Applied sciences

International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications

Content

International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications | 2021 | vol. 67 | No 1 |

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Abstract

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is one common form of sleep apnea and is now tested by means of a process called Polysomnography which is time-consuming, expensive and also requires a human observer throughout the study of the subject which makes it inconvenient and new detection techniques are now being developed to overcome these difficulties. Heart rate variability has proven to be related to sleep apnea episodes and thus the features from the ECG signal can be used in the detection of sleep apnea. The proposed detection technique uses Support Vector Machines using Grid search algorithm and the classifier is trained using features based on heart rate variability derived from the ECG signal. The developed system is tested using the dataset and the results show that this classification system can recognize the disorder with an accuracy rate of 89%. Further, the use of the grid search algorithm has made this system a reliable and an accurate means for the classification of sleep apnea and can serve as a basis for the future development of its screening.
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Authors and Affiliations

K.K. Valavan
1
S. Manoj
1
S. Abishek
1
T.G. Gokull Vijay
1
A.P. Vojaswwin
1
J. Rolant Gini
1
K.I. Ramachandran
2

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India
  2. Centre for Computational Engineering & Networking (CEN), Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India
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Abstract

The Internet of Vehicles (IoVs) has become a vital research area in order to enhance passenger and road safety, increasing traffic efficiency and enhanced reliable connectivity. In this regard, for monitoring and controlling the communication between IoVs, routing protocols are deployed. Frequent changes that occur in the topology often leads to major challenges in IoVs, such as dynamic topology changes, shortest routing paths and also scalability. One of the best solutions for such challenges is “clustering”. This study focuses on IoVs’ stability and to create an efficient routing protocol in dynamic environment. In this context, we proposed a novel algorithm called Cluster-based enhanced AODV for IoVs (AODV-CD) to achieve stable and efficient clustering for simplifying routing and ensuring quality of service (QoS). Our proposed protocol enhances the overall network throughput and delivery ratio, with less routing load and less delay compared to AODV. Thus, extensive simulations are carried out in SUMO and NS2 for evaluating the efficiency of the AODV-CD that is superior to the classic AODV and other recent modified AODV algorithms.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sahar Ebadinezhad
1

  1. Department of Computer Information System, Near East University. Nicosia TRNC, Mersin 10, Turkey
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Abstract

The method of cleaning the ISFET structures after application of a biological substance was developed. There are few references in the literature to cleaning methods of this type of structure for biological applications, but they are relatively complex and difficult to automate. We decided to use resources commonly available in technological laboratories and methods that could be relatively easily automated, which would enable the full potential of ISFET transistors to be used. During the experiments, both acetone and deionized water were tested. The cleaning method was modified and it was checked whether it is possible to use such a method on one transistor more than once and how it affects the transistor's detection capabilities. We managed to obtain an effective method of cleaning ISFETs from biological substances. This method does not allow for obtaining exactly the same state as the original state of the transistor, but it ensures its correct operation and determining the influence of the tested biological substance on the transistor based on the results.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kinga Kondracka
1
Piotr Firek
1
Marta Grodzik
2
Maciej Szmidt
2
Ewa Sawosz–Chwalibóg
2
Jan Szmidt
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

In this research work, a Cylindrical Surrounding Double-Gate (CSDG) MOSFET design in a stacked-Dual Metal Gate (DMG) architecture has been proposed to incorporate the ability of gate metal variation in channel field formation. Further, the internal gate's threshold voltage (VTH1) could be reduced compared to the external gate (VTH2) by arranging the gate metal work-function in Double Gate devices. Therefore, a device design of CSDG MOSFET has been realized to instigate the effect of Dual Metal Gate (DMG) stack architecture in the CSDG device. The comparison of device simulation shown optimized electric field and surface potential profile. The gradual decrease of metal work function towards the drain also improves the Drain Induced Barrier Lowering (DIBL) and subthreshold characteristics. The physics-based analysis of gate stack CSDG MOSFET that operates in saturation involving the analogy of cylindrical dual metal gates has been considered to evaluate the performance improvements. The insights obtained from the results using the gate-stack dual metal structure of CSDG are quite promising, which can serve as a guide to further reduce the threshold voltage roll-off, suppress the Hot Carrier Effects (HCEs) and Short Channel Effects (SCEs).
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Authors and Affiliations

Abha Dargar
1
Viranjay M. Srivastava
1

  1. Department of Electronic Engineering, Howard College, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041, South Africa
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Abstract

Software vulnerability life cycles illustrate changes in detection processes of software vulnerabilities during using computer systems. Unfortunately, the detection can be made by cyber-adversaries and a discovered software vulnerability may be consequently exploited for their own purpose. The vulnerability may be exploited by cyber-criminals at any time while it is not patched. Cyber-attacks on organizations by exploring vulnerabilities are usually conducted through the processes divided into many stages. These cyber-attack processes in literature are called cyber-attack live cycles or cyber kill chains. The both type of cycles have their research reflection in literature but so far, they have been separately considered and modeled. This work addresses this deficiency by proposing a Markov model which combine a cyber-attack life cycle with an idea of software vulnerability life cycles. For modeling is applied homogeneous continuous time Markov chain theory.
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Authors and Affiliations

Romuald Hoffmann
1

  1. Institute of Computer and Information Systems, Faculty of Cybernetics, Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

In this article the author makes an attempt to characterize the main factor – mobility – which is to be taken into consideration while designing the ground radar component (passive and active radars) of the Air Defense systems in order to enable them to operate on the contemporary battlefield. He presents the latest theoretical views on the relationship between the usage of anti-radiation missiles and the mobility of the passive and active radars as the key ability to protect them against such weapons. In particular the author emphasizes that the antiradiation missiles present nowadays the biggest threat for the effective Air Defense systems, which are today characterized by a high complexity degree. He also stresses the need to combine the radars, both passive and active, into one system allowing for the streamlining of their work parameters and thus ensuring their complex usage. The gaining of those capabilities shall guarantee that the parameters of the air surveillance radar area can be defined effectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Stanisław Czeszejko
1

  1. General Command Polish Armed Forces, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents an original architecture and implementation of 9-bit Linearized Pulse Width Modulator (LPWM) for Class-BD amplifier, based on the hybrid method using STM32 microcontroller and Programmable Tapped Delay Line (PTDL). The analog input signals are converted into 12-bit PCM signals, then are directly transformed into 32-bit LBDD DPWM data of the pulse-edge locations within n-th period of the switching frequency, next requantized to the 9-bit digital outputs, and finally converted into the two physical trains of 1-bit PWM signals, to control the output stage of the Class-BD audio amplifier. The hybrid 9-bit quantizer converts 6 MSB bits using counter method, based on the peripherals of STM32 microcontroller, while the remaining 3 LSB bits - using a method based on the PTDL. In the paper extensive verification of algorithm and circuit operation as well as simulation in MATLAB and experimental results of the proposed 9-bit hybrid LBDD DPWM circuit have been performed. It allows to attain SNR of 80 dB and THD about 0,3% within the audio baseband.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Kołodziejski
1
Stanisław W. Kuta
1

  1. University of Applied Sciences in Tarnow, Poland
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Abstract

The paper discusses the characteristics of spatial electromagnetic noise generators, as well as the formation of a broadband noise signal. A number of well-known methods for assessing the quality of masking noise interference and the approaches used in them have been described. Approaches to the measurement of masking noise were also determined in assessing their quality. In conclusion, additional methods are proposed for assessing the quality of masking noises, such as searching for correlation of noise in different frequency sub-bands and using statistical and (or) graphical methods (tests) for randomness.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nurzhigit Smailov
1
Askhat Batyrgaliyev
1
Ainur Akhmediyarova
2
Nurgul Seilova
1
Madina Koshkinbayeva
3
Moldir Baigulbayeva
4
Ryszard Romaniuk
5
Maxat Orunbekov
6
Kabdoldina Assem
4
Andrzej Kotyra
7

  1. Satpayev University, 050000 Almaty, Kazakhstan
  2. Institute of Information and Computational Technology, 050010 Almaty, Kazakhstan
  3. Miras University, 160012 Shymkent, Kazakhstan
  4. Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 050040 Almaty, Kazakhstan
  5. Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
  6. Kazakh Academy of Transport and Communications named after M.Tynyshpayev, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  7. Lublin University of Technology, Lublin, Poland
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Abstract

The article herein presents a new technique of controlling the system of collecting, storing and processing the information from the solar collectors, which might be applied to heating the industrial and domestic compartments for hot water supply. The most profitable usage of the solar collectors in the industry is replacement of a human interference with wireless sensor nets. The solar collector standard system consumes in average 30% of the heat due to poor control and configuration. Our monitoring and control system allows upgrade the performance of heating the industrial and domestic premises by means of solar collector for hot water supply.
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Authors and Affiliations

Waldemar Wojcik
1
Yedilhan Amirgaliyev
2
Murat Kunelbayev
2
Aliya Kalizhanova
2
Ainur Kozbakova
2
Talgat Sundetov
Didar Yedilkhan
3

  1. Lublin Technical University, Poland
  2. Institute of Information and Computational Technologies CS MES RK, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
  3. Institute of Information and Computational Technologies CS MES RK, Astana IT University
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Abstract

A new model of ideal signal sampling operation is developed in this paper. This model does not use the Dirac comb in an analytical description of sampled signals in the continuous time domain. Instead, it utilizes functions of a continuous time variable, which are introduced in this paper: a basic Kronecker time function and a Kronecker comb (that exploits the first of them). But, a basic principle behind this model remains the same; that is it is also a multiplier which multiplies a signal of a continuous time by a comb. Using a concept of a signal object (or utilizing equivalent arguments) presented elsewhere, it has been possible to find a correct expression describing the spectrum of a sampled signal so modelled. Moreover, the analysis of this expression showed that aliases and folding effects cannot occur in the sampled signal spectrum, provided that the signal sampling is performed ideally.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Borys
1

  1. Department of Marine Telecommunications, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia, Poland
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Abstract

In this paper, it has been shown that the spectrum aliasing and folding effects occur only in the case of non-ideal signal sampling. When the duration of the signal sampling is equal to zero, these effects do not occur at all. In other words, the absolutely necessary condition for their occurrence is just a nonzero value of this time. Periodicity of the sampling process plays a secondary role.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Borys
1

  1. Department of Marine Telecommunications, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia, Poland
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Abstract

In nuclear facilities, the reading of the sensors is very important in the assessments of the system state. The existence of an abnormal state could be caused by a failure in the sensor itself instead of a failure in the system. So, being unable to identify the main cause of the “abnormal state” and take proper actions may end in unnecessary shutdown for the nuclear facility that may have expensive economic consequences. That is why, it is extremely important for a supervision and control system to identify the case where the failure in the sensor is the main cause for the existence of an abnormal state. In this paper, a system based on a wireless sensor network is proposed to monitor the radiation levels around and inside a nuclear facility. A new approach for validating the sensor readings is proposed and investigated using the Castalia simulator.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohamed Yehia Habash
1
Nabil Mohamed Abd Elfatah Ayad
1
Abd Elhady Abd Elazim Ammar
2

  1. Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt
  2. Electrical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Al azhar University, Egypt
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Abstract

Beamforming training (BT) is considered as an essential process to accomplish the communications in the millimeter wave (mmWave) band, i.e., 30 ~ 300 GHz. This process aims to find out the best transmit/receive antenna beams to compensate the impairments of the mmWave channel and successfully establish the mmWave link. Typically, the mmWave BT process is highly-time consuming affecting the overall throughput and energy consumption of the mmWave link establishment. In this paper, a machine learning (ML) approach, specifically reinforcement learning (RL), is utilized for enabling the mmWave BT process by modeling it as a multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem with the aim of maximizing the long-term throughput of the constructed mmWave link. Based on this formulation, MAB algorithms such as upper confidence bound (UCB), Thompson sampling (TS), epsilon-greedy (e-greedy), are utilized to address the problem and accomplish the mmWave BT process. Numerical simulations confirm the superior performance of the proposed MAB approach over the existing mmWave BT techniques.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ehab Mahmoud Mohamed
1 2

  1. Electrical Engineering Dept., College of Engineering, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Wadi Aldwaser 11991, Saudi Arabia
  2. Electrical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering Aswan University, Aswan 81542, Egypt
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Abstract

A novel approach to a trigger mode in the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector readout system is presented. The system is already installed at WEST tokamak. The article briefly describes the architecture of the GEM detector and the measurement system. Currently the system can work in two trigger modes: Global Trigger and Local Trigger. All trigger processing blocks are parts of the Charge Signal Sequencer module which is responsible for transferring data to the PC. Therefore, the article presents structure of the Sequencer with details about basic blocks, theirs functionality and output data configuration. The Sequencer with the trigger algorithms is implemented in an FPGA chip from Xilinx. Global Trigger, which is a default mode for the system, is not efficient and has limitations due to storing much data without any information. Local trigger which is under tests, removes data redundancy and is constructed to send only valid data, but the rest of the software, especially on the PC side, is still under development. Therefore authors propose the trigger mode which combines functionality of two existing modes. The proposed trigger, called Zero Suppression Trigger, is compatible with the existing interfaces of the PC software, but is also capable to verify and filter incoming signals and transfer only recognized events. The results of the implementation and simulation are presented.
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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Kolasinski
1
Krzysztof Pozniak
1
Andrzej Wojenski
1
Paweł Linczuk
2
Rafał Krawczyk
1 3
Michał Gaska
1
Wojciech Zabolotny
1
Grzegorz Kasprowicz
1
Maryna Chernyshova
4
Tomasz Czarski
4

  1. Institute of Electronic Systems, Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
  2. Institute of Electronic Systems, Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
  3. CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  4. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The validation of the measurements quality after on-site diagnostic system installation is necessary in order to provide reliable data and output results. This topic is often neglected or not discussed in detail regarding measurement systems. In the paper recently installed system for soft X-ray measurements is described in introduction. The system is based on multichannel GEM detector and the data is collected and sent in special format to PC unit for further postprocessing. The unique feature of the system is the ability to compute final data based on raw data only. The raw data is selected upon algorithms by FPGA units. The FPGAs are connected to the analog frontend of the system and able to register all of the signals and collect the useful data. The interface used for data streaming is PCIe Gen2 x4 for each FPGA, therefore high throughput of the system is ensured. The paper then discusses the properties of the installation environment of the system and basic functionality mode. New features are described, both in theoretical and practical approach. New modes correspond to the data quality monitoring features implemented for the system, that provide extra information to the postprocessing stage and final algorithms. In the article is described also additional mode to perform hardware simulation of signals in a tokamak-like environment using FPGAs. The summary describes the implemented features of the data quality monitoring features and additional modes of the system.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Wojenski
1
Paweł Linczuk
1
Piotr Kolasinski
1
Maryna Chernyshova
2
Didier Mazon
3
Grzegorz Kasprowicz
1
Krzysztof T. Pozniak
1
Michał Gaska
1
Tomasz Czarski
2
Rafał Krawczyk
1 4

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronics Systems, Poland
  2. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw, Poland
  3. CEA, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France
  4. CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
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Abstract

The paper presents improvements of the developed system for hot plasma radiation measurement in the soft Xray range based on a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector. Scope of work consists of a new solution for handling hardware time-synchronization with tokamak systems needed for better synchronization with other diagnostics and measurement quality. The paper describes the support of new modes of triggering on PC-side. There are communication and data path overview in the system. The new API is described, which provide separate channels for data and control and is more robust than the earlier solution. Work concentrates on stability and usability improvements of the implemented device providing better usage for end-user.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Linczuk
1
Andrzej Wojenski
2
Piotr Kolasinski
2
Rafał Krawczyk
2 3
Wojciech Zabolotny
2
Krzysztof Pozniak
2
Maryna Chernyshova
4
Tomasz Czarski
4
Michał Gaska
2
Grzegorz Kasprowicz
2
Karol Malinowski
4

  1. Institute of Electronic Systems, Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
  2. Institute of Electronic Systems, Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
  3. CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  4. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The aim of the work is to present the method for designing sparse FIR filters with very low group delay and approximately linear-phase in the passband. Significant reduction of the group delay, e.g. several times in relation to the linear phase filter, may cause the occurrence of undesirable overshoot in the magnitude frequency response. The method proposed in this work consists of two stages. In the first stage, FIR filter with low group delay is designed using minimax constrained optimization that provides overshoot elimination. In the second stage, the same process is applied iteratively to reach sparse solution. Design examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Konopacki
1

  1. Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Sciences, Silesian University of Technology
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Abstract

This paper represents a developed cryptographic information protection algorithm based on a substitutionpermutation network. We describe the cryptographic transformations used in the developed algorithm. One of the features of the algorithm is the simplicity of its modification with regard to different security levels. The algorithm uses a predeveloped S-box tested against differential and linear cryptanalysis. The S-box is consistent with one of the known standards AES and GOST R 34.12-2015. We provide the findings of an avalanche-effect investigation and statistical properties of ciphertexts. The algorithm actually meets the avalanche-effect criterion even after the first round.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rustem G. Biyashev
1
Nursulu A. Kapalova
1
Dilmuhanbet S. Dyusenbayev
1
Kunbolat T. Algazy
1
Waldemar Wojcik
2
Andrzej Smolarz
2

  1. Institute of Information and Computational Technologies of the Committee of Science of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty
  2. Lublin University of Technology, Lublin, Poland
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Abstract

On the basis of a unipolar corona discharge, a method of non-contact and continuous measurement of linear parameters of thin and ultra-thin dielectric fibres and optical fibres (10 to 125 microns) in the process of their manufacture was developed. The measurement method differs from the commonly known methods by high accuracy and reliability of measurement and resistance to changes in the electrical characteristics of the discharge gap and the state of ambient air.
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Authors and Affiliations

Aliya S. Tergeussizova
1
Shabden A. Bakhtaev
2
Waldemar Wojcik
3
Ryszard Romaniuk
4
Bekmurza H. Aitchanov
5
Gulzada D. Mussapirova
2
Aynur Zh. Toygozhinova
6

  1. Kazakh National University named after al-Farabi, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  2. Almaty University of Power Engineering and Telecommunications, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  3. Lublin Technical University, Poland
  4. Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
  5. Suleyman Demirel University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  6. Kazakh Academy of Transport and Communications named after M.Tynyshpayev, Almaty, Kazakhstan

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