. 100, 634-644 (2014). DOI :
[3] A. Shakoor, R.E. Bonelli, Relationship between petrographic characteristics, engineering index properties, and mechanical properties of selected sandstones. Environ. Eng. Geosci. 28, 55-71 (1991). DOI :
[4] A. Ersoy, M.D. Waller, Textural characterisation of rocks. Eng. Geol. 39, 123-136 (1995). DOI :
[5] F.G. Bell, P. Lindsay, The petrographic and geomechanical properties of some sandstones from the Newspaper Member of the Natal Group near Durban, South Africa. Eng. Geol. 53, 57-81 (1999). DOI :
[6] R. Prikryl, Assessment of rock geomechanical quality by quantitative rock fabric coefficients: limitations and possible source of misinterpretations. Eng. Geol. 87, 149-162 2006. DOI :
[7] J.S. Coggan, D. Stead, J.H. Howe, C.I Faulks, Mineralogical controls on the engineering behavior of hydrothermally altered granites under uniaxial compression. Eng. Geol. 160, 89-102 (2013). DOI :
[8] C .A. Ozturk, E. Nasuf, S. Kahraman, Estimation of rock strength from quantitative assessment of rock texture. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 114 (6), 471-480 (2014).
[9] E. Ali, W. Guang, A. Ibrahim, Microfabrics-Based Approach to Predict Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Selected Amphibolites Schists Using Fuzzy Inference and Linear Multiple Regression Techniques, Environ. Eng. Geosci. 21 (3), 235-245 (2015). DOI:
[10] X.A. Cabria, Effects of weathering in the rock and rock mass properties and the influence of salts in the coastal roadcuts in Saint Vincent and Dominica. Master Thesis, Twente University, (2015).
[11] N .Q.A.M. Yusof, H. Zabidi, Correlation of Mineralogical and Textural Characteristics with Engineering Properties of Granitic Rock from Hulu Langat, Selangor. Procedia Chemistry 19, 975-980 (2016). DOI :
[12] E. Köken A. Özarslan, G. Bacak, Weathering effects on physical properties and material behavior of granodiorite rocks. In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering – From the past to the future Ulusay et al. (Eds), ISRM International Symposium, EUROCK 2016, 331-336 (2016).
[13] T.K. Koca, M.Y. Koca, Classification of weathered andesitic rock materials from the İzmir Subway line on the basis of strength and deformation. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 78, 3575-3592 (2019). DOI :
[14] M.N. Bidgoli, Z. Zhao, L. Jing, Numerical evaluation of strength and deformability of fractured rocks. Rock Mech. and Geotech. Eng. 5, 419-430 (2013). DOI:
[15] H. Xu, W. Zhou, R. Xie, L. Da, C. Xiao, Y. Shan, H. Zhang, Characterization of Rock Mechanical Properties Using Lab Tests and Numerical Interpretation Model of Well Logs. Math. Prob. Eng. 5967159, (2016). DOI :
[16] J. Shu, L. Jiang, P. Kong, Q. Wang, Numerical Analysis of the Mechanical Behaviors of Various Jointed Rocks under Uniaxial Tension Loading. Appl. Sci. 9, 1824 (2019). DOI:
[17] P. Davy, C. Darcel, R. Le Goc, D. Mas Ivars, Elastic Properties of Fractured Rock Masses With Frictional Properties and Power Law Fracture Size Distributions. J. Geophys. Res. 123 (8), 6521-6539 (2018). DOI :
[18] M. Babaeian, M. Ataei, F. Sereshki, F. Sotoudeh, A new framework for evaluation of rock fragmentation in open pit mines. Rock Mech. Geotech. Eng. 11 (2), 325-336 (2019). DOI :
[19] A.A. Mahmoud, S. Elkatatny, D.A. Shehri, Application of Machine Learning in Evaluation of the Static Young’s Modulus for Sandstone Formations. Sustainability 12, 1880 (2020). DOI:
[20] D . Lv, Z. Li, J. Chen, H. Liu, J. Guo, L. Shang, Characteristics of the Permian coal-formed gas sandstone reservoirs in Bohai Bay Basin and the adjacent areas. North China, Petrol. Sci. Eng. 78 (2), 516-528, (2011). DOI :
[21] A. Fan, R. Yang, N. Lenhardt, M. Wang, Z. Han, J. Li, Y. Li, Z. Zhao, Cementation and porosity evolution of tight sandstone reservoirs in the Permian Sulige gasfield, Ordos Basin (central China). Marine Petrol. Geol. 103, 276-293 (2019). DOI:
[22] P. Tan, Y. Jin, L. Yuan, et al., Understanding hydraulic fracture propagation behavior in tight sandstone – coal interbedded formations: an experimental investigation. Pet. Sci. 16, 148-160 (2019). DOI :
[23] D .G. Roy, T.N. Singh, Predicting deformational properties of Indian coal: Soft computing and regression analysis approach. Measurement 149, 106975 (2020). DOI:
[24] R. Koch, R. Sobott, Sandsteine: Entstehung, Eigenschaften, Verwitterung, Konservierung, Restaurierung. In: Siegesmund, Snethlage (eds) Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften 59, 145-174 (2008).
[25] J. Rüdrich, T. Bartelsen, R. Dohrmann, S. Siegesmund, Moisture expansion as a deterioration factor for sandstone used in buildings. Environ. Earth Sci. 63, 1545-1564 (2010). DOI:
[26] F.J. Pettijohn, Sand and sandstone, Springer-Verlag Berlin, (1973). e-ISBN: 978-1-4615-9974-6
[27] J.R.L Allen, Petrology, origin and deposition of the highest Lower Old Red sandstone of Shropshire, England. J. Sedimen. Res. 32 (4), 657-697 (1962).
[28] D .F. Howarth, J.C. Rowlands, Quantitative assessment of rock texture and correlation with drillability and strength properties. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 20, 57-85 (1987). DOI:
[29] A. Azzoni, F. Bailo, E. Rondena, et al., Assessment of texture coefficient for different rock types and correlation with uniaxial compressive strength and rock weathering. Rock. Mech. Rock. Eng. 29, 39-46 (1996). DOI :
[30] M. Alber, S. Kahraman, Predicting the uniaxial compressive strength and elastic modulus of a fault breccia from texture coefficient. Rock Mech. Rock. Eng. 42, 117-127 (2009). DOI :
[31] F. Arıkan R. Ulusay, N. Aydın, Characterization of weathered acidic volcanic rocks and a weathering classification based on a rating system. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 66, 415-430 (2007). DOI :
[32] Ö. Ündül, A. Tuğrul, On the variations of geoengineering properties of dunites and diorites related to weathering. Environ. Earth Sci. 75, 1326 (2016). DOI:
[33] E. Köken, S. Top, A. Özarslan, Assessment of Rock Aggregate Quality Through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Geotech. Geol. Eng. 38, 5075-5096 (2020). DOI:
[34] R.H.C. Wong, K.T. Chau, P. Wang, Microcracking and grain size effect in Yuen Long Marbles. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr. 33 (5), 479-485 (1996). DOI:
[35] Y.H. Hatzor, V. Palchik, The influence of grain size and porosity on crack initiation stress and critical flaw length in dolomites. Int. J .Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 34 (5), 805-816 (1997). DOI :
[36] A. Tugrul, I.H. Zarif, Correlation of mineralogical and textural characteristics with engineering properties of selected granitic rocks from Turkey. Eng. Geol. 51 (4), 303-317 (1999). DOI :
[37] E. Eberhardt, B. Stimpson, D. Stead, Effects of grain size on the initiation and propagation thresholds of stressinduced brittle fractures. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 32, 81-99 (1999). DOI :
[38] R. Přikryl, Some microstructural aspects of strength variation in rocks. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 38 (5), 671-682 (2001). DOI:
[39] M. Cai, P.K. Kaiser, Y. Tasaka, T. Maejima, H. Morioka, M. Minami, Generalized crack initiation and crack damage stress thresholds of brittle rock masses near underground excavations. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 41 (5), 833-847 (2004). DOI:
[40] M. Nicksiar, C.D. Martin, Crack initiation stress in low porosity crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Eng. Geol. 154, 64-76 (2013). DOI:
[41] E. Köken, Investigations on Fracture Evolution of Coal Measure Sandstones from Mineralogical and Textural Points of View. Indian Geotech. J. 50, 1024-1040 (2020). DOI:
[42] N . Yesiloglu-Gultekin, E.A. Sezer, C. Gokceoglu, H. Bayhan, An application of adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system for estimating the uniaxial compressive strength of certain granitic rocks from their mineral contents. Expert Sys. App. 40 (3), 921-928 (2013). DOI:
[43] N .F. Hassan, O.A. Jimoh, S.A. Shehu, Z. Hareyani, The effect of mineralogical composition on strength and drillability of granitic rocks in Hulu Langat, Selangor Malaysia. Geotech. Geol. Eng. 37, 5499-5505 (2019). DOI :
[44] R.S. Tandon, V. Gupta, The control of mineral constituents and textural characteristics on the petrophysical & mechanical (PM) properties of different rocks of the Himalaya. Eng. Geol. 153, 125-143 (2013). DOI :
[45] M. Rӓisӓnen, Relationships between texture and mechanical properties of hybrid rocks from the Jaala-Iitti complex, southeastern Finland. Eng. Geol. 74, 197-211 (2004). DOI:
[46] E. Cantisani, C.A. Garzonio, M. Ricci, S. Vettori, Relationships between the petrographical, physical and mechanical properties of some Italian sandstones. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 60, 321-332 (2013). DOI :
[47] R. Ulusay, K. Tureli, M.H. Ider, Prediction of engineering properties of a selected litharenite sandstone from its petrographic characteristics using correlation and multivariate statistical techniques. Eng. Geol. 38 (1-2), 135-157 (1994). DOI:
[48] S. Kahraman, Evaluation of simple methods for assessing the uniaxial compressive strength of rock. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 38 (7), 981-994 (2001). DOI:
[49] G.R. Lashkaripour, Predicting mechanical properties of mudrock from index parameters. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 61, 73-77 (2002). DOI:
[50] P.A. Hale, A. Shakoor, A Laboratory Investigation of the Effects of Cyclic Heating and Cooling, Wetting and Drying, and Freezing and Thawing on the Compressive Strength of Selected Sandstones. Environ. Eng. Geosci. 9 (2), 117-130 (2003). DOI:
[51] C . Gokceoglu, H. Sonmez, K. Zorlu, Estimating the uniaxial compressive strength of some clay bearing rocks selected from Turkey by nonlinear multivariable regression and rule-based fuzzy models. Expert Systems 26 (2), 176-190 (2009). DOI:
[52] M. Khandelwal, T.H. Singh, Correlating static properties of coal measures rocks with P-wave velocity. Int. J. Coal Geol. 79 (1-2), 55-60, (2009). DOI:
[53] S. Dehghan, G.H Sattari, S. Chehreh Chelgani, M.A. Aliabadi, Prediction of uniaxial compressive strength and modulus of elasticity for Travertine samples using regression and artificial neural networks. Min. Sci. Tech. (China), 20 (1), 41-46, (2010). DOI:
[54] S. Yagiz, Correlation between slake durability and rock properties for some carbonate rocks. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 70 (3), 377-383 (2011). DOI:
[55] T.N. Singh, A.K. Verma, Comparative analysis of intelligent algorithms to correlate strength and petrographic properties of some schistose rocks. Eng. Comput. 28, 1-12 (2012). DOI:
[56] M. Khandelwal, Correlating P-wave velocity with the physicomechanical properties of different rocks. Pure Appl. Geophys. 170, 507-514 (2013). DOI:
[57] R. Barzegar, M. Sattarpour, M.R. Nikudel, et al., Comparative evaluation of artificial intelligence models for prediction of uniaxial compressive strength of travertine rocks, Case study: Azarshahr area, NW Iran, Model. Earth Sys. Environ. 2, 76 (2016). DOI:
[58] A. Teymen, E.C. Mengüç, Comparative evaluation of different statistical tools for the prediction of uniaxial compressive strength of rocks. Int. J. Min. Sci. Tech. 30 (6), 785-797 (2020). DOI :
[59] M.L. Larrea, S.M. Castro, E.A. Bjerg, A software solution for point counting. Petrographic thin section analysis as a case study. Arab. J. Geosci. 7, 2981-2989 (2014). DOI:
[60] E. Köken, Size Reduction Characterization of Underground Mine Tailings: A Case Study on Sandstones. Nat. Resour. Res. 30, 867-887 (2021). DOI:
[61] E.F. McBride, A classification of common sandstones. J. Sediment. Petrol. 33 (3), 664-669, (1963). DOI :
[62] R.H. Dott, Wackes, greywacke and matrix: what approach to immature sandstone classification. J. Sedimen. Res. 34, 625-632 (1964).
[63] R.L. Folk, W.C. Ward, Brazos River bar, a study in the significance of grain size parameters. J. Sedimen. Petrol. 27 (1), 3-26 (1957). DOI:
[64] R.L. Folk, Petrology of sedimentary rocks. Austin: Hemphill Pub. (1981), ISBN: 0-914696-14-9.
[65] I SRM, The complete ISRM suggested methods for rock characterization, testing and monitoring: 1974-2006. In: Ulusay R, Hudson JA (eds) Suggested methods prepared by the commission on testing methods. (2007) International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM), (2007), Ankara, Turkey
[66] D .U. Deere, R.P. Miller, Engineering classification and index properties for intact rock. Technical Report Air Force Weapons Laboratory (Report No, AFWL-TR-65-116), 136-184, New Mexico, (1966).
[67] E. Yasar , Y. Erdoğan, Correlating sound velocity with the density, compressive strength and Young’s modulus of carbonate rocks. Int. J. Rock Mech Min. Sci. 41, 871-875 (2004). DOI :
[68] I . Yilmaz, G. Yuksek, Prediction of the strength and elasticity modulus of gypsum using multiple regression, ANN and ANFIS models. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 46, 803-810 (2009). DOI :
[69] Z.A. Moradian, M. Behnia, Predicting the Uniaxial Compressive Strength and Static Young’s Modulus of Intact Sedimentary Rocks Using the Ultrasonic Test. Int. J. Geomech. 9 (1), 14-19 (2009). DOI :
[70] G. Pappalardo, Correlation between P-wave velocity and physical-mechanical properties of intensely jointed dolostones, Peloritani Mounts, NE Sicily. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 48, 1711-1721 (2015). DOI :
[71] H. Arman, S. Paramban, Correlating natural, dry, and saturated ultrasonic pulse velocities with the mechanical properties of rock for various sample diameters. Appl. Sci. 10, 9134 (2020). DOI :
[72] N . Sabatakakis, G. Koukis, G. Tsiambos, S. Papanakli, Index properties and strength variation controlled by microstructure for sedimentary rocks. Eng. Geol. 97, 80-90 (2008). DOI:
[73] R. Singh, A. Kainthola, T.N. Singh, Estimation of elastic constant of rocks using an ANFIS approach, Appl. Soft Comput. J. 12, 40-45 (2012). DOI:
[74] A.I. Lawal, M.A. Idris, An artificial neural network-based mathematical model for the prediction of blast-induced ground vibrations. Int. J. Environmen. Stud. 77 (2), 318-334, (2020). DOI :
[75] S.K. Das, Artificial neural networks in geotechnical engineering: modeling and application issues, Metaheuristics in water, geotechnical and transport engineering, 231-270 (2013).
[76] M. Heidari, G.R. Khanlari, A.A. Momeni, Prediction of Elastic Modulus of Intact Rocks Using Artificial Neural Networks and non-Linear Regression Methods. Australian J. Basic Appl. Sci. 4 (12), 5869-5879 (2010).
[77] D .J. Armaghani, E.T. Mohamad, E. Momeni, M.S. Narayanasamy, An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for predicting unconfined compressive strength and Young’s modulus: a study on Main Range granite. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 74, 1301-1319 (2015). DOI:
[78] S. Yagiz, E.A. Sezer, C. Gokceoglu, Artificial neural networks and nonlinear regression techniques to assess the influence of slake durability cycles on the prediction of uniaxial compressive strength and modulus of elasticity for carbonate rocks. Int. J. Numer Anal. Methods Geomech. 36 (14), 1636-1650 (2012). DOI :
[79] S. Aboutaleb, M. Behnia, R. Bagherpour, B. Bluekian, Using non-destructive tests for estimating uniaxial compressive strength and static Young’s modulus of carbonate rocks via some modeling techniques. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 77 (4), 1717-1728 (2018). DOI:
[80] A. Jamshidi, H. Zamanian, R. Zarei Sahamieh, The Effect of Density and Porosity on the Correlation Between Uniaxial Compressive Strength and P-wave Velocity. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 51, 1279-1286 (2018). DOI :
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Ekin Köken

  1. Abdullah Gul University, Nanotechnology Engineering Department, 38170, Kayseri, Turkey
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


One of the ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere is to minimise the production of fossil fuels energy, which, among others, can be achieved through gradual closure of hard and brown coal mines. However, such transformation comes with economic and social problems as well as structural changes. This article is a case study based on the objectives of the Spatial Development Plan for the Central Coal Region (CRW) – Lublin Coal Basin (LZW), developed as a consequence of the discovery of significant hard coal deposits in the north-eastern part of the Lublin voivodeship in the 1960’s. In retrospect, it can be observed that the overly ambitious objectives of the CRW-LZW urban plan were implemented only to a limited extent.
This article aims to compare the original urban planning objectives with the current development of the industrial district and to indicate the cause for such a significant limitation of the realisation of the originally planned investment. Also, the article endeavours to simultaneously emphasize which factors should be specially considered, when planning such large-scope investments, that also broadly influence demographic and urban structure of the region and the way it is functioning.
The analysis was carried out in the context of economic difficulties and the political crisis at the turn of the 1970s and 1980s, the changes in the country’s political and economic system, as well as the principles of the socio-economic concept of sustainable development implemented at the end of the 20th century, and the currently prevailing circular economy. The characteristics and analysis of the adopted design solutions were carried out, the assessment of the extent to which the planned investment was completed and what factors influenced its current condition. The collected data is summarized and compared in a table. The conclusions may prove helpful in establishing the direction of Lublin Coal Basin the development in the coming years. The described solutions and experiences may constitute the theoretical basis for accurate forecasting of the scope of similar investments in the future.
Go to article


[1] A . Frejowski, J. Bondaruk, A. Duda, Wyzwania i szanse dla terenów po wyeksploatowanych kopalniach węgla: od czarnej do zielonej energii. Energies 14, 1385 (2021). DOI :
[2] H . Gerbelová, A. Spisto, S. Giaccaria, Regional Energy Transition: An Analytical Approach to the Slovakian Coal Regio. Energies 14, 110 (2021). DOI :
[3] L. Kolanowski, Rozwój przestrzenny Łęcznej, jako ośrodka Lubelskiego Zagłębia Węglowego. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Lublin 73, Sectio B (2018). DOI :
[4] L. Lehotský, M. Černík, Brown coal mining in the Czech Republic – lessons on the coal phase-out. International Issues & Slovak Foreign Policy Affairs 28, (3/4) (2019)., accessed 25.02.2021
[5] P. Oei, H. Brauers, P. Herpich, Lessons from Germany’s hard coal mining phase-out: policies and transition from 1950 to 2018. Climate Policy 20 (8), 963-979 (2020). DOI :
[6] E . Pietrzyk-Sokulska, R. Uberman, J. Kulczycka, The impact of mining on the environment in Poland – myths and reality. Mineral Resources Management 31 (1) (2015). DOI :
[7] E . Sermet, J. Górecki, Podstawowe kryteria możliwości podziemnego zgazowania węgla w Lubelskim Zagłębiu Węglowym. Zeszyty Naukowe Instytutu Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energii Polskiej Akademii Nauk nr 83/2012, (2012). ISSN 2080-0819.
[8] A . Tajduś, A. Tokarski, Risks related to energy policy of Poland until 2040 (EPP 2040). Archives of Mining Sciences 65 (4), 877-899 (2020). DOI :
[9] K . Van de Loo, Social engineering for coal mine closures – a world bank report, the international research deficit and reflections from a German perspective. Mining Report 155 (4) (2019).
[10] B. Brylak-Szymczak, A. Link, M. Żurkowska, M. Osmulska, E. Mazurek, R. Dylewski, Łęczna. Nowe polskie miasto. Przyszłość, perspektywy. Rada Miejska w Łęcznej, Łęczna (1994).
[11] A . Frużyński, Zarys dziejów górnictwa węgla kamiennego w Polsce. Muzeum Górnictwa Węglowego, Zabrze (2012). ISBN 978-83-935614-4-5
[12] J. Kicki, B. Kozek, J. Jarosz, A. Dyczko (Ed.), 30 lat górnictwa węglowego na Lubelszczyźnie 1975-2005, Lubelski Węgiel „Bogdanka” Spółka Akcyjna, (2006). ISBN: 978-83-917727-3-X
[13] A . Zdanowski, Atlas Geologiczny Lubelskiego Zagłębia Węglowego, Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warszawa, (1999). OCLC: 45743965
[14] A . Harat, Z. Adamczyk, A. Klupa, Economic and environmental aspects of the liquidation of coal mines, Proceeding of Conference: 17th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geo Conference SGE M 2017, 29 June – 5 July, (2017). DOI :, ISSN 1314-2704
[15] J. Kaliński, Z. Landau, Gospodarka Polski w XX wieku. Wyd. 2 zmienione. Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne, Warszawa, (2003). ISBN: 978-83-208-1428-6
[16] A Green New Deal. Joined-up policies to solve the triple crunch of the credit crisis, climate change and high oil prices, New Economics Foundation, Londyn, (2008)., accessed: 23.11.2021
[17] EU coal regions: opportunities and challenges ahead., accessed 25.07.2021
[18] Kluczowe elementy Strategii rozwoju LW Bogdanka S.A. Obszar Wydobycie Grupy ENEA do 2030 roku (perspektywa do 2040 roku)., accessed 25.07.2021
[19],2,aktualnosci,d264,kontynuacja_i_transformacja__nowa_strategia_lw_bogdanka_ do_2030_r.html, accessed 25.07.2021
[20], accessed 25.07.2021
[21] Letter from the President of the Management Board of Lubelski Węgiel Bogdanka, No. 227.PR.
[22] Letter of the Undersecretary of State No. UAN .1-LZW-20/79 of March 16, 1979.
[23] Directive (EU ) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of December 11, 2018, on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, (2018).
[24] P. Czyżak, M. Hetmański, 2030 – Analiza dot. Granicznego roku odejścia od węgla w energetyce w Europie i Polsce. Instrat Policy Paper 01/2020, (2020). ISBN: 978-83-946738-3-3
[25] C . Kemfert, M. Fischedick, K. Bausch, Phasing out coal in the German energy sector interdependencies, challenges and potential solutions. German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), (2019)., accessed 23.11.2021
[26] J. Porzycki, Lubelskie Zagłębie Węglowe. [In:] Przewodnik 42 Zjazdu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego Lublin, Wydawnictwo Geologiczne, (1970).
[27] J. Stochlak, K. Zarębski, Rozwój badań hydrogeologicznych w Centralnym Rejonie Węglowym LZW w okresie 1964-1981. Instytut Kształtowania Środowiska Lublin, GIG Oddz. Terenowy Lublin
[28] Spatial Development Plan of the Central Coal Region of the Lublin Coal Basin.
[29] Resolution of the Council of Ministers no. 58/77 on the construction of a pilot-mining mine in the LZW, (1977).
[30] Resolution of the Council of Ministers no. 34/88 on the suspension of the construction of the k-2 mine in Stefanów, (1988).
[31] Resolution of the Sejm of the Polish People’s Republic of December 18, 1976 on the five-year national socioeconomic plan for the years 1976-1980. Journal of Laws of 1976 no. 39, item 226.
[32] Resolution of the Council of Ministers no. 7/89 on suspension of financing the construction of the Bogdanka mine from central funds, (1989).
[33] Regulation No. 10 of the Minister of Local Economy and Environmental Protection of January 20, 1974, on the establishment of a technical standard for the design of multi-family dwellings and residential buildings for nonagricultural people, „Dziennik Budownictwa“ (1974).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Michał Tomasz Dmitruk

  1. Lublin University of Technology, 38D Nadbystrzycka Str., 20-618 Lublin, Poland
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Desired rock fragmentation is the need of the hour, which influences the entire mining cycle. Thus, most engineering segments pay attention to rock fragmentation and neglect by-products like ground vibration and fly rock. Structural and mechanical properties of rock mass like joint spacing, joint angle, and compressive strength of rock pose a puzzling impact on both fragmentation and ground vibration. About 80% of explosive energy that gets wasted in producing ill effects can be positively optimised, with a new set of blast design parameters upon identifying the behaviour of rock mass properties. In this connection, this research aims to investigate the influence of joint spacing, joint angle, and compressive strength of rock on fragmentation and induced ground vibration. To accomplish this task, research was carried out at an opencast coal mine. It was discovered from this research that compressive strength, joint spacing, and joint angle have a significant effect on the mean fragmentation size (MFS) and peak particle velocity (PPV). With the increase in compressive strength, MFS explicit both increase and decrease trends whilst PPV increased with a specific increase in compressive strength of the rock. An increase in joint spacing triggers both increase and decrease trends in both MFS and PPV. While there is an increase in joint angle, MFS and PPV decrease.
Go to article


[1] R .L. Ash, Ph.D. Thesis, The Influence of Geological Discontinuities on Rock Blasting, University of Minnesota, United States (1973).
[2] A.K. Hakan, Adnan Konuk, The effect of discontinuity frequency on ground vibrations produced from bench blasting: A case study. Soil Dyn. Earthq. 28 (9), 686-694 (2008). DOI :
[3] B.S. Choudhary, K. Sonu, K. Kishore, S. Anwar, Effect of rock mass properties on blast-induced rock fragmentation. Int. J. Min. Miner. Eng. 7 (2), 89-101 (2016). DOI:
[4] G .R. Adhikari, M.M. Singh, R.N. Gupth, Influence of rock properties on blast-induced vibration. Min. Sci. Technol. 8 (3), 297-300 (1989). DOI:
[5] R .E. Goodman, Methods of Geological engineering in discontinuous Rock. West Publishing, St. Paul. (1976).
[6] M. King, L. Myerand, J. Rezowalli, Experimental studies of elastic-wave propagation in a columnar-jointed rock mass. Geophys. Prospect. 34, 1185-1199 (1986). DOI:
[7] G . Berta, Blasting-induced vibration in tunneling. unn. Undergr. Space Technol. (9), 175-187 (1994). DOI :
[8] S.P. Singh, The influence of geology on blast damage. CIM Bulletin, Conference: 26th International conference on ground control in mining At: Morgantown, West Virginia, USA (2007).
[9] R .E. Goodman, Block Theory and Its Application to Rock Engineering. Geotechnique. ISSN 0016-8505 | E-ISSN 1751-7656. 45 (3) 383-423 (1995). DOI:
[10] P.R. La Pointe, H.G. Ganow, The influence of cleats and joints on production blast fragment size in the Wyodak Coal, Compbell Country, Wyoming, in Proceedings of the 27th US Symposium on Rock Mechanics, University of Alabama. pp. 464-70 (1986).
[11] D . Van Zyl, An approach to incorporate rock fabric information in blast fragmentation investigation. In Proceedings of the 2nd Mini-Symposium on Explosives and Blasting Research, Society of Explosives Engineers, Georgia. pp. 81-89 (1986).
[12] E.I. Efremov, V.M. Komir, N.I. Myachina, V.A. Nikiforova, S.N. Rodak, V.V. Shelenok, Influence of the structure of a medium on fragment size composition in blasting. Sov. Min. Sci. 16, 18-22 (1980). DOI :
[13] Y .K. Wua, H. Haoa, Y.X. Zhoub, K. Chongb, Propagation characteristics of blast-induced shock waves in a jointed rock mass. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 17, 407-412 (1998). DOI:
[14] W . Fourney, R.D. Dick, D.F. Fordyce, T.A. Weaver, Effects of Open Gaps on Particle Velocity Measurements. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 30 (2), 95-111 (1997). DOI:
[15] R ustan, Z.G. Yang, The influence from primary structure on fragmentation. 1st. International Symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting. Lulea, Sweden. 2, 581-604 (1983).
[16] W .L. Fourney, Mechanisms of rock fragmentation in by blasting. Hudson J.A, editor. Compressive rock engineering, principles, practice and projects. Oxford: Pergamon Press (1993).
[17] R .K.Paswan, Mohammad. Sarim, P.K. Singh, H.S. Khare, B.K. Singh, R.J. Singh, Controlled blasting at Parsa East &KantaBasan opencast mines for safe and efficient Mining operations. Ind. Min. & Eng. J. 53 (4), 7-17 (2014).
[18] C.L. Jimeno, E. Jimeno, F.J.A. Carcedo, Drilling and Blasting of Rocks. A.A. Balkema Publishers, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. (1995). DOI:
[19] T .H. Lewandowski, V.K. Luan Mai, R.E. Danell. Influence of discontinuities on presplitting effectiveness, Rock fragmentation by blasting – Fragblast5. B. Mohanty, Montreal, Canada, (1996). DOI :
[20] P.N. Worsey, S. Qu. Effect of joint separation and filling on pre-split blasting. The 3rd Mini Symposium on Explosives and Blasting Research. pp. 26-40 (1987).
[21] B.S. Whittaker, R.N. Singh, G. Sun, Fracture Mechanics Applied to Rock Fragmentation due to blasting. Rock Fracture Mechanics – Principles, Design and Applications, Elsevier Science Ltd. 71 (13), 443-479 (1992).
[22] P.K. Singh, M.P. Roy, R.K. Paswan, Md. Sarim. Suraj Kumar, Rakesh Ranjan Jha, Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting. J. Rock Mech. Geotech. 8, 225-237 (2016). DOI:
[23] K. Nur Lyana, Z. Hareyani, A. Kamar Shah, Mohd, M.H. Hazizan, Effect of Geological Condition on Degree of Fragmentation in a Simpang Pulai Marble Quarry, 5th International Conference on Recent Advances in Materials, Minerals and Environment (RAMM) & 2nd International Postgraduate Conference on Materials, Mineral and Polymer (MAMIP), 4-6 August (2015).
[24] J.M. Belland, Structure as a Control in Rock Fragmentation Coal Lake Iron Ore Deposited. The Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin. 59 (647), 323-328 (1968).
[25] K. Talhi, B. Bensaker, Design of a model blasting system to measure peak p-wave stress, Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 23 (6), 513-519 (2003). DOI:
[26] P.F. Gnirk, E.D. Fleider, On the correlation between explosive crater formation and rock properties. In Proceedings of the 9th Symposium on Rock Mechanics, AIME. New York. 321-45 (1968).
[27] D .P. Singh, Y.V. Apparao, S.S. Saluja, A laboratory study on effect of joints on rock fragmentation. American Rock Mechanics Association, The 21st U.S. Symposium of Rock Mechanics (USRMS), 27-30 May (1980).
[28] Zhi-qiang.Yin, Hu. Zu-xiang, Ze-di Wei, Guang-ming Zhao, Ma Hai-feng, Zhuo Zhang, Rui-min Feng, Assessment of Blasting-Induced Ground Vibration in an Open-Pit Mine under Different Rock Properties. Adv. Civ. Eng. 10 (2018). DOI:
[29] J. Henrych. The dynamics of explosion and its use. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn. Elsevier, New York (1979). DOI:
[30] G .W. Ma, X.M. An, Numerical simulation of blasting-induced rock fractures. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 45 (6), 966-975 (2008). DOI:
[31] J.C. Li, W. MaG., Analysis of blastwave interaction with a rock joint. Rock Mech Rock Eng. 43 (6), 777-787 (2010). DOI:
[32] J.C. Li, H.B. Li, J. Zhao, An improved equivalent viscoelastic medium method for wave propagation across layered rock masses. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. (2015). DOI:
[33] P.C. Vinh, T.T. Tuan, D.X. Tung, N.T. Kieu, Reflection and transmission of SH waves at a very rough interface and its band gaps. J. Sound Vib. 411-422 (2017). DOI:
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Sri Chandrahas
1 2
Bhanwar Singh Choudhary
N.S.R. Krishna Prasad
Venkataramayya Musunuri
K.K. Rao

  1. Department of Mining Engineering, IIT(ISM) Dhanbad, India
  2. Department of Mining Engineering, Malla Reddy Engineering College, Hyderabad, India
  3. Manager, UCIL Mine, Kadapa , India
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


To improve the durability of the rollers of supporting and guiding devices as well as traction ropes of ropeway facilities based upon the analysis of their contact interaction. Theoretical studies of a mathematical model of contact interaction of mine ropeway components to determine regularities of the formation of dynamic efforts within the contact area and experimental studies of the plant under mine conditions. Based upon a mathematical model, contact stresses within the zone of contact of traction rope with guiding rollers and drive sheaves of mine ropeways under real operating conditions have been determined. The obtained results are validated experimentally under mine conditions. Innovative patent-protected design solutions have been proposed; the solutions make it possible to considerably increase the durability of the ropeway components.
It has been determined that methods of surface increase in the strengthening of a roller working surface do not have proper effect as the strengthened layer on a soft base cracks and delaminates due to high contact loads; maximum angle of rope bending on rollers of supporting devices (6º – in operation manual; 15º – in safety rules) recommended for GRW is overstated. It shouldn’t be more than 1.5º in terms of values of contact stresses for standard plants; development of prestressed compression state in the material of elastic lining of a drive friction sheave allows increasing considerably (by two times and more) its service life. Ropes with reduced diameters of external layer wires (Ukraine’s regulatory document – DST 2688) being used currently on mine ropeways do not meet the operating conditions and have a short period of service life due to their corrosive and fatigue breaking. To lengthen the service life of GRW traction ropes, it is required to change for the ropes with increased diameters of the external layer wires with preliminarily clamped strands.
(Ukraines regulatory documents: DST 3077, DST 3081, DST 7668, DST 7669 and TU 14-4-1070).
Go to article


[1] O. Denyshchenko, L. Posunko, A. Shyrin, M. Kechin, Increase in the Efficiency of Ground Cableways in the Process of Zonal Development Working. Collection of research papers of National Mining University 46, 159-168 (2015).
[2] V . Rastsvetaev, Additional Loads on Tunnel Arch Supports Under the Action of Overhead Monorail in the Western Donbas Mines. Heotekhnichna Mekhanika 117, 53-59 (2014).
[3] A. Shyrin, V. Rastsvetaev, T. Morozova, Estimation of Reliability and Capacity of Auxiliary Vehicles While Preparing Coal Reserves for Stoping. Geomechanical Processes during Underground Mining: School of Underground Mining 105-108 (2012).
[4] A. Dryzhenko, A. Shustov, S. Moldabayev, Justification of parameters of building inclined trenches using belt conveyors. 17th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 17, 471-478 (2017). DOI:
[5] O. Denyshchenko, A. Shyrin, V. Rastsvietaiev, O. Cherniaiev. Forming the Structure of Automated System to Control Ground Heavy-Type Ropeways. Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu 4, 79-85 (2018). DOI:
[6] R.P. Singh, M. Mallick, M.K. Verma, Studies on failure behaviour of wire rope used in underground coal mines. Engineering Failure Analysis 70, 290-304 (2016). DOI:
[7] S. Moradi, K. Ranjbar, H. Makvandi, Failure Analysis of a Drilling Wire Rope. Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention 12 (5), 558-566 (2012). DOI:
[8] Shaiful Rizam Shamsudin, Mohd Harun, Mazlee Mohd Noor & Azmi Rahmat. Failure Analysis of Crane Wire Rope. Materials Science Forum 819, 467-472 (2015). DOI:
[9] А.N. Koptovets, L.N. Shyrin, E.М. Shliakhov, А.V. Denishchenko, V.V. Zil, V.V. Yavorskaia, Modeling operating processes in shoe and wheel brake of mine locomotives. Monografiya. Dnepr: National Mining University 258 (2017).
[10] V.А. Korotkov, Wear-resistance of machines. Moskva: Direkt-Media (2014).
[11] V .D. Goncharov, D.V. Pershina, Optimization of surface microrelief to improve adhesive strength of surface and base. Modern Technologies In Engineering 8, 79-87 (2013).
[12] K .I. Kozorezov, N.F. Skogorova, Steel strengthening by means of shock waves. Physics and Chemistry of Metalworking. 2, 99-105 (2015).
[13] S.V. Razorionov, G.V. Garkushin, Strengthening of metals and alloys in terms of shock compression. Journal of Technical Physics 85 (7), 77-82 (2015).
[14] P.А. Gavrish, Ye.V. Berezhnaia, Ye.А. Sobolev-Butovchenko, Thermal spraying of antifriction coating of the components of Takraf loading elevator. Scientific messenger of Donbass State Engineering Academy 2 (20Е), 50-54 (2016).
[15] D.А.Volchenko, А.V. Voznyi, О.B. Stadnyk, V.S. Vetvitskii, On the problem of using dynamic models of disc-shoe brakes of transportation vehicles in drives of handling facilities. Problems of Friction and Wearing 2 (75), 24-36 (2017).
[16] М.P. Martyntsiv, B.V. Solohub, М.V. Matiyishyn, Dynamics and reliability of cableway systems. Lviv: Editing house of Lviv Polytecnic (2011).
[17] D . Kolosov, O. Dolgov, A. Kolosov, Analytical determination of stress-strain state of rope caused by the transmission of the drive drum traction. Progressive Technologies of Coal, Coalbed Methane, and Ores Mining, 499-504 (2014). DOI:
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Jamil Sami Haddad
Oleksandr Denyshchenko
Dmytro Kolosov
Stanislav Bartashevskyi
Valerii Rastsvietaiev
Oleksii Cherniaiev

  1. Al-Balqa Applied University, 1 Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan
  2. Dnipro University of Technology, Ukraine
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Strip backfilling mining technology is of great significance for eliminating coal gangue, improving coal recovery rate, harmonizing the development between resources and environment in diggings. This paper firstly analyzed the roof control mechanism, the deformation and failure mechanism and characteristics of the filling body through theoretical analysis. Then, through numerical simulation combined with the geological conditions on site, a gangue strip filling scheme was designed for the 61303 working face of the 13th layer of the rear group coal of the Wennan Coal Mine in Shandong Province, and the filling scheme of filling 50 m and leaving 25 m was determined. Finally, an on-site engineering test was carried out on the 61303 working face. Through the analysis of the measured data of “three quantities” after the filling test, it can be seen that the test has achieved a good engineering application effect and verified the rationality of the filling scheme design. It solves the coal gangue problem, improves the resource recovery rate, and provides a reference for other similar mines.
Go to article


[1] E.H. Bai, W.B. Guo, Y. Tan, et al., Green coordination mining technology of “retaining and filling road filling method”. Journal of China Coal Society 43 (S1), 21-27 (2018).
[2] D .A. Landriault, R.E. Brown, D.B. Counter, Paste backfill study for deep mining at kidd creek. CIM Bulletin 93 (1036), 156-161 (2000).
[3] J.L. Xu, Q. You, W.B. Zhu, et al., Theoretical study on mining subsidence by strip filling. Journal of China Coal Society 02, 119-122 (2007).
[4] J. Palarski, The experimental and practical results of appling backfill. Innovations in Montreal, 33-37 (1989).
[5] J.L. Xu, W.B. Zhu, X.S. Li, et al., Study on partial filling mining technology for controlling coal mining subsidence. Journal of Mining and Safety Engineering (01), 6-11 (2006).
[6] Y .L. Tan, X.S. Liu, J.G. Ning, et al., In situ investigations on failure evolution of overlying strata induced by mining multiple coal seams [J]. Geotechnical Testing Journal 40 (2), 244-257 (2017).
[7] Y .C. Yin, T.B. Zhao, Y.B. Zhang, et al., An Innovative Method for Placement of Gangue Backfilling Material in Steep Underground Coal Mines [J]. Minerals 9, 107 (2019).
[8] G .C. Zhang, S.J. Liang, Y.L. Tan, et al., Numerical modeling for longwall pillar design: A case study from a typical longwall panel in China [J]. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering 15 (1), 121-134 (2018).
[9] J. Trckova, J. Sperl, Reduction of surface subsidence risk by fly ash exploitation as filling material in deep mining areas. Natural Hazards 53 (2), 251-258 (2010).
[10] J.R. Liu, W.P. Huang, Z.P. Guo, et al., Pumping cemented coal gangue strip filling system in goaf and its application. Coal Technology 35 (12), 16-18 (2016).
[11] W.Y. Guo, Y.L. Tan, F.H. Yu, et al., Mechanical behavior of rock-coal-rock specimens with different coal thicknesses [J]. Geomechanics and Engineering 15 (4), 1017-1027 (2018).
[12] X.S. Liu, Y.L. Tan, J.G. Ning, et al., Mechanical properties and damage constitutive model of coal in coal-rock combined body [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 110, 140-150 (2018).
[13] K. Zhong, Research on filling mining technology and parameters of Fuyang Coal Mine. Xi’an University of Science and Technology (2018).
[14] W.P. Huang, C. Li, L.W. Zhang, et al., In situ identification of water-permeable fractured zone in overlying composite strata [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 105, 85-97 (2018).
[15] Y .L. Tan, Q.H. Gu, J.G. Ning, et al., Uniaxial compression behavior of cement mortar and its damage-constitutive model based on energy theory [J]. Materials 12, 1309 (2019). DOI:
[16] J. Wang, J.G. Ning, J.Q. Jiang, et al., Structural characteristics of strata overlying of a fully mechanized longwall face: a case study [J], Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 118, 1195-1204 (2018).
[17] Q. Yao, Study on segmental filling of fully mechanized mining in steeply inclined coal seam and its rock stratum control. Hunan University of Science and Technology, (2017).
[18] W.P. Huang, Q. Yuan, Y.L. Tan, et al., An innovative support technology employing a concrete-filled steel tubular structure for a 1000-m-deep roadway in a high in situ stress field [J]. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 73, 26-36 (2018).
[19] J.G. Ning, J. Wang, J.Q. Jiang, et al., Estimation of crack initiation and propagation thresholds of confined brittle coal specimens based on energy dissipation theory [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 51, 119-134 (2018).
[20] J.W. Bai, R.T. Liu, Y.J. Jiang, et al., The deformation of surrounding rock and the regulation law of confined water in strip filling and displacement mining. Journal of Mining and Safety Engineering 35 (02), 35-42 (2018).
[21] X.K. Sun, W. Wang, Theoretical study on high-water materials filling and replacement mining pressure-bearing water strip coal pillars. Journal of China Coal Society 36 (06), 909-913 (2011).
[22] T.B. Zhao, W.Y. Guo, Y.L. Tan, Y.C. et al., Case studies of rock bursts under complicated geological conditions during multi-seam mining at a depth of 800m [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 51, 1539-1564 (2018).
[23] X.J. Deng, Research on the control mechanism of overlying strata movement in the thick-layered longwall roadway cementing filling in extra-thick coal seams. China University of Mining and Technology, (2017).
[24] B . Lu, X.G. Zhang, F. Li, et al., Technology and application of cement-filled mining with short-walled gangue. Journal of China Coal Society 42 (S1), 7-15 (2017).
[25] H. Wadi, S. Amziane, E. Toussaint, et al., Lateral load-carrying capacity of hemp concrete as a natural infill material in timber frame walls. Engineering Structures 180 (2019).
[26] Jiang Bang-you, Gu Shi-tan, Wang Lian-guo, et al., Strainburst process of marble in tunnel-excavation-induced stress path considering intermediate principal stress [J]. Journal of Central South University 26 (4), 984-999 (2019).
[27] W.P. Huang, W.B. Xing, S.J. Chen, et al., Experimental study on sedimentary rock’s dynamic characteristics under creep state using a new type of testing equipment [J]. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering (2017).
[28] G .Z. Lu, J.Q. Tang, Z.Q. Song, Analysis of the difference between the periodic step and the periodic step of the transfer rock beam. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 32 (04), 538-54 1(2010).
[29] Z.P. Guo, W.P. Huang, Parameter optimization and stability analysis of sloping strip filling. Journal of China Coal Society 36 (02), 234-238 (2011).
[30] D .W. Yin, S.J. Chen, X.Q. Liu, et al., Effect of joint angle in coal on failure mechanical behavior of roof rock-coal combined body. Q. J. Eng. Geol. Hydroge. 51 (2), 202-209 (2018).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Wenbin Xing
Wanpeng Huang
Fan Feng

  1. Shandong University of Science and Technology, China
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


According to the requirements of green mine construction and the coordinated development of environmental protection regulations, the existing filling technologies in China are compared and analysed. Several types of technologies are discussed, including the dry filling technology for gangue, grouting and filling for separated strata zones in overburden, grouting and filling technology for caving gangue fissures, paste and paste-like filling, high-water and ultra-high-water filling, and continuous mining and continuous filling. Then, the characteristics of these individual technologies are analysed. Through the analysis and comparison of these technologies, considering the requirements of green mine construction and coordinated development of environmental protection regulations, it was found that continuous mining and continuous filling technology is a feasible mean for constructing green mines and protecting the environment. In this study, the application of continuous mining and continuous filling technology in the Yuxing coal mine is introduced. Results show that surface subsidence was less than 80 mm, and the recovery rate of the working face reached 95%. This indicates that continuous mining and continuous filling technology can solve the problems of surface subsidence, environmental damage, and coal resource waste. Finally, the development prospects of continuous mining and continuous filling technology are proposed, providing theoretical and technical support for similar mining.
Go to article


[1] J .H. Tan, Green Mine and the Policy Interpretation for Mine Safety Environmental Protection. Stone 01, 11-25 (2020). DOI: (in Chinese).
[2] L .M. Wang, MSc thesis, Study on Influence of Mining Size on Stability and Settlement Reduction Effect of Filling Pier Column. China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu, China (2019) (in Chinese).
[3] Y.D. Wang, MSc thesis, Study on Tax Planning of Coal Production Enterprises. China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu, China (2019) (in Chinese).
[4] X. Wu, B. Bai, Present Situation and Suggestions of Coal Filling Mining technology in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Inner Mongolia Coal Economy 03, 51+79 (2019). DOI: (in Chinese).
[5] X. Zhou, PhD thesis, Study on Deterioration Mechanism and Modification of Mine Water Rich Filling. Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing, China (2018). (in Chinese).
[6] Z.M. Pei, Exploring of Modern Coal Mining Concept and Filling Mining. Technology and Market 24 (07), 447 (2017). DOI: (in Chinese).
[7] M.G Karfakis, C.H Bowman, E. Topuz, Characterization of Coal-mine Refuse as Backfilling Material. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 14 (2), 129-150 (1996). DOI:
[8] M.G Senyur, Fabric of Coal-mine Refuse as Backfilling Material and its Relation to Grain-size Distribution Parameters. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 98 (1), 39-48 (1998).
[9] H.J Siriwardane, R.S.S Kaman, P.F. Ziemkiewicz, Use of Waste Materials for Control of Acid Mine Drainage and Subsidence. Journal of Environmental Engineerin 129 (10), 910-915 (2003).
[10] C.Y. Si, MSc thesis, Evaluation of Green Mine Investment Efficiency in China, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China (2017) (in Chinese).
[11] M.D. Zhao, PhD thesis, Experimental and Numerical Simulation Study on Overburden Temperature and Fracture of Underground Coal Gasification. China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing, China (2017) (in Chinese).
[12] Y. Liu, Y.M. Zhou, Y. Lu, H.Z. Guo, Experimental Study on Tailing Paste Filling Material Based on Regression Analysis. Safety in Coal Mine. 48 (03), 60-63 (2017). DOI: (in Chinese).
[13] D.L. Yang, PhD thesis, Research on Key Technology of Pneumatic Conveying and Filling by Drilling and Mining Method, China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsui, China (2016) (in Chinese).
[14] Y.F. Zhang, Study on New Mining Technology and Mining Methods in Coal Mines. Heilongjiang Science and Technology Information 28, 42 (2016). DOI: (in Chinese).
[15] H.K. Yang, Application Research on Paste Filling Technology in Coal Mine. China Market Marketing 36, 66-68 (2016). DOI: (in Chinese).
[16] Y. Lu, Filling Technology and Development Prospect in Coal Mine. Inner Mongolia Coal Economy, 08, 23+29(2016). DOI: (in Chinese).
[17] Y.C. Wang, Z.P. Guo, C.X. Wang, J.X. Wang, Gas Filling Method Based on Paste Filling. Mining Research and Development 36 (02), 1-3(2016). DOI: (in Chinese).
[18] J .C. Shen, Discussion on Mining Technology with Paste Filling. Coal, 24 (08), 66-67+94 (2015). DOI: (in Chinese).
[19] D. Li, MSc thesis, Basic Research and Application of Long Wall Filling Mining in Xinyang Mine. Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, China (2015) (in Chinese).
[20] L . Niu, MSc thesis, Study on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Filling Body in Gangue Gypsum Filling Mining. Hebei University of Engineering, Hebei, China (2014) (in Chinese).
[21] J .S. Chen, MSc thesis, Mining Safety Technology of Complex Ore Body Under Water Dynamic Load. Central South University, Hunan, China (2010) (in Chinese).
[22] X.G. Zhang, W.J. Guo, H. Wang, Y.Y. Li, Z. Cao, Development of Safe Transportation Pressure Pre-alarm System of Coal Gangue Paste Backfilling Pipeline. Journal of China Coal Society 37 (S1), 229-233 (2012). DOI: (in Chinese).
[23] L . Wang, PhD thesis, Study on Strata Movement Mechanism and Deformation Prediction of Solid Dense Filling Mining. China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu, China (2012) (in Chinese).
[24] B .L. Ren, Research on the Future of the Underground Waste Rock Filling Mining in Hebei Province. Hebei Coal 05,13-15 (2011). DOI: (in Chinese).
[25] J .L. Sha, K. Hu, Study on the Necessity of Establishing the Mine Environmental Liability Insurance. China Mining Magazine 19 (S1), 111-113 (2010) (in Chinese).
[26] G .M. Feng, Y. Ding, H.J. Zhu, J.B. Bai, Experimental Research on Ultra High-water Packing Material for Mining and its Micro Morphology. Journal of China University of Mining and Technology 39 (06), 813-819 (2010) (in Chinese).
[27] N . Wang, H. Si. Filling Mined-out Area to Control Surface Subsidence. World Mining Express 3, 14-17(1999) (in Chinese).
[28] C.J. Shi, L. Robert. Day Acceleration of the Reactivity of Fly Ash by Chemical Activation. Cement and Concrete Research 25 (1), (1995).
[29] X.X. Miao, J.X. Zhang, G.L. Guo, Study on Waste-filling Method and Technology in Fully-mechanized Coal Mining. Journal of China Coal Society 35 (01), 1-6 (2010) (in Chinese).
[30] H.Z. Liu, PhD thesis, Quantitative Evaluation of Groundwater System Disturbance Caused by Coal Mining. China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu, China (2009) (in Chinese).
[31] G .M. Feng, PhD thesis, Research and Application of Ultra-high Water Filling Material and Filling Mining Technology. China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu, China (2009) (in Chinese).
[32] F. Cui, MSc thesis, Theoretical Research on Room Filling Mining in Yubujie Mine. General Institute of Coal Research, Beijing, China (2009) (in Chinese).
[33] Anon, Backfilling in German coal mines, Australian Mining 24, 80 (1988). [34] M. Yang, An Application of Dry Fill Stoping in Hetai Gold Mine. Mining Research and Development S1, 80- 82(1996) (in Chinese).
[35] J .F. Zha, PhD thesis, Research on Basic Problems of Subsidence Control in Gangue Filling Mining. China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu, China (2008) (in Chinese).
[36] X.S. Li, PhD thesis, Theoretical Study on Grouting Filling Settlement Reduction Technology in Caving Area Under Strip Mining Under Buildings. China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing, China (2008) (in Chinese).
[37] X.F. Liang, MSc thesis, Research on Safe Mining Technology of Industrial Coal Pillar Under Railway Bridge. Liaoning University of Engineering and Technology, Liaoning, China (2007) (in Chinese).
[38] T. Feng, J. Yuan, J.H. Liu, D.H. Xie, Research Progress and Development Trend of Mining Technology Under Building. Chinese Safety Science Journal 08, 119-123+3 (2006). DOI: (in Chinese).
[39] J .L. Xu, M.G. Qian, H.W. Jin, Study and Application of Bed Separation Distribution and Development in the Process of Strata Movement. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 05, 632-636(2004). DOI: (in Chinese).
[40] J .X. Wang, T.Q. Liu, Feasibility Study on the Technology of Filling the Vacant Space of the Caving Rock With Cement Materials. Coal Mining Technology 01, 44-45+4 (2001). DOI: (in Chinese).
[41] J .R. Zheng, Solid Water Characteristics and Application of Hydrated Calcium Sulphoaluminate. Guangdong Building Materials 04, 11-12 (2000) (in Chinese).
[42] J .Z. Wang, J.R. Kang, L.X. Wu, Discussion on Mechanism and Application of Grouting in Separated-bed to Reduce Surface Subsidence Induced by Coal Mining. Journal of China University of Mining and Technology 04, 3-5 (1999). DOI: (in Chinese).
[43] W.B. Shi, Pumping and Filling Roadway Protection Technology in UK. Coal Science and Technology 01, 59- 60 (1986) (in Chinese).
[44] K .J. Jia, G.M. Feng, Backfill Mining Technology with Ultra High-water Material in Coal Mine and Outlook. Coal Science and Technology 40 (11), 6-9+23 (2012) (in Chinese).
[45] W.J. Guo, X.G. Zhang, J.W, Shi, Y.Y. Li, Present Situation of Research on Backfilling Mining Technology in Mines and Its Application Prospect. Journal of Shandong University of Science and Technology (Natural Science) 29 (04), 24-29 (2010). DOI: (in Chinese).
[46] S.H. Yan, H.X. Zhang, Status-quo of Filling Mining Technology in Coal Mines of China. Coal Mining Technology 03, 1-3, 10 (2008). DOI: (in Chinese).
[47] W.H. Sun, W. Zhu, X.B. Zheng, Application and Development Status of Technology of Grouting into Overburden Bed-separation to Reduce Ground Subsidence. Coal technology 02, 81-83 (2008) (in Chinese).
[48] L .P. Liu, Research and Application of Continuous Mining and Continuous Filling Green Mining Technology on Ground Deformation. China Coal Industry 08, 60-61 (2019). DOI: (in Chinese).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Dongmei Huang
1 2
Daqian Xing
1 2
Xikun Chang
1 3
Yingying Zhu
1 2
Chunjing Gao
1 2

  1. Shandong University of Science and Technology, State Key Laborat ory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-Founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
  2. Shandong University of Science and Technology, College of Safety and Environmental Engineering, Qingdao 266590, China
  3. Shandong University of Science and Technology, College of Energy and Mining Engineering, Qingdao 266590, China
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Glass and ceramic industries are the main consumption areas of quartz sand, which is a formed as a result of the weathering of igneous metamorphic rocks. In such industries, it is very important to select the correct ball size in order to grind the raw material to the desired particle size in optimum time. In this study, the changes in the specific rate of breakage of the quartz sand sample were investigated by using cylpebs of three different sizes. For this purpose, three different mono-size samples were prepared according to 4√2 series in the range of 0.090-0.053 mm. The quartz sand prepared in these three intervals were ground with 10×10, 20×20 and 30×30 mm cylpebs for different durations. Specific rate of breakage values were obtained from the particle size distributions acquired after various grinding periods. As a result of grinding tests, an increase in rate of breakage is observed due to the increase in cylpebs diameter.
Go to article


[1] DPT, Madencilik özel ihtisas komisyonu raporu, endüstriyel hammaddeler alt komisyonu toprak sanayii hammaddeleri III . Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı, 2613 624, Ankara (2001).
[2] SERH AM, Seramik, cam ve çimento hammaddeleri üreticileri derneği 2015-2017 dönemi faaliyet raporu, (2017).
[3] N . Yıldız, Cevher Hazırlama ve Zenginleştirme, Ertem Basım Yayın Dağıtım, Ankara (2014).
[4] S . Haner, The Effects of Ball Size on the Determination of Breakage Parameters of Nepheline Syenite. J. Min. Sci. 56 (5), 848-856 (2020). DOI :
[5] K.S. Lidell, Machines for Fine Milling to Improve the Recovery of Gold from Calcines and Pyrite. Proceeding of the International Conference on Gold, Johannesburg 405-417 (1986).
[6] J. Bouchard, G. LeBlanc, M. Levesque, P. Radziszewski, D. Georges-Filteau, Breaking down Energy Consumption in Industrial Grinding Mills. In Proceedings 49th Annual Canadian Mineral Processors Operators Conference, 25-35, Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (2017).
[7] D.W. Fuerstenau, A.-Z.M. Abouzeid, The Energy Efficiency of Ball Milling in Comminution. Int. J. Miner. Process. 67 (1-4), 161-185 (2002). DOI :
[8] A.K. Schellinger, A Calorimetric Method for Studying Grinding in a Tumbling Medium, Trans. AIME 190, 518- 522 (1951).
[9] M . Vardar, E. Bozkurtoğlu, Yerkabuğunu Oluşturan Maddeler Mineraller ve Kayaçlar. İnşaat Jeolojisi, 2009-2010 Course Year Grades, 20 (2009).
[10] L .G. Austin, K. Shoji, P.T. Luckie, The Effect of Ball Size on Mill Performance. Powder Technol. 14 (1), 71-79 (1976). DOI :
[11] F .C. Bond, Grinding Ball Size Selection. Trans. AIME , 592-595 (1958).
[12] T.S. Yusupov, E.A. Kirillova, G.A. Denisov, Dressing of Quartz-Feldspar Ores on the Basis of Selective Grinding and Mechanical Activation. J. Min. Sci. 39, 174-177 (2003). DOI :
[13] W.H. Coghill, F.D. Devaney, Ball Mill Grinding. (1937). = k4MbYBy8674C&hl = tr&pg = GBS.PP1,access:15.12.2019
[14] M . Wolosiewicz-Glab, D. Foszcz, T. Gawenda, S. Ogonowski, Design of an Electromagnetic Mill. Its Technological and Control System Structures for Dry Milling. E3S Web of Conferences: Mineral Engineering Conference (MEC 2016), Poland 8 01066 (2016).
[15] K. Barani, H. Balochi, First-order and Second-order Breakage Rate of Coarse Particles in Ball mill Grinding. Physicochem. Probl. Miner. Process. 52 (1), 268-278 (2016). DOI :
[16] K. Barani, H. Balochi, A Comparative Study on the Effect of Using Conventional and High Pressure Grinding Rolls Crushing on the Ball Mill Grinding Kinetics of an Iron Ore. Physicochem. Probl. Miner. Process. 52 (2), 920-931 (2016). DOI :
[17] T.P. Olejnik, Grinding Kinetics of Granite Considering Morphology and Physical Properties of Grains. Physicochem. Probl. Miner. Process. 48 (1), 149-158 (2012).
[18] L .G. Austin, R.R. Klimpel, P.T. Luckie, Process Engineering of Size Reduction: Ball Milling, American Institute of Mining Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers Inc., New York, United States of America (1984).
[19] L .G. Austin, R. Bagga, M. Çelik, Breakage Properties of Some Materials in a Laboratory Ball Mill. Powder Technol. 28 (2), 235-241 (1981). DOI :
[20] K. Shoji, L.G. Austin, F. Smaila, K. Brame, P.T. Luckie, Further Studies of Ball and Powder Filling Effects in Ball Milling. Powder Technol. 31 (1), 121-126 (1982). DOI :
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Serhan Haner

  1. Afyon Kocatepe University, Department of Industrial Product Design, Dinar Yerleşkesi, Cumhuriyet Mh. Kooperat if Cd . No: 1, Dinar, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


In this study, a series of destructive and non-destructive tests were performed on sandstone samples subjected to wetting-drying cycles. A total of 25 Wet-Dry cycles were provided to investigate any significant change in the engineering properties of sandstones in terms of their porosity, permeability, water absorption, density, Q-factor, elastic modulus (E), and unconfined compressive strength (UCS). The overall reduction in the values of density, E, Q-factor, and UCS was noted as 3-4%, 42-71%, 34-62%, and 26-70% respectively. Whereas, the overall appreciation in the values of porosity, permeability, and water absorption was recorded as 24-50%, 31-64%, and 25-50% respectively. The bivariate analysis showed that the physical parameters had a strong relationship with one another and their Pearson’s correlation value (R) ranged from 0.87-0.99. In prediction modeling, Q-factor and E were regressed with the contemplated physical properties. The linear regression models did not provide satisfactory results due to their multicollinearity problem. Their VIF (variance inflation factor) value was found much greater than the threshold limit of 10. To overcome this problem, the cascade-forward neural network technique was used to develop significant prediction models. In the case of a neural network modeling, the goodness of fit between estimated and predicted values of the Q-factor (R2 = 0.86) and E (R2 = 0.91) was found much better than those calculated for the Q-factor (R2 = 0.30) and E (R2 = 0.36) in the regression analysis.
Go to article


[1] Wu. Faquan, Qi. Shengwen, Lan. Hengxing, Mechanism of uplift deformation of the dam foundation of Jiangya Water Power Station, Hunan Province, PR China. Hydrogeol. J. 13 (3), 451-466 (2005).
[2] O. Aydan, The inference of physico-mechanical properties of soft rocks and the evaluation of the effect of water content and weathering on their mechanical properties from needle penetration tests. In: 46th US rock mechanics/ geomechanics symposium, American Rock Mechanics Association (2012).
[3] M. Duda, J. Renner, The weakening effect of water on the brittle failure strength of sandstone. Geophys. J. Int. 192 (3), 1091-1108 (2013).
[4] P.L.P. Wasantha, P.G. Ranjith, Water-weakening behavior of Hawkesbury sandstone in brittle regime. Eng. Geol. 178, 91-101 (2014).
[5] F. Cherblan, J. Berthonneau, P. Bromblet, V. Huon, Influence of water content on the mechanical behaviour of limestone: Role of the clay minerals content. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 49 (6), 2033-2042 (2016).
[6] M.R. Vergara, T. Triantafyllidis, Influence of water content on the mechanical properties of an argillaceous swelling rock. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 49 (7), 2555-2568 (2016).
[7] C. Gökceoğlu, R. Ulusay, H. Sönmez, Factors affecting the durability of selected weak and clay-bearing rocks from Turkey, with particular emphasis on the influence of the number of drying and wetting cycles. Eng. Geol. 57 (3-4), 215-237 (2000).
[8] N. Reviron, T. Reuschlé, J.D. Bernard, The brittle deformation regime of water-saturated siliceous sandstones. Geophys. J. Int. 178 (3), 1766-1778 (2009).
[9] W. He, K. Chen, A. Hayatdavoudi, K. Sawant, M. Lomas, Effects of clay content, cement and mineral composition characteristics on sandstone rock strength and deformability behaviors. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 176, 962-969 (2019).
[10] P.D. Sumner, M.J. Loubser, Experimental sandstone weathering using different wetting and drying moisture amplitudes. Earth. Surf. Process. Landf. 33 (6), 985-990 (2008).
[11] A. Özbek, Investigation of the effects of wetting-drying and freezing-thawing cycles on some physical and mechanical properties of selected ignimbrites. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 73 (2), 595-609 (2014).
[12] G. Khanlari, Y. Abdilor, Influence of wet-dry, freeze-thaw, and heat-cool cycles on the physical and mechanical properties of Upper Red sandstones in central Iran. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 74 (4), 1287-1300 (2015).
[13] H. Deng, J. Li, M. Zhu, K.W. Wang, L.H. Wang, C.J. Deng, Experimental research on strength deterioration rules of sandstone under “saturation-air dry” circulation function. Rock Soil Mech. 33 (11), 3306-3312 (2012).
[14] P.A. Hale, A. Shakoor, A laboratory investigation of the effects of cyclic heating and cooling, wetting and drying, and freezing and thawing on the compressive strength of selected sandstones. Environ. Eng. Geosci. 9 (2), 117-130 (2003).
[15] B.Y. Zhang, J.H. Zhang, G.L. Sun, Deformation and shear strength of rockfill materials composed of soft siltstones subjected to stress, cyclical drying/wetting and temperature variations. Eng. Geol. 190, 87-97 (2015).
[16] W. Hua, S. Dong, Y. Li, J. Xu, Q. Wang, The influence of cyclic wetting and drying on the fracture toughness of sandstone. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 100 (78), 331-335 (2015).
[17] X. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Fu, W. Yuan, L. Miao, Macro/microtesting and damage and degradation of sandstones under dry-wet cycles. Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. (2016).
[18] A.V. Turkington, T.R. Paradise, Sandstone weathering: a century of research and innovation. Geomorphology 67 (1-2), 229-253 (2005).
[19] G. Andriani, N. Walsh, Fabric, porosity and water permeability of calcarenites from Apulia (SE Italy) used as building and ornamental stone. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 62 (1), 77-84 (2003).
[20] B. Fitzner, R. Kownatzki, Porositätseigenschaften und Verwitterungsverhalten von sedimentären Naturwerksteinen. Ernst & Sohn, (1991).
[21] M.M. Demarco, E. Jahns, J. Rudrich, P. Oyhantcabal, S. Siegesmund, The impact of partial water saturation on rock strength: an experimental study on sandstone. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Geowissenschaften, 158 (4), 869 (2007).
[22] E.A. Eissa, A. Kazi, Relation between static and dynamic Young’s moduli of rocks. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 25 (6), (1988).
[23] S.R. Agha, M.J. Alnahhal, Neural network and multiple linear regression to predict school children dimensions for ergonomic school furniture design. Appl. Ergon. 43 (6), 979-984 (2012).
[24] M. Karakus, M. Kumral, O. Kilic, Predicting elastic properties of intact rocks from index tests using multiple regression modelling. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 42 (2), 323-330 (2005).
[25] M.H. Kutner, C.J. Nachtsheim, J. Neter, Simultaneous inferences and other topics in regression analysis. Applied linear regression models. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill Irwin, New York, NY, 168-170 (2007).
[26] R.S. Akan, K. Nilay, U. Soner, Multiple regression model for the prediction of unconfined compressive strength of jet grout columns. Proc. Earth Planet Sci. 15, 299-303 (2015).
[27] M.F. Ahmed, U. Waqas, M. Arshad, J.D. Rogers, Effect of heat treatment on dynamic properties of selected rock types taken from the Salt Range in Pakistan. Arab. J. Geosci. 11 (22), 1-13 (2018).
[28] U. Waqas, M.F. Ahmed, M. Arshad, Classification of the intact carbonate and silicate rocks based on their degree of thermal cracking using discriminant analysis. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 1-13 (2020).
[29] K.A. Aali, M. Parsinejad, B. Rahmani, Estimation of Saturation Percentage of Soil Using Multiple Regression, ANN, and ANFIS Techniques. Comput. Info. Sci. 2 (3), 127-136 (2009).
[30] A.A.K. Ghauri, A preliminary account of the texture, structure and mineralogy composition of the Khewra formation, CIS Indus salt range, west Pakistan. J. Himal. Earth Sci. 5, (1970).
[31] M. Jehangiri, M. Hanif, M. Arif, I.U. Jan, S. Ahmad, The Early Cambrian Khewra Sandstone, Salt Range, Pakistan: endorsing southern Indian provenance. Arab. J. Geosci. 8 (8), 6169-6187 (2015).
[32] S. Khan, M.M. Shah, Multiphase dolomitization in the Jutana Formation (Cambrian), Salt Range (Pakistan): Evidences from field observations, microscopic studies and isotopic analysis. Geologica Acta 17, 1-18 (2019).
[33] S.M.I. Shah, Stratigraphy of Pakistan; Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources. Geological Survey of Pakistan (2009).
[34] ISRM, Suggested methods for rock characterization, testing, and monitoring: 2007-2014. Springer (2007).
[35] US Army Corps of Engineers, (2012) book/RT/RTH/116-95.pdf
[36] P.B. Kurt-Karakus, T.F. Bidleman, K.C. Jones, Chiral organochlorine pesticide signatures in global background soils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39 (22), 8671-8677 (2005).
[37] J.A. Franklin, Suggest methods for determining water content, porosity, density, absorption and related properties and swelling and slake-durability index properties. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr. 16, 141-156 (1979).
[38] S.L. Kramer, Geotechnical earthquake engineering. Pearson Education India (1996).
[39] ASTM C-215-91, Standard Test Method for Fundamental Transverse, Longitudinal, and Torsional Frequencies of Concrete Specimens (2003).
[40] ASTM D-2938-9, Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Intact Rock Core Specimens (1992).
[41] J. Schimazek, H. Knatz, Der Einfluß des Gesteinsaufbaus auf die Schnittgeschwindigkeit und den Meißelverschleiß von Streckenvortriebsmaschinen. Glückauf. 106 (6), 274-278 (1970).
[42] Y. Abdi, A.T. Garavand, R.Z. Sahamieh, Prediction of strength parameters of sedimentary rocks using artificial neural networks and regression analysis. Arab. J. Geosci. 11 (19), 1-11 (2018).
[43] E.T. Mohamad, D.J. Armaghani, E. Momeni, A.H. Yazdavar, M. Ebrahimi, Rock strength estimation: a PSO-based BP approach. Neural. Comput. Appl. 30 (5), 1635-1646 (2018).
[44] M. Khandelwal, T.N. Singh, Predicting elastic properties of schistose rocks from unconfined strength using intelligent approach. Arab. J. Geosci. 4 (3-4), 435-442 (2011).
[45] B.R. Kumar, H. Vardhan, M. Govindaraj, S.P. Saraswathi, Artificial neural network model for prediction of rock properties from sound level produced during drilling. Geomech. Geoeng. 8 (1), 53-61 (2013).
[46] Z. Zhou, X. Cai, L. Chen, W. Cao, Y. Zhao, C. Xiong, Influence of cyclic wetting and drying on physical and dynamic compressive properties of sandstone. Eng. Geol. 220, 1-12 (2017).
[47] S. Chaki, M. Takarli, W.P. Agbodjan, Influence of thermal damage on physical properties of a granite rock: porosity, permeability and ultrasonic wave evolutions. Constr. Build. Mater. 22 (7), 1456-1461 (2008).
[48] B. Vàsàrhelyi, P. Vàn, Influence of water content on the strength of rock. Eng. Geol. 84, 70-74 (2006).
[49] P. Malkowski, L. Ostrowski, P. Bozecki, The impact of the mineral composition of Carboniferous claystones on the water-induced changes of their geomechanical properties. Geol. Geophys. Environ. 43 (1), 43-55 (2017).
[50] U. Waqas, M.F. Ahmed, Prediction Modeling for the Estimation of Dynamic Elastic Young’s Modulus of Thermally Treated Sedimentary Rocks Using Linear-Nonlinear Regression Analysis, Regularization, and ANFIS. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 53 (12), 5411-5428 (2020).
[51] M.A. Bakar, Y. Majeed, J. Rostami, Effects of rock water content on CERCHAR Abrasivity Index. Wear 368, 132-145 (2016).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Hafiz Muhammad Awais Rashid
Muhammad Ghazzali
Umer Waqas
Adnan Anwar Malik
Muhammad Zubair Abubakar

  1. University of Engineering and Technology, Department of Geological Engineering, Lahore, Pakistan
  2. Saitama University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Japan
  3. University of Engineering and Technology, Dean Faculty of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Lahore, Pakistan

Instructions for authors

General information

It is essential for us that authors write and prepare their manuscripts according to the instructions and specifications listed below. Therefore, authors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission.

Archives of Mining Sciences (AMS) is concerned with original research, new developments and case studies in all fields of mining sciences which include:

- mining technologies,

- stability of mine workings,

- rock mechanics,

- geotechnical engineering and tunnelling,

- mineral processing,

- mining and engineering geology,

- mining geophysics,

- mining geodesy

- ventilation systems,

- environmental protection in mining,

- economical aspects in mining,

- mining machine science.

Papers are welcomed on all relevant topics and especially on theoretical developments, analytical methods, numerical methods, rock testing, site investigation, and case studies.

AMS publishes research and review articles, technical notes.

Papers suitable for publication in AMS are those which:

- contain original work - the main result is not published elsewhere neither by the authors nor somebody else, and is not currently under consideration for publication in any other journal,

- are focused on the core aims and scope of the journal,

- are clearly and correctly written in English.

Authors are required to contribute to the cost of publication – publication charge 1000 PLN or 250 Euro. There is no submission charge.

Electronic submission:

All submissions must be made electronically via Editorial System


The papers should be written in English.

Length of paper

The research and review articles may not exceed 16 typewritten pages, technical notes -10 pages, format A4 including figures and tables.


The initial submission should be sent as Microsoft World (Arial, 12 points, line spacing - 1,5) or pdf file with all drawings, pictures and tables placed in the text.

After acceptance the text (in Microsoft Word), figures and tables should be sent as separate files.

Layout of the manuscript

First and last name(s) of the author(s), title of the article, abstract, keywords, methodology and introduction to the topics, results, conclusions, acknowledgements and references. The subtitles should conform to the decimal system of numbering.


The abstract should briefly summarize the most important results reported in the paper (up to 200 words).

Keywords: 4-6 keywords


Formulae should be prepared with Microsoft Equation, written clearly with distinct notation of upper and lower indices and parentheses, maintaining an uniform numbering.


Tables should be prepared as separate file in Microsoft World format.


If possible, the figures should be prepared with a vector graphics software (.cdr, .wmf, .al or .dxf formats) or as .eps, .jpg, .bmp (figures width no greater than 13.5 cm). Use Arial font for the comments on drawings in size 6-10 points. The photographs should be converted to high resolution scans in *.jpg or *.tiff format. Figures should be submitted as separate files.


A new type of literature provision has been in force since 2020 – modified vancouver style.

Please follow the instructions below.

References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, title of the article (obligatory), journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science: everyone abbreviation should be end with a dot - example. Arch. Metall. Mater.] or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket, full DOI number).

Please note the correct layout punctation (commas and periods), and spaces.

Please note the arrangement of dots, commas and spaces.

First we write the initial of the name, dot, space, surname, volume must be written BOLD, at the name of the authors, do not write a word “and” write only a comma. We give the year of publication at the end of the sentence in brackets and DOI number (full notation and linked).

The use of DOI numbers (full notation and linked) is mandatory for each paper and should be formatted as shown in the examples below:



[1] L.B. Magalas, Development of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status and Perspectives. HRMS Coupled with a Laser Dilatometer . Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015). DOI:

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Large Magnetic Field-Induced Work output in a NiMgGa Seven-Lavered Modulated Martensite. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015). DOI:

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, Suppression of Interdiffusion in Copper/Tin thin Films. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012). DOI:


[4] K.U. Kainer (Ed.), Metal Matrix Composites, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006).

[5] K. Szacilowski, Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale, Wiley (2012).

[6] L. Reimer, H. Kohl, Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, Springer, New York (2008).

Proceedings or chapter in books with editor(s):

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major, P. Zięba (Eds.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Internet resource:

[8], accessed: 17.04.2017

Academic thesis (PhD, MSc):

[9] T. Mitra, PhD thesis, Modeling of Burden Distribution in the Blast Furnace, Abo Akademi University, Turku/Abo, Finland (2016).

Prevent cases of plagiarism

Readers should be sure that the authors present the results of their work transparently, fair and honest, regardless of whether they are the direct authors, or used the help of a specialized entity (natural or legal person). To prevent cases of plagiarism, "Copyright agreement", the Editorial Office will require that the Authors disclosed the contribution of individual Authors in the creation of manuscript (with their affiliations and contributions, i.e. the information who is responsible for: research concept and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, writing the manuscript). Funding sources (together with grant number) must also be revealed. The corresponding Author will bear the main responsibility for the manuscript. Detected cases will be exposed, including notifying the appropriate entities (institutions employing the Authors, scientific societies, associations of editors of scientific journals, etc.).

License type

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0,

This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

Submission of an article to the journal is unequivocal to expressing consent to the publication in both paper and electronic form.

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more