International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications (IJET, eISSN 2300-1933, untill 2013 also print ISSN 2081-8491) is a periodical of Electronics and Telecommunications Committee of Polish Academy of Sciences and it is published by Warsaw Science Publishers of PAS. It continues tradition of the Electronics and Telecommunications Quarterly (ISSN 0867-6747) established in 1955 as the Rozprawy Elektrotechniczne. The IJET is a scientific periodical where papers present the results of original, theoretical, experimental and reviewed works. They consider widely recognized aspects of modern electronics, telecommunications, microelectronics, optoelectronics, radioelectronics and medical electronics.
The authors are outstanding scientists, well‐known experienced specialists as well as young researchers – mainly candidates for a doctor's degree. The papers present original approaches to problems, interesting research results, critical estimation of theories and methods, discuss current state or progress in a given branch of technology and describe development prospects. All the papers published in IJET are reviewed by international specialists who ensure that the publications are recognized as author's scientific output.
The printed periodical is distributed among all those who deal with electronics and telecommunications in national scientific centers as well as in numeral foreign institutions, and it is subscribed by many specialists and libraries. Its electronic version is available at http://ijet.pl.
The papers received are published within half a year if the cooperation between author and the editorial staff is efficient. The papers may be submitted to the editorial office by the journal web page http://ijet.pl.
IMPACT FACTOR 2022: 0.7
CiteScore metrics from Scopus 2022: 1.7
SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2022: 0.256
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2022: 0.431
Polish Academy of Sciences Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications
Editor-in-Chief Ryszard S. Romaniuk, Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Poland
Managing Editor Danuta Sobczak-Bartosiewicz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Technical Editors Grzegorz Borowik, Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Telecommunications, Poland Maciej Linczuk, Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Poland
Secretary in-Charge Danuta Ojrzenska-Wojter, Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Telecommunications, Poland
Administrative Assistant Danuta Sobczak-Bartosiewicz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Technical Secretary Michał Ramotowski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Editorial Advisory Board Prof. Victor-Valeriu Patriciu, Director Doctoral School of Electronics, Informatics and Communications for Defense and Security, Military Technical Academy Bucharest, Romania, Romania
Prof. Bart Scheers, Royal Military Academy, Belgium
Dr. Eli Winjum, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Norway
Wladyslaw Skarbek, Warsaw University of Technology, IRE, Poland
Christian Napoli, University of Catania, Italy
Rosario Giunta, University of Catania, Italy
Christopher Chiu, University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Prof. Emiliano Tramontana, University of Catania, Italy
Prof Robin Braun, University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Dr David Davis, University of Technology Sydney, Australia
dr Brian Culshaw, University of Strathclyde, UK, United Kingdom
Grzegorz Chmaj, University of Nevada, United States
Giuseppe Pappalardo, University of Catania, Italy
Michael Affenzeller, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria
Prof. Stavros Hatzopoulos, Laboratory of Hearing Science Audiology Dept., University of Ferrara, Italy, Italy
Prof Nikita M Ryskin, Saratov State University, Russian Federation
Prof. Adam Wolisz, Technische Universität Berlin, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Telecommunication Networks
Prof. Edmundo Monteiro, Departamento de Engenharia Informatica Universidade de Coimbra Portugal, Portugal
Prof. Zoubir Mammeri, IRIT, Université Paul Sabatier 118 Route de Narbonne F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 FRANCE, France
Dr Paul D Polishuk, IGI, Boston, MA, USA
Giuseppe Macchiarella, Politecnico di Milano,Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria (DEIB), Italy
Prof. Bernd Steinbach, Bergakademie Freiberg Fakultät für Mathematik und Informatik Institut, Germany
Jan Szmidt, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Zenon Chaczko, University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Józef Modelski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Wiesław Woliński, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Ryszard Klempous, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland
Radomir Stanković, University of Niš, Serbia
Javier Poncela, University of Malaga, Spain
Marek Turowski, CFD Research Corporation, United States
Dawid Zydek, NV Energy, United States
Wojciech Szpankowski, Purdue University, United States
Jacek Żurada, University of Louisville, United States
Tadeusz Luba, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Stefan Hahn, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Gilbert De Mey, Ghent University, Belgium
Svetlana Yanushkevich, University of Calgary, Canada
Viktor Krozer, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
Adam Morawiec, European Electronic Chips & Systems Design Initiative, France
Herman Rohling, Technical University of Hamburg, Germany
Franco Davoli, University of Genowa, Italy
Michał Mrozowski, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Włodzimierz Janke, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
Principal Contact Ryszard S. Romaniuk Professor Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, room 217, Nowowiejska 15/19, Warsaw 00-665, Poland Phone: +48222345110 Fax: +48228252300 Email: email@example.com
Nonlinearities in optical fibers deteriorate system performances and become a major performancelimiting issue. This article aims to investigate the compensation of nonlinear distortions in optical communication systems based on different wavelength propagations over few-mode fiber (FMF). The study adopted Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) based on decision feedback equalizer (DFE). Various transmission wavelength of the FMF system is applied to mitigate the attenuation effect on the system. In this paper, different wavelengths (780, 850 and 1550 nm) are used in SDM. Extensive simulation is performed to assess the attenuation and Bit Error Rate (BER) in each case. The results show that the wavelength of 1550 nm produces higher power and less attenuation in the transmission. Furthermore, this wavelength produces the best distance with less BER compared to 780 nm and 850 nm wavelengths. Moreover, the validations show improvement in BER and eye diagram.
In this work, the design of current mode Fractional order filter using VDTAs (Voltage differencing trans-conductance amplifier) as an active element with grounded capacitors has been proposed. The approximate transfer functions of low and high pass filters of fractional order on the basis of the integer order transfer has been shown and the form of those functions of filters is also implemented using VDTA as an active building block. In this work, filters of the different sequence have been realized. The frequency domain simulation results of the proposed filters are obtained on Matlab and PSPICE with TSMC CMOS 180 nm technology parameters. Stability and sensitivity is also verified.
A robust and highly imperceptible audio watermarking technique is presented to secure the electronic patient record of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) affected patient. The proposed DCT-SVD based watermarking technique introduces minimal changes in speech such that the accuracy in classification of PD affected person’s speech and healthy person’s speech is retained. To achieve high imperceptibility the voiced part of the speech is considered for embedding the watermark. It is shown that the proposed watermarking technique is robust to common signal processing attacks. The practicability of the proposed technique is tested: by creating an android application to record & watermark the speech signal. The classification of PD affected speech is done using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier in cloud server.
We address one of the weaknesses of the RSA ciphering systems i.e. the existence of the private keys that are relatively easy to compromise by the attacker. The problem can be mitigated by the Internet services providers, but it requires some computational effort. We propose the proof of concept of the GPGPU-accelerated system that can help detect and eliminate users’ weak keys. We have proposed the algorithms and developed the GPU-optimised program code that is now publicly available and substantially outperforms the tested CPU processor. The source code of the OpenSSL library was adapted for GPGPU, and the resulting code can perform both on the GPU and CPU processors. Additionally, we present the solution how to map a triangular grid into the GPU rectangular grid – the basic dilemma in many problems that concern pair-wise analysis for the set of elements. Also, the comparison of two data caching methods on GPGPU leads to the interesting general conclusions. We present the results of the experiments of the performance analysis of the selected algorithms for the various RSA key length, configurations of GPU grid, and size of the tested key set.
This paper presents an original method of designing some special reversible circuits. This method is intended for the most popular gate set with three types of gates CNT (Control, NOT and Toffoli). The presented algorithm is based on two types of cascades with these reversible gates. The problem of transformation between two reversible functions is solved. This method allows to find optimal reversible circuits. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 and 2 recalls basic concepts of reversible logic. Especially the two types of cascades of reversible function are presented. In Section 3 there is introduced a problem of analysis of the cascades. Section 4 describes the method of synthesis of the optimal cascade for transformation of the given reversible function into another one.
The paper presents the use of visual evoked potentials VEP to the objective assessment of visual acuity. Methods of using visual evoked potentials (VEP) rely on the assessment of changes of the electrical action potentials generated within the cortex. To diagnose the degree of weakening eyesight a series of studies on healthy people and visually impaired ones were made. Electrophysiological studies of the eye, using noninvasive VEP examination allow a noninvasive and objective assessment of visual acuity. The use of visual evoked potentials gives the objectivity in assessment of visual acuity what may be very important in ophthalmology. This particularly may concern children examination, people with mental retardation and suspected of simulation.
The paper considers the technique of modeling and formation educational components of the planned training of CDIO Syllabus, realized in the form of the educational adaptive environment of engineering education. The following key concepts of the methodology have been accepted: competence models of the stages of the CDIO initiative, the method of project training, syntax for describing the concepts of the domain, models for mapping support concepts in the form of expressions of knowledge and ontological engineering.
The paper presents a method for wireless measurement of car wheel air pressure and temperature using the Tire Pressure Monitoring System, or TPMS module - one of the latest safety systems introduced by the automotive industry - with readings taken on a specifically designed test bench. The paper describes the structure and operating principle of the test bench key elements and how they work with the sensors, the TPMS module, and reference instruments, as well as the data format and accuracy of data transmission between TPMS and the host computer. The software designed for an embedded system emulating the real on-board computer allows for observing raw sensor readings and the effect of calibration in two points of the characteristics.
This paper presents active inductor based VCO design for wireless applications based on analysis of active inductor models (Weng-Kuo Cascode active inductor & Liang Regular Cascode active inductor) with feedback resistor technique. Embedment of feedback resistor results in the increment of inductance as well as the quality factor whereas the values are firstname.lastname@example.orgGHz (Liang) and email@example.comGHz (Weng-Kuo). The Weng-Kuo active inductor based VCO shows a tuning frequency of 1.765GHz ~2.430GHz (31.7%), while consuming a power of 2.60 mW and phase noise of -84.15 dBc/Hz@1MHz offset. On the other hand, Liang active inductor based VCO shows a frequency range of 1.897GHz ~2.522GHz (28.28%), while consuming a power of 1.40 mW and phase noise of -80.79 dBc/Hz@1MHz offset. Comparing Figure-of-Merit (FoM), power consumption, output power and stability in performance, designed active inductor based VCOs outperform with the stateof- the-art.
GNSS systems are susceptible to radio interference despite then operating in a spread spectrum. The commerce jammers power up to 2 watts that can block the receiver function at a distance of up to 15 kilometers in free space. Two original methods for GNSS receiver testing were developed. The first method is based on the usage of a GNSS simulator for generation of the satellite signals and a vector signal RF generator for generating different types of interference signals. The second software radio method is based on a software GNSS simulator and a signal processing in Matlab. The receivers were tested for narrowband CW interference, FM modulated signal and chirp jamming signals and scenarios. The signal to noise ratio usually drops down to 27 dBc-Hz while the jamming to signal ratio is different for different types of interference. The chirp signal is very effective. The jammer signal is well propagated in free space while in the real mobile urban and suburban environment it is usually strongly attenuated.
Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) is a multiple antenna technology used extensively in wireless communication systems. With the ever increasing demand in high data rates, MIMO system is the necessity of wireless communication. In MIMO wireless communication system, where the multiple antennas are placed on base station and mobile station, the major problem is the constant power of base station, which has to be allocated to data streams optimally. This problem is referred as a power allocation problem. In this research, singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to decouple the MIMO system in the presence of channel state information (CSI) at the base station and forms parallel channels between base station and mobile station. This practice parallel channel ensures the simultaneous transmission of parallel data streams between base station and mobile station. Along with this, water filling algorithm is used in this research to allocate power to each data stream optimally. Further the relationship between the channel capacity of MIMO wireless system and the number of antennas at the base station and the mobile station is derived mathematically. The performance comparison of channel capacity for MIMO systems, both in the presence and absence of CSI is done. Finally, the effect of channel correlation because of antennas at the base stations and the mobile stations in the MIMO systems is also measured.
The 802.11ax standard final specification is expected in 2019, however first parameters are just released. The target of the new standard is four times improvement of the average throughput within the given area. This standard is dedicated for usage in dense environment such as stadiums, means of municipal communication, conference halls and others. The main target is to support many users at the same time with the single access point. The question arises if the new standard will have higher throughput then previous ones in the single user mode. The author calculated the maximal theoretical throughput of the 802.11ax standard and compared the results with the throughput of older 802.11 standards such as 802.11n and 802.11ac. The new he-wifi-network example included in the ns-3.27 release of the NS-3 simulator was used to simulate the throughput between the access point and the user terminal. The results indicate that in some conditions the 802.11ac standard has higher throughput than the new 802.11ax standard.
In this paper, we propose a new algorithm that improves the performance of the operation of Handover (HO) in LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) networks. As recognized, Mobility Management (MM) is an important pillar in LTE/LTE-A systems to provide high quality of service to users on the move. The handover algorithms define the method and the steps to follow to ensure a reliable transfer of the UEs from one cell to another without interruption or degradation of the services offered by the network. In this paper, the authors proposed a new handover algorithm for LTE/LTE-A networks based on the measurement and calculation of two important parameters, namely the available bandwidth and the Received Power (RSRP) at the level of eNodeBs. The proposed scheme named LTE Available Bandwidth and RSRP Based Handover Algorithm (LABRBHA) was tested in comparison with well-known algorithms in the literature as the LHHA, LHHAARC and the INTEGRATOR scheme using the open source simulator LTE-Sim. Finally, the network performances were investigated via three indicators: the number of lost packets during the handover operation, the latency as well as the maximum system throughput. The results reported that our algorithm shows remarkable improvements over other transfer schemes.
One of the crucial advancements in next-generation 5G wireless networks is the use of high-frequency signals specifically those are in the millimeter wave (mm-wave) bands. Using mmwave frequency will allow more bandwidth resulting higher user data rates in comparison to the currently available network. However, several challenges are emerging (such as fading, scattering, propagation loss etc.), whenever we utilize mm-wave frequency wave bands for signal propagation. Optimizing propagation parameters of the mm-wave channels system are much essential for implementing in the real-world scenario. To keep this in mind, this paper presents the potential abilities of high frequencies signals by characterizing the indoor small cell propagation channel for 28, 38, 60 and 73 GHz frequency band, which is considered as the ultimate frequency choice for many of the researchers. The most potential Close-In (CI) propagation model for mm-wave frequencies is used as a Large-scale path loss model. Results and outcomes directly affecting the user experience based on fairness index, average cell throughput, spectral efficiency, cell-edge user’s throughput and average user throughput. The statistical results proved that these mm-wave spectrum gives a sufficiently greater overall performance and are available for use in the next generation 5G mobile communication network.
A novel non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) scheme is proposed to improve the throughput and the outage probability of the cognitive radio (CR) inspired system which has been implemented to adapt multiple services in the nextgeneration network (5G). In the proposed scheme, the primary source (PS) had sent a superposition code symbol with a predefined power allocation to relays, it decoded and forwarded (DF) a new superposition coded symbol to the destination with the other power allocation. By using a dual antenna at relays, it will be improved the bandwidth efficiency in such CR NOMA scheme. The performance of the system is evaluated based on the outage probability and the throughput with the assumption of the Rayleigh fading channels. According to the results obtained, it is shown that the outage probability and throughput of the proposed full-duplex (FD) in CR-NOMA with reasonable parameters can be able deploy in practical design as illustration in numerical results section.
Performance of standard Direction of Arrival (DOA) estimation techniques degraded under real-time signal conditions. The classical algorithms are Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC), and Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT). There are many signal conditions hamper on its performance, such as closely spaced and coherent signals caused due to the multipath propagations of signals results in a decrease of the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal. In this paper, a novel DOA estimation technique named CW-PCA MUSIC is proposed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to threshold the nearby correlated wavelet coefficients of Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet transform (DTCWT) for denoising the signals before applying to MUSIC algorithm. The proposed technique improves the detection performance under closely spaced, and coherent signals with relatively low SNR conditions. Also, this method requires fewer snapshots, and less antenna array elements compared with standard MUSIC and wavelet-based DOA estimation algorithms.
This article has two outreach aims. It concisely summarizes the main research and technical efforts in the EC H2020 ARIES Integrating Activity – Accelerator Research and Innovation for European Science and Society  during the period 2017/2018. ARIES is a continuation of CARE, TIARA and EuCARD projects [2-3]. The article also tries to show these results as an encouragement for local physics and engineering, research and technical communities to participate actively in such important European projects. According to the author’s opinion this participation may be much bigger [4-27]. All the needed components to participate – human, material and infrastructural are there [4,7]. So why the results are not satisfying as they should be? The major research subjects of ARIES are: new methods of particles acceleration including laser, plasma and particle beam interactions, new materials and accelerator components, building new generations of accelerators, energy efficiency and management of large accelerator systems, innovative superconducting magnets, high field and ultra-high gradient magnets, cost lowering, system miniaturization, promotion of innovation originating from accelerator research, industrial applications, and societal implications. Two institutions from Poland participate in ARIES – these are Warsaw University of Technology and Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. There are not present some of the key institutes active in accelerator technology in Poland. Let this article be a small contribution why Poland, a country of such big research potential, contributes so modestly to the European accelerator infrastructural projects? The article bases on public and internal documents of ARIES project, including the EU Grant Agreement and P1 report. The views presented in the paper are only by the author and not necessarily by the ARIES.
This paper describes a “distributed method” of introducing the humanitarian engineering principles and concepts to the curriculum of telecommunications at a maritime university. That is by modifying appropriately the syllabi of the telecommunications subjects taught. The propositions made in this area are illustrated by the concrete examples taken from the current Polish Qualifications Framework for the higher education system in Poland. And, for clarity and consistency of presentation, fundamentals and principles as well as a basic terminology and features of this Framework are also highlighted here shortly. Moreover, it has been shown that the approach presented in this paper is more useful compared to a method based on organization of some special courses for students on the humanitarian engineering, in particular when this regards a maritime university.
An available bandwidth at a link is an unused capacity. Its measuring and/or estimation is not simple in practice. On the other hand, we know that its continuous knowledge is crucial for the operation of almost all networks. Therefore, there is a continuous effort in improving the existing and developing new methods of available bandwidth measurement and/or estimation. This paper deals with these problems. Network calculus terminology allows to express an available bandwidth in terms of a service curve. The service curve is a function representing a service available for a traffic flow which can be measured/estimated in a node as well as at an endto- end connection of a network. An Internet traffic is highly unpredictable what hinders to a large extent an execution of the tasks mentioned above. This paper draws attention to pitfalls and difficulties with application of the existing network calculus methods of an available bandwidth estimation in a real Internet Service Provider (ISP) network. The results achieved in measurements have been also confirmed in simulations performed as well as by mathematical considerations presented here. They give a new perspective on the outcomes obtained by other authors and on their interpretations.
A novel method to improve the performance of the frequency band is cognitive radio that was introduced in 1999. Due to a lot of advantages of the OFDM, adaptive OFDM method, this technique is used in cognitive radio (CR) systems, widely. In adaptive OFDM, transmission rate and power of subcarriers are allocated based on the channel variations to improve the system performance. This paper investigates adaptive resource allocation in the CR systems that are used OFDM technique to transmit data. The aim of this paper is to maximize the achievable transmission rate for the CR system by considering the interference constraint. Although secondary users can be aware form channel information between each other, but in some wireless standards, it is impossible for secondary user to be aware from channel information between itself and a primary user. Therefore, due to practical limitation, statistical interference channel is considered in this paper. This paper introduces a novel suboptimal power allocation algorithm. Also, this paper introduces a novel bit loading algorithm. In the numerical results sections, the performance of our algorithm is compared by optimal and conventional algorithms. Numerical results indicate our algorithm has better performance than conventional algorithms while its complexity is less than optimal algorithm.
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