Applied sciences

International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications

Content

International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications | 2021 | vol. 67 | No 4 |

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Abstract

This research is developing the analog value from the NPK sensor to digital using the YL 38 comparator module to obtain detailed Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) values according to the NPK sensor datasheet. This system is a network based on the Internet of Things (IoT) and LoRa. The IoT and LoRa features installed on this device, meanwhile the measurement and fertilization data can be monitored easily through an Android application. This research using a frequency of 922.4 Mhz, 125 kHz bandwidth, 10 spreading factors, and a code rate of 5. The Network Quality of Services testing i.e. delay, packet loss, SNR, and RSSI. The QoS was measured at 6 locations. different, 1 location 0 km, 4 locations 1 km, 1 location 2.5 km from BTS LoRa. It was concluded that the parameters used are by the conditions and distances in the data collection. It is proven that all the standards in each parameter are met. In testing the LoRa network it can be concluded that the farther the distance from the LoRa BTS the data transmission quality is getting worse.
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Authors and Affiliations

Doan Perdana
1
Wahyu Rizal Panca Kusuma
1
Ibnu Alinursafa
2

  1. Telkom University, Indonesia
  2. PT Telkom Indonesia, Indonesia
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Abstract

The paper introduces the distributed framework for determining the shortest path of robots in the logistic applications, i.e. the warehouse with a swarm of robots cooperating in the Real- Time mode. The proposed solution uses the optimization routine to avoid the downtime and collisions between robots. The presented approach uses the reference model based on Dijkstra, Floyd- Warshall and Bellman-Ford algorithms, which search the path in the weighted undirected graph. Their application in the onboard robot’s computer requires the analysis of the time efficiency. Results of comparative simulations for the implemented algorithms are presented. For their evaluation the data sets reflecting actual processes were used. Outcomes of experiments have shown that the tested algorithms are applicable for the logistic purposes, however their ability to operate in the Real-Time requires the detailed analysis.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Markowski
1
Piotr Bilski
2

  1. Lukasiewicz – Institute of Logistics and Warehousing, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
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Abstract

This paper presents low-cost, configurable PCI Express (PCIe) direct memory access (DMA) interface for implementation on Intel Cyclone V FPGAs. The DMA engine was designed to support DAQ tasks including pre-triggering acquisition for transient analysis and multichannel transmission. Performance of the interface has been evaluated on Terasic OVSK board (PCIe Gen2 x4). Target configuration of this interface is based on the Avalon-MM Hard IP for Cyclone V PCIe core and Jungo WinDriver x64 for Windows. A sample speed of 1200 MB/s has been reported for DMA writes to PCIe memory.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Mroczek
1

  1. Institute of Radioelectronics and Multimedia Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
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Abstract

In this article, a hybrid circularly polarized Multiple- Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna for multi-band operation from 2.3 to 9.2 GHz with an impedance bandwidth of 7 GHz is proposed and investigated experimentally. The designed MIMO antenna model has a compact size of 20mm×40mm×1.6mm on the FR-4 substrate. The microstrip feed of the proposed slot antenna consists of a tapered structure, and the radiating element consists of the inverted L- shaped slots, which were opened on both sides of the radiating elements to introduce notches at the sub-6 GHz frequencies. L-shaped stubs are also introduced on another side of the substrate in the common ground plane to attain high isolation between the radiating elements of the proposed antenna. In the operating band from 2.3 to 9.2 GHz, isolation of less than -20 dB is achieved by the proposed model. The performance of the circularly polarized MIMO antenna in terms of RHCP and LHCP radiation patterns, axial ratio, surface current distributions, isolation between the ports, diversity gain (DG), envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), total active reflection coefficient (TARC), and peak gain are studied and presented in this work. The obtained characteristics of the proposed antenna make it suitable for sub-6- GHz frequency applications.
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Authors and Affiliations

S. Salma
1
Habibulla Khan
1
B.T.P. Madhav
1
D. Ram Sandeep
1
M. Suman
1

  1. Dept. of ECE, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, AP, India
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Abstract

RADAR plays a vital role in military applications since its origin in the 2nd world war. Recently it has been used in surface inception, health monitoring, infrastructure health monitoring, etc. In these applications, Ultra-wideband RADAR systems are more popular than traditional RADAR systems. Impulse RADAR is a special kind of ultra-wideband RADAR, which is mostly used for surface penetration, through-wall imaging, antimissile detection, anti-stealth technology, etc. because of its high resolution and low center frequency. Out of all these applications, impulse RADAR has been used intensively as a ground-penetrating RADAR for the detection of land mines, underlying pipelines, buried objects, etc. This report has attempted to provide the steps for designing the impulse ground penetrating RADAR (GPR) as well as provides the value of crucial parameters required in the design process of commercial GPR systems.
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Authors and Affiliations

Saket Kumar
1
Amit Kumar
2
Vikrant Singh
3
Abhishek Kumar Singh
4

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology, Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India
  2. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University) College of Engineering, Pune, India
  3. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, IIT Guwahati, India
  4. School of Advanced Sciences, Department of Physics, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Naidu, India
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Abstract

Lane detection is one of the key steps for developing driver assistance and vehicle automation features. A number of techniques are available for lane detection as part of computer vision tools to perform lane detection with different levels of accuracies. In this paper a unique method has been proposed for lane detection based on dynamic origin (DOT). This method provides better flexibility to adjust the outcome as per the specific needs of the intended application compared to other techniques. As the method offers better degree of control during the lane detection process, it can be adapted to detect lanes in varied situations like poor lighting or low quality road markings. Moreover, the Piecewise Linear Stretching Function (PLSF) has also been incorporated into the proposed method to improve the contrast of the input image source. Adding the PLSF method to the proposed lane detection technique, has significantly improved the accuracy of lane detection when compared to hough transform method from 87.88% to 98.25% in day light situations and from 94.15% to 97% in low light situations.
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Authors and Affiliations

P. Maya
1
C. Tharini
2

  1. B S Abdur Rahman Crescent Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India
  2. B S Abdur Rahman Crescent Institute of Science and Technology,Chennai, India
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Abstract

The problems in the Covid-19 pandemic have a major influence on the field of education with the use of technology to support the teaching and learning process to facilitate students who do home learning activities. The proposed concept of freedom of learning is a more comprehensive concept such as portfolio and assignments such as group assignments, writings, and so on that are done in full online by adding additional features such as Teaching and Learning Activities and Assessment through information technology media. (E-Learning / Learning Management System). The method proposed in this research is the Peer Connection Queue (PCQ) method on mikrotik operating systems. PCQ method is a program to manage network traffic in Quality of Services (QoS). Bandwidth management methods. The hypothesis formulated is to create bandwidth management with PCQ so that bandwidth sharing is automatically and evenly distributed to multi clients. Therefore, in this research finally formulated into the goal of E-Learning effectiveness analysis using bandwidth management analysis method, which will be measured and analyzed in this research is throughput, delay, jitter, and packet loss. So that the final result of this research obtained the feasibility of the teaching and learning process that is carried out effectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Setiyo Budiyanto
1
Lukman Medriavin Silalahi
1
Freddy Artadima Silaban
1
Henry Binsar Hamonangan Sitorus
2
Agus Dendi Rochendi
3
Mochamad Furqon Ismail
4

  1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitas Mercu Buana, Indonesia
  2. Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Jakarta , Indonesia
  3. Department of Oceanographic Physics, Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, Indonesia
  4. Department of Physical Oceanography, Geomar Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany
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Abstract

In order to improve the operational reliability and service life of the main systems, components and assemblies (SCA) of railway transport (RT), it is necessary to timely detect (diagnose) their defects, including the use of the methods of intellectual analysis and data processing.
One of the promising approaches to the synthesis of the SCA functional control system is the use of intelligent technology (INTECH) methods. This technology is based on maximizing the information capacity of an automated decision support system for detecting faults during its training.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ayaulym Oralbekova
1
Marzhana Amanova
1
Kamila Rustambekova
1
Zhanat Kaskatayev
1
Olga Kisselyova
2
Roza Nurgaliyeva
1

  1. Kazakh University Ways of Communications, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  2. Kazakh Academy of Transport and Communications named after M. Tynyshpayev, Almaty, Kazakhstan
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Abstract

This paper deals with the implementation of a DC and AC double-gate MOSFET compact model in the Verilog- AMS language for the transient simulation and the configuration of ultra low-power analog circuits. The Verilog-AMS description of the proposed model is inserted in SMASH circuit simulator for the transient simulation and the configuration of the Colpitts oscillator, the common-source amplifier, and the inverter. The proposed model has the advantages of being simple and compact. It was validated using TCAD simulation results of the same transistor realized with Silvaco Software.
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Authors and Affiliations

Billel Smaani
1
Yacin Meraihi
2
Fares Nafa
2
Mohamed Salah Benlatreche
3
Hamza Akroum
4
Saida Latreche
5

  1. Ingénierie des Systémes Electriques Department, Faculty of Technology, Boumerdes University, Algeria
  2. Laboratoire d'Ingénierie et Systèmes de Télécommunications, Faculté de Technologie, Boumerdes, Algeria
  3. Centre Universitaire Abdel Hafid Boussouf Mila, Algeria
  4. Laboratoire d’Automatique Appliquée, Université M’Hamed Bougara de Boumerdes, Algeria
  5. Laboratoire Hyperfréquences et Semiconducteurs, Electronique Department, Constantine 1 University, Algeria
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Abstract

A resonant frequency control method for dielectric rod resonators is discussed. A dielectric rod of cylindrical shape is placed inside a metal cavity. The bottom face of the dielectric rod is fixed at the metal base plate. Resonant frequency tuning is achieved by lifting the top metal plate above the dielectric rod upper face. The paper presents simulations using the mode matching technique and experimental study of this tunable resonator. Resonant frequency of the basic mode can be tuned by more than an octave with displacements of only tens of micrometres, which is in range of piezoactuators, MEMS, etc. A distinct feature of the proposed tuning technique is that the quality factor of the system does not degrade throughout the tuning range.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kostiantyn Savin
1
Irina Golubeva
1
Victor Kazmirenko
1
Yuriy Prokopenko
1
Guy A.E. Vandenbosch
2

  1. Department of Electronic Engineering, Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, Kyiv, Ukraine
  2. ESAT-TELEMIC Group, KU Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium
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Abstract

RFID systems are one of the essential technologies and used many diverse applications. The security and privacy are the primary concern in RFID systems which are overcome by using suitable authentication protocols. In this manuscript, the costeffective RFID-Mutual Authentication (MA) using a lightweight Extended Tiny encryption algorithm (XTEA) is designed to overcome the security and privacy issues on Hardware Platform. The proposed design provides two levels of security, which includes secured Tag identification and mutual authentication. The RFIDMA mainly has Reader and Tag along with the backend Server. It establishes the secured authentication between Tag and Reader using XTEA. The XTEA with Cipher block chaining (CBC) is incorporated in RFID for secured MA purposes. The authentication process completed based on the challenge and response between Reader and Tag using XTEA-CBC. The present work is designed using Verilog-HDL on the Xilinx environment and implemented on Artix-7 FPGA. The simulation and synthesis results discussed with hardware constraints like Area, power, and time. The present work is compared with existing similar approaches with hardware constraints improvements.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Anusha
1
V. Veena Devi Shastrimath
1

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, N.M.A.M Institute of Technology, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
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Abstract

Real-time data processing systems utilize Digital Signal Processing (DSP) functions as the base modules. Most of the DSP functions involve the implementation of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to convert the signals from one domain to another domain. The major bottleneck of Decimation in frequency- Fast Fourier Transform (DIF-FFT) implementation lies in using a number of Multipliers. Distributed arithmetic (DA) is considered as one of the efficient techniques to implement DIF-FFT. In this approach, the multipliers are not used. The proposed technique exploits the very advantage of the look-up table by storing the Twiddle factors, thereby avoiding the multipliers required in the butterfly structure. DIF-FFT using Distributed Arithmetic (DIF-FFT DA) models, with different adders such as Ripple carry adder (RCA), Carry-lookahead adder (CLA), and Sklansky prefix graph adder, are proposed in this paper. The three proposed models are synthesized using Cadence 6.1 EDA tools with a 45nm CMOS technology. Compared to the traditional method, it is observed that the area is improved by 53.11%, 53.35%, and 50.15%, power is improved by 42.31%, 42.52%, and 40.39%, and delay is improved by 45.26%, 45.42%, 41.80%, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kusma Kumari Cheepurupalli
1
Muntha Charan
1
Jammu Bhaskara Rao
1
Mahammad S. Noor
1

  1. Dept. of ECE, Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering, India
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Abstract

As day by day the population is increasing, the use of mobile phones and different applications is increasing which requires high data rate for transmission. Homogeneous cellular network cannot fulfill the demand of mobile users, so creating a heterogeneous cellular network (HCN) is a better choice for higher coverage and capacity to fulfil the increasing demand of upcoming 5G and ultra-dense cellular networks. In this research, the impact of antenna heights and gains under varying pico to macro base stations density ratio from 2G to 5G and beyond on two-tier heterogeneous cellular network has been analyzed for obtaining optimum results of coverage and area spectral efficiency. Furthermore, how the association of UEs affects the coverage and ASE while changing the BSs antenna heights and gains has been explored for the two-tier HCN network model. The simulation results show that by considering the maximum macro BS antenna height, pico BS antenna height equal to user equipment (UE) antenna height and unity gains for both macro and pico tiers, the optimum coverage and area spectral efficiency (ASE) for a two-tier fully loaded heterogeneous cellular network can be obtained.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anum Abbasi
1
M. Mujtaba Shaikh
1
Safia Amir Dahri
1
Sarfraz Ahmed Soomro
1
Fozia Aijaz Panhwar
1

  1. Department of Telecommunication Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science & Technology (QUEST), Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan
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Abstract

The power distribution internet of things (PD-IoT) has the complex network architecture, various emerging services, and the enormous number of terminal devices, which poses rigid requirements on substrate network infrastructure. However, the traditional PD-IoT has the characteristics of single network function, management and maintenance difficulties, and poor service flexibility, which makes it hard to meet the differentiated quality of service (QoS) requirements of different services. In this paper, we propose the software-defined networking (SDN)- enabled PD-IoT framework to improve network compatibility and flexibility, and investigate the virtual network function (VNF) embedding problem of service orchestration in PD-IoT. To solve the preference conflicts among different VNFs towards the network function node (NFV) and provide differentiated service for services in various priorities, a matching-based priorityaware VNF embedding (MPVE) algorithm is proposed to reduce energy consumption while minimizing the total task processing delay. Simulation results demonstrate that MPVE significantly outperforms existing matching algorithm and random matching algorithm in terms of delay and energy consumption while ensuring the task processing requirements of high-priority services.
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Authors and Affiliations

Xiaoyue Li
1
Xiankai Chen
1
Chaoqun Zhou
1
Zilong Liang
1
Shubo Liu
1
Qiao Yu
1

  1. State Grid Qingdao Power Supply Company, China
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Abstract

The world is heading towards deployment of 5G commercially by the year 2020. But providing broadband 5G connectivity to remote rural regions is a significant challenge. Fiber connectivity has attempted to penetrate rural regions but last mile connectivity is still a problem in many rural sectors due to improper land demarcation and hostile terrain. A scheme which is based on the Integrated Access and Backhaul (IAB) concept is proposed to provide last mile 5G connectivity to satisfy the broadband needs of rural subscribers. A wireless 5G downlink environment following 3GPP NR specifications with a significantly high throughput is simulated. The last mile link is provided through a 28GHz carrier from a proposed IAB node delivering a data throughput of 4.301 Gbps for singleuser carrier aggregation and 5.733 Gbps for multi-user carrier aggregation which is quite promising for broadband service, like high-speed Internet and streaming video. The results presented in this work are observed to agree favourably with the results of other researchers in the field.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ardhendu Shekhar Biswas
1
Sanjib Sil
2
Rabindranath Bera
3
Monojit Mitra
4

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Techno International New Town, Kolkata - 700156, India
  2. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Calcutta Institute of Engineering and Management, Kolkata -700040, India
  3. Department of Electronics Communication Engineering, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Sikkim, India
  4. Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, IIEST Shibpur, Howrah, India
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Abstract

Atmospheric turbulence is considered as major threat to Free Space Optical (FSO) communication as it causes irradiance and phase fluctuations of the transmitted signal which degrade the performance of FSO system. Wavelength diversity is one of the techniques to mitigate these effects. In this paper, the wavelength diversity technique is applied to FSO system to improve the performance under different turbulence conditions which are modeled using Exponentiated Weibull (EW) channel. In this technique, the data was communicated through 1.55 μm, 1.31 μm, and 0.85 μm carrier wavelengths. Optimal Combining (OC) scheme has been considered to receive the signals at receiver. Mathematical equation for average BER is derived for wavelength diversity based FSO system. Results are obtained for the different link length under different turbulence conditions. The obtained average BER results for different turbulence conditions characterized by EW channel is compared with the published result of average BER for different turbulence which is presented by classical channel model. A comparative BER analysis shows that maximum advantage of wavelength diversity technique is obtained when different turbulence conditions are modeled by EW channel.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dhaval Shah
1
Hardik Joshi
1
Dilipkumar Kothari
1

  1. Faculty of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Institute of Technology, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, India
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Abstract

The Internet of Things has a set of smart objects with smart connectivity that assists in monitoring real world environment during emergency situations. It could monitor the various applications of emergency situations such as road accidents, criminal acts including physical assaults, kidnap cases, and other threats to people’s way of life. In this work, the proposed work is to afford real time services to users in emergency situations through Convolutional Neural Networks in terms of efficiency and reliable services. Finally, the proposed work has simulated with respect to the performance parameters of the proposed scheme like the probability of accuracy and processing time.
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Authors and Affiliations

Lokesh B. Bhajantri
1
Ramesh M. Kagalkar
2
Pundalik Ranjolekar
3

  1. Department of Information Science and Engineering, India
  2. KLE College of Engineering and Technology, Chikodi, Karnataka, India
  3. Department of CSE, KLE Society's Dr. M. S. Sheshgiri College of Engineering and Technology, Karnataka, India
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Abstract

Although there are many articulations of SWIPT architecture implementations, the hardware impairment aspect involved in the SWIPT architecture system is not given much attention. This paper evaluates the performance of SWIPT PS Reciever architecture in the presence of IQ imbalance hardware impairment with 16-QAM transmitter and AWGN channel. The parameters SNR, BER is evaluated in the presence of amplitude, phase imbalance, and PS factor at the SWIPT receiver side. Further, the IQ imbalance is estimated and compensated using a blind compensation algorithm. The system achieved a maximum BER of 10−7 in the presence of amplitude and phase imbalance of 0.2 and 1.6 respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ajin R. Nair
1
S. Kirthiga
1
M. Jayakumar
1

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India
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Abstract

Due to the multifold growth in demands of multimedia services and mobile data, the request for increased channel capacity in mobile and wireless communication has been quickly increasing. Developing a wireless system with more spectral efficiency under varying channel condition is a key challenge to provide more bit rates with limited spectrum. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) gives higher gain by using the direct and the reflected signals, thus facilitating the transmission at high data rate. An integration of Spatial Modulation (SM) with OFDM (SM OFDM) is a newly evolved transmission technique and has been suggested as a replacement for MIMO -OFDM transmission. In practical scenarios, channel estimation is significant for detecting transmitted data coherently. This paper proposes pilot based, Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) channel estimation for the SM OFDM communication system. We have focused on analyzing Symbol Error Rate (SER) and Mean Square error (MSE) under Rayleigh channel employing International Telecommunication Union (ITU) specified Vehicular model of Pilot based MMSE channel estimator using windowed Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and MMSE weighting function. Simulation output shows that proposed estimator’s SER performance lies close to that of the MMSE optimal estimator in minimizing aliasing error and suppressing channel noise by using frequency domain data windowing and time domain weighting function. Usage of the Hanning window eliminates error floor and has a compact side lobe level compared to Hamming window and Rectangular window. Hanning window has a larger MSE at low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) values and decreases with high SNR values. It is concluded that data windowing technique can minimize the side lobe level and accordingly minimize channel estimation error when interpolation is done. MMSE weighting suppresses channel noise and improves estimation performance. Since Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT)/DFT transforms can be implemented with fast algorithms Inverse Fast Fourier Transform( IFFT)/Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) computational complexity can be remarkably reduced.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Anetha Mary Soman
1
R. Nakkeeran
1
Mathew John Shinu
2

  1. Department of Electronics Engineering, School of Engineering and Technology, Pondicherry Central University, Pondicherry, India
  2. Department of Computer Science, St.ThomasCollege of Engineering & Technology, Kannur, Kerala, India
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Abstract

In this paper, we consider cell-discovery problem in 5G millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication systems using multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) beam-forming technique. Specifically, we aim at the proper beam selection method using context-awareness of the user-equipment to reduce latency in beam/cell identification. Due to high path-loss in mmWave systems, beam-forming technique is extensively used to increase Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). When seeking to increase user discovery distance, narrow beam must be formed. Thus, a number of possible beam orientations and consequently time needed for the discovery increases significantly when random scanning approach is used. The idea presented here is to reduce latency by employing artificial intelligence (AI) or machine learning (ML) algorithms to guess the best beam orientation using context information from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), lidars and cameras, and use the knowledge to swiftly initiate communication with the base station. To this end, here, we propose a simple neural network to predict beam orientation from GNSS and lidar data. Results show that using only GNSS data one can get acceptable performance for practical applications. This finding can be useful for user devices with limited processing power.
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Authors and Affiliations

Julius Ruseckas
1
Gediminas Molis
1
Hanna Bogucka
2

  1. Baltic Institute of Advanced Technology, Vilnius, Lithuania
  2. Institute of Radiocommunications, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan, Poland
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Abstract

This article is a presentation of the analysis of new class of logarithmic analog-to-digital converter (LADC) with accumulation of charge and impulse feedback. LADC construction, principle of operation and dynamic properties were presented. They can also be part of more complex converters and systems based on LADC. LADC of this class is perspective for implementation in the form of integrated circuit, as the number of switched capacitors needed to conversion is minimized to one capacitor. (Logarithmic ADC with accumulation of charge and impulse feedback – construction, principle of operation and dynamic properties)
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Bibliography

[1] S. Purighalla, B. Maundy, “84-dB Range Logarithmic Digital-to-Analog Converter in CMOS 0.18-μm Technology”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 58 (2011), no.5, pp. 279-283
[2] J. Lee, J. Kang, S. Park, J. Seo, J. Anders, J. Guilherme, M. P. Flynn, “A 2.5 mW 80 dB DR 36 dB SNDR 22 MS/s Logarithmic Pipeline ADC,” IEEE Journal Of Solid-State Circuits, 44 (2009), no.10, pp. 2755-2765
[3] B. Maundy, D. Westwick, S. Gift, “On a class of pseudo-logarithmic amplifiers suitable for use with digitally switched resistors,” Int. J. of Circuit Theory and Applications, vol. 36 (2008), no.1, pp. 81–108
[4] B. Maundy, D. Westwick, S. Gift, (2007) “A useful pseudo-logarithmic circuit,” Microelectronics International, Vol. 24 Iss: 2, pp.35 - 45
[5] M. Alirieza, L. Jing and J. Dileepan, “Digital Pixel Sensor Array with Logarithmic Delta-Sigma Architecture,” Sensors, 13(8), pp. 10765- 10782, August 2013
[6] J. Guilherme, J. Vital, Jose Franca, “A True Logarithmic Analog-to- Digital Pipeline Convener with 1.5bitistage and Digital Correction,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Electronics Circuits and Systems, pp. 393-396, Malta 2001
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[9] J. Sit and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Micropower Logarithmic A/D With Offset and Temperature Compensation,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, 39 (2004), nr. 2, pp. 308-319
[10] J. Mahattanakul, “Logarithmic data converter suitable for hearing aid applications,” Electronic Letters, 41 (2005), no.7, pp. 31-32
[11] S. Sirimasakul, A. Thanachayanont, W. Jeamsaksiri, “Low-Power Current-Mode Logarithmic Pipeline Analog-to-Digital Converter for ISFET based pH Sensor,” IEEE ISCIT, 2009, no.6/09, pp. 1340-1343
[12] M. Santosa, N. Hortaa, J. Guilherme, “A survey on nonlinear analog-todigital converters,” Integration, the VLSI Journal, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp. 12–22, January 2014
[13] Z.R. Mychuda, “Logarithmic Analog-To-Digital Converters – ADC of the Future,” Prostir, Lviv, Ukraine 2002, pp. 242
[14] A. Szcześniak, Z Myczuda, “A method of charge accumulation in the logarithmic analog-to-digital converter with a successive approximation,” Electrical Review, 86 (2010), no.10, pp. 336-340
[15] A. Szcześniak, U. Antoniw, Ł. Myczuda, Z. Myczuda, „Logarytmiczne przetworniki analogowo-cyfrowe z nagromadzeniem ładunku i impulsowym sprzężeniem zwrotnym,” Electrical Review, R. 89 no. 8/2013, pp. 277 – 281
[16] A. Szcześniak, Z. Myczuda, „Analiza prądów upływu logarytmicznego przetwornika analogowo-cyfrowego z sukcesywną aproksymacją,” Electrical Review, 88 (2012), no. 5а, pp. 247-250
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Authors and Affiliations

Zynoviy Mychuda
1
Lesya Mychuda
1
Uliana Antoniv
1
Adam Szcześniak
2

  1. Lviv Polytechnic National University, Department of the Computer-Assisted Systems of Automation, Ukraine
  2. University of Technology in Kielce, Department of Mechatronics and Machine Building, Poland
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Abstract

This article is a presentation of the analysis of new class of logarithmic analog-to-digital converter (LADC) with accumulation of charge and impulse feedback. Development of mathematical models of errors, quantitative assessment of these errors taking into account modern components and assessing the accuracy of logarithmic analog-to-digital converter (LADC) with accumulation of charge and impulse feedback were presented. (Logarithmic ADC with accumulation of charge and impulse feedback – analysis and modeling).
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Bibliography

[1] S. Purighalla, B. Maundy, “84-dB Range Logarithmic Digital-to-Analog Converter in CMOS 0.18-μm Technology,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 58 (2011), no.5, pp. 279-283
[2] J. Lee, J. Kang, S. Park, J. Seo, J. Anders, J. Guilherme, M. P. Flynn, “A 2.5 mW 80 dB DR 36 dB SNDR 22 MS/s Logarithmic Pipeline ADC,” IEEE Journal Of Solid-State Circuits, 44 (2009), no.10, pp. 2755-2765
[3] B. Maundy, D. Westwick, S. Gift, “On a class of pseudo-logarithmic amplifiers suitable for use with digitally switched resistors,” Int. J. of Circuit Theory and Applications, vol. 36 (2008), no.1, pp. 81–108
[4] B. Maundy, D. Westwick, S. Gift, (2007) “A useful pseudo-logarithmic circuit,” Microelectronics International, Vol. 24 Iss: 2, pp.35 - 45
[5] M. Alirieza, L. Jing and J. Dileepan, “Digital Pixel Sensor Array with Logarithmic Delta-Sigma Architecture,” Sensors, 13(8), pp. 10765-10782, August 2013
[6] J. Guilherme, J. Vital, Jose Franca, “A True Logarithmic Analog-to-Digital Pipeline Convener with 1.5bitistage and Digital Correction,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Electronics Circuits and Systems, pp. 393-396, Malta 2001
[7] G. Bucci, M. Faccio, C. Landi, “The performance test of a piece-linear A/D converter,” IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, St. Paul USA May 1998, pp.1223.1228
[8] J. Guilherme, J. Vital, J. Franca, “A CMOS Logarithmic Pipeline A/D Converter with a Dynamic Range of 80 dB,” IEEE Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2002. 9th International Conference on, (2002), no.3/02, pp. 193-196
[9] J. Sit and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Micropower Logarithmic A/D With Offset and Temperature Compensation,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, 39 (2004), nr. 2, pp. 308-319
[10] J. Mahattanakul, “Logarithmic data converter suitable for hearing aid applications,” Electronic Letters, 41 (2005), no.7, pp. 31-32
[11] S. Sirimasakul, A. Thanachayanont, W. Jeamsaksiri, “Low-Power Current-Mode Logarithmic Pipeline Analog-to-Digital Converter for ISFET based pH Sensor,” IEEE ISCIT, 2009, no.6/09, pp. 1340-1343
[12] M. Santosa, N. Hortaa, J. Guilherme, “A survey on nonlinear analog-to-digital converters,” Integration, the VLSI Journal, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp. 12–22, January 2014
[13] Z.R. Mychuda, “Logarithmic Analog-To-Digital Converters – ADC of the Future,” Prostir, Lviv, Ukraine 2002, pp. 242
[14] A. Szcześniak, Z Myczuda, “A method of charge accumulation in the logarithmic analog-to-digital converter with a successive approximation,” Electrical Review, 86 (2010), no.10, pp. 336-340
[15] A. Szcześniak, U. Antoniw, Ł. Myczuda, Z. Myczuda, „Logarytmiczne przetworniki analogowo-cyfrowe z nagromadzeniem ładunku i impulsowym sprzężeniem zwrotnym,” Electrical Review, R. 89 no. 8/2013, pp. 277 – 281
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Authors and Affiliations

Zynoviy Mychuda
1
Lesya Mychuda
1
Uliana Antoniv
1
Adam Szcześniak
2

  1. Lviv Polytechnic National University, Department of the Computer-Assisted Systems of Automation, Ukraine
  2. University of Technology in Kielce, Department of Mechatronics and Machine Building, Poland
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Abstract

A principle diagram of a high-voltage low-power power supply for devices comprising a microchannel plate (MCP) has been developed. A mathematical model was built according to the developed scheme for a detailed study of the operation of the power supply and the selection of the optimal parameters of its components and obtaining the best output voltages. The power supply circuit comprises a control circuit, a pulse transformer, a voltage multiplier circuit, a feedback circuit, and an input stabilizer. The input stabilizer provides the maintenance of the voltage switched in the primary winding of the transformer at a given level regardless of the voltage drop of the power supply primary source. Moreover the stabilizer provides constant voltage maintenance when the load resistance changes. (with Rload changing from 100 to 200 MΩ, Uout did not exceed 3 V).
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Authors and Affiliations

Boris Martemianov
1
Alexander Ryzhkov
1
Grigoriy Vdovin
1

  1. Limited Liability Company Vladikavkaz Technological Center "BASPIK", North Osetia
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Abstract

In this paper we construct and consider a new group-based digital signature scheme with evolving secret key, which is built using a bilinear map. This map is an asymmetric pairing of Type 3, and although, for the reason of this paper, it is treated in a completely abstract fashion it ought to be viewed as being actually defined over E(Fqn)[p] × E(Fqnk )[p] → Fqnk [p]. The crucial element of the scheme is the key updater algorithm. With the adoption of pairings and binary trees where a number of leaves is the same as a number of time periods, we are assured that an updated secret key can not be used to recover any of its predecessors. This, in consequence, means that the scheme is forward-secure. To formally justify this assertion, we conduct analysis in fu-cma security model by reducing the security of the scheme to the computational hardness of solving the Weak ℓ-th Bilinear Diffie-Hellman Inversion problem type. We define this problem and explain why it can be treated as a source of security for cryptographic schemes. As for the reduction itself, in general case, it could be possible to make only in the random oracle model.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mariusz Jurkiewicz
1

  1. Faculty of Cybernetics, Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

This paper discusses the identification of garbage using the YOLO algorithm. In the rivers, it is usually difficult to distinguish between garbage and plants, especially when it is done in real-time and at the time of too much light. Therefore, there is a need of an appropriate method. The HSV and SIFT methods were used as preliminary tests. The tests were quite successful even in close condition, however, there were still many problems faced in using this method since it is only based on pixel and shape readings. Meanwhile, YOLO algorithm was able to identify garbage and water hyacinth even though they were closed to each other.
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Authors and Affiliations

Bhakti Yudho Suprapto
1
Kelvin
1
Muhammad Arief Kurniawan
1
Muhammad Kevin Ardela
1
Hera Hikmarika
1
Zainal Husin
1
Suci Dwijayanti
1

  1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sriwijaya, Indonesia
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Abstract

Safety and security have been a prime priority in people’s lives, and having a surveillance system at home keeps people and their property more secured. In this paper, an audio surveillance system has been proposed that does both the detection and localization of the audio or sound events. The combined task of detecting and localizing the audio events is known as Sound Event Localization and Detection (SELD). The SELD in this work is executed through Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network (CRNN) architecture. CRNN is a stacked layer of convolutional neural network (CNN), recurrent neural network (RNN) and fully connected neural network (FNN). The CRNN takes multichannel audio as input, extracts features and does the detection and localization of the input audio events in parallel. The SELD results obtained by CRNN with the gated recurrent unit (GRU) and with long short-term memory (LSTM) unit are compared and discussed in this paper. The SELD results of CRNN with LSTM unit gives 75% F1 score and 82.8% frame recall for one overlapping sound. Therefore, the proposed audio surveillance system that uses LSTM unit produces better detection and overall performance for one overlapping sound.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

V. S. Suruthhi
1
V. Smita
1
Rolant Gini J.
1
K.I. Ramachandran
2

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India
  2. Centre for Computational Engineering &Networking (CEN), Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of research and analysis of voice data transmission quality in IP packet networks. It analyses mechanisms allowing for the assessment of packet telephony data transmission quality. Possible transmission quality levels and adequate quality metrics, applicable in the recommendations of standardisation organisations, as well as suggested limit values conditioning acceptable voice data transmission quality were indicated and discussed. A packet network model was designed and tested, taking into account VoIP architecture supporting various audio codecs used for voice compression. Transmission mechanisms based on audio codecs G.711, G.723, G.726, G.728 and G.729 were investigated. It was shown that for delay-sensitive traffic which fluctuates beyond its nominal rate, selected codecs have an advantage over others and allow for better transmission quality of VoIP traffic with guaranteed bandwidth and delay.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dariusz Strzęciwilk
1

  1. Institute of Information Technology, University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland

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