Nauki Techniczne

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Zawartość

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2021 | vol. 28 | No 1 |

Abstrakt

Whatever the type of surgery related to inner organs, traditional or robotic, the contact with them during surgery is a key moment for pursuing the intervention. Contacts by means of surgery instruments namely scalpels, staples, clamps, graspers, etc. are decisive moments. False, and erroneous touching and manoeuvring of organs operated on can cause irreversible damage as regard morphological aspects (outer impact) and physiological aspects (inner impact). The topic is a great challenge in the effort to measure and characterize damages. In general, electrical instruments for surgery employ the following technologies: ultrasound, radiofrequency (monopolar, and bipolar), and laser. They all result in thermal damages difficult to evaluate. The article proposes a method for a pre-screening of organ features during robotic surgery sessions by pointing out mechanical and thermal stresses. A dedicated modelling has been developed based on experimental activities during surgery session. The idea is to model tissue behaviour from real images to help surgeons to be aware of handling during surgery. This is the first step for generalization by considering the type of organ. The measurement acquisitions have been performed by means of an advanced external camera located over the surgery quadrant. The modelling and testing have been carried out on kidneys. The modelling, carried out through Comsol Multiphysics, is based on the bioheat approach. A further comparative technique has been implemented. It is based on computer vision for robotics. The findings of human tissue behavior exhibit reliable results.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Aimé Lay-Ekuakille
1
Moise Avoci Ugwiri
2
Consolatina Liguori
2
Satya P. Singh
3
Md Zia Uhr Rahman
4
Domenico Veneziano
5

  1. University of Salento, Department of Innovation Engineering, Via Monteroni sn, 73100 Lecce, Italy
  2. University of Salerno, Department of Industrial Engineering, Via Giovanni Paolo II n.132, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
  3. Nanyang Technological University, School of Computer Science and Engineering, 50 Nangyang Ave, Singapore 639798
  4. K L University, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Green Fields, Vaddeswaram, Guntur-522502, India
  5. Asl Reggio Calabria, Hospital “Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli”, Via Giuseppe Melacrino n.21, 89124 Reggio Calabria, Italy

Abstrakt

Falls are one of the leading causes of disability and premature death among the elderly. Technical solutions designed to automatically detect a fall event may mitigate fall-related health consequences by immediate medical assistance. This paper presents a wearable device called TTXFD based on MPU6050 which can collect triaxial acceleration signals. We have also designed a two-step fall detection algorithm that fuses threshold-based method (TBM) and machine learning (ML). The TTXFD exploits the TBM stage with low computational complexity to pick out and transmit suspected fall data (triaxial acceleration data). The ML stage of the two-step algorithm is implemented on a server which encodes the data into an image and exploits a fall detection algorithm based on convolutional neural network to identify a fall on the basis of the image. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves high sensitivity (97.83%), specificity (96.64%) and accuracy (97.02%) on the open dataset. In conclusion, this paper proposes a reliable solution for fall detection, which combines the advantages of threshold-based method and machine learning technology to reduce power consumption and improve classification ability.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tao Xu
1
Haifeng Se
1
Jiahui Liu
1

  1. Shenyang Aerospace University, School of Automation, Shenbei New District, Shenyang, China

Abstrakt

This paper presents a method of optical fluorescence analysis for the evaluation of homogeneity of multicomponent grain mixtures. This method is based on the evaluation of the content of fluorescent marker. Maize with two degrees of fineness d1 = 1:25 mm and d2 = 2:00 mm was used as a tracer. Maize was covered with Rhodamine B, which emits red light under the influence of ultraviolet radiation. The tracer was introduced into the mixture before the mixing process began. Nine multicomponent grain mixtures were used. The proportion of fluorescent maize was evaluated on the basis of computer image analysis. Additionally, the fraction of the tracer was evaluated using a control method (validation of the accuracy of the proposed method). The results indicate that the degree of the tracer’s fineness influences the results obtained. The use of fluorescent maize with particle size d2 = 2:00 mm allowed to obtain results which differed less from the control method. The average size of the difference in results ranged from 0.20–0.38 for the 2.00 mm tracer and 0.38–1.34 for the 1.25 mm tracer.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Dominika B. Matuszek
1
Jolanta B. Królczyk
2

  1. Opole University of Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering and Logistics, Department of Biosystems Engineering and Chemical Processes, Mikolajczyka 5, 45-271 Opole, Poland
  2. Opole University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, Mikolajczyka 5, 45-271 Opole, Poland

Abstrakt

In order to find the defects in ferromagnetic materials, a non-contact harmonic detection method is proposed. According to the principle of frequency modulated carrier wave, a tunnel magneto resistance harmonic focusing vector array detector was designed which radiates lower and higher frequency electromagnetic waves through the coil array to the detection targets. We use bistable stochastic resonance to enhance the energy of collected weak target signal and apply quantum computation and a Sobol low deviation sequence to improve genetic algorithm performance. Then we use the orthogonal phase-locked loop to eliminate the intrinsic background excitation field and tensor calculations to fuse the vector array signal. The finite element model of array detector and the magnetic dipole harmonic numerical model were also established. The simulation results show that the target signal can be identified effectively, its focusing performance is improved by 2 times, and the average signal-to-noise ratio is improved by 9.6 times after the algorithm processing. For the experiments, we take Q235 steel pipeline as the object to realize the recognition of three defects. Compared with the traditional methods, the proposed method is more effective for ferromagnetic materials defects detection.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yizhen Zhao
1
Xinhua Wang
1
Yingchun Chen
1
Haiyang Ju
1
Yi Shuai
1

  1. Beijing University of Technology, College of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Electronics Technology, 100 Ping Le Yuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100124, China

Abstrakt

A film stress measurement system applicable for hyperbaric environment was developed to characterize stress evolution in a physical simulation test of a gas-solid coupling geological disaster. It consists of flexible film pressure sensors, a signal conversion module, and a highly-integrated acquisition box which can perform synchronous and rapid acquisition of 1 kHz test data. Meanwhile, we adopted a feasible sealing technology and protection method to improve the survival rate of the sensors and the success rate of the test, which can ensure the accuracy of the test results. The stress measurement system performed well in a large-scale simulation test of coal and gas outburst that reproduced the outburst in the laboratory. The stress evolution of surrounding rock in front of the heading is completely recorded in a successful simulation of the outburst which is consistent with the previous empirical and theoretical analysis. The experiment verifies the feasibility of the stress measurement system as well as the sealing technology, laying a foundation for the physical simulation test of gas-solid coupled geological disasters.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Zhong-Zhong Liu
1 2
Han-Peng Wang
1 2
Liang Yuan
3
Wei Wang
1 2
Chong Zhang
1 2
Yang Xue
1 2

  1. Shandong University, Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Research Centre, Jinan 250061, Shandong, China
  2. Shandong University, School of Qilu Transportation, Jinan 250061, Shandong, China
  3. Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001, Anhui, China

Abstrakt

Active thermography is an efficient tool for defect detection and characterization as it does not change the properties of tested materials. The detection and characterization process involves heating a sample and then analysing the thermal response. In this paper, a long heating pulse was used on samples with a low thermal diffusivity and artificially created holes of various depths. As a result of the experiments, heating and cooling curves were obtained. These curves, which describe local characteristics of the material, are recognized using a classification tree and divided into categories depending on the material thickness (hole depths). Two advantages of the proposed use of classification trees are: an in-built mechanism for feature selection and a strong reduction in the dimensions of the pattern. Based on the experimental study, it can be concluded that classification trees are a useful tool for the thinning detection of homogeneous material.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Sebastian Dudzik
1
Grzegorz Dudek
1

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Al. Armii Krajowej 17, 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland

Abstrakt

In this paper a new method of frequency jumps detection in data from atomic clock comparisons is proposed. The presented approach is based on histogram analysis for different time intervals averaging phasetime data recorded over a certain period of time. Our method allows identification of multiple frequency jumps for long data series as well to almost real-time jump detection in combination with advanced filtering. Several methods of preliminary data processing have been tested (simple averaging, moving average and Vondrak filtration), to achieve flexibility in adjusting the algorithm parameters for current needs which is the key to its use in determining ensemble time scale or to control systems of physical time scales, such as UTC(PL). The best results have been achieved with the Vondrak filter.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Michał Marszalec
1
Marzenna Lusawa
1
Tomasz Osuch
1 2

  1. National Institute of Telecommunications, Szachowa 1, 94-894 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland

Abstrakt

High-speed serial standards are rapidly developing, and with a requirement for effective compliance and characterization measurement methods. Jitter decomposition consists in troubleshooting steps based on jitter components from decomposition results. In order to verify algorithms with different deterministic jitter (DJ) in actual circuits, jitter generation model by cross-point calibration and timing modulation for jitter decomposition is presented in this paper. The generated jitter is pre-processed by cross-point calibration which improves the accuracy of jitter generation. Precisely controllable DJ and random jitter (RJ) are generated by timing modulation such as data-dependent jitter (DDJ), duty cycle distortion (DCD), bounded uncorrelated jitter (BUJ), and period jitter (PJ). The benefit of the cross-point calibration was verified by comparing generation of controllable jitter with and without cross-point calibration. The accuracy and advantage of the proposed method were demonstrated by comparing with the method of jitter generation by analog modulation. Then, the validity of the proposed method was demonstrated by hardware experiments where the jitter frequency had an accuracy of 20 ppm, the jitter amplitude ranged from 10 ps to 8.33 ns, a step of 2 ps or 10 ps, and jitter amplitude was independent of jitter frequency and data rate.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Nan Ren
1
Zaiming Fu
1
Shengcun Lei
1
Hanglin Liu
1
Shulin Tian
1

  1. University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Automation Engineering, Chengdu 611731, China

Abstrakt

Liquid-gas flows in pipelines appear in many industrial processes, e.g. in the nuclear, mining, and oil industry. The gamma-absorption technique is one of the methods that can be successfully applied to study such flows. This paper presents the use of the gamma-absorption method to determine the water-air flow parameters in a horizontal pipeline. Three flow types were studied in this work: plug, transitional plug-bubble, and bubble one. In the research, a radiometric set consisting of two Am-241 sources and two NaI(TI) scintillation detectors have been applied. Based on the analysis of the signals from both scintillation detectors, the gas phase velocity was calculated using the cross-correlation method (CCM). The signal from one detector was used to determine the void fraction and to recognise the flow regime. In the latter case, a Multi-Layer Perceptron-type artificial neural network (ANN) was applied. To reduce the number of signal features, the principal component analysis (PCA) was used. The expanded uncertainties of gas velocity and void fraction obtained for the flow types studied in this paper did not exceed 4.3% and 7.4% respectively. All three types of analyzed flows were recognised with 100% accuracy. Results of the experiments confirm the usefulness of the gamma-ray absorption method in combination with radiometric signal analysis by CCM and ANN with PCA for comprehensive analysis of liquid-gas flow in the pipeline.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Robert Hanus
1
Marcin Zych
2
Volodymyr Mosorov
3
Anna Golijanek-Jędrzejczyk
4
Marek Jaszczur
5
Artur Andruszkiewicz
6

  1. Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Powstanców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
  2. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  3. Łódz University of Technology, Institute of Applied Computer Science, Zeromskiego 116, 90-537 Łódz, Poland
  4. Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
  5. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  6. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland

Abstrakt

Low-cost Micro-Electromechanical System (MEMS) gyroscopes are known to have a smaller size, lower weight, and less power consumption than their more technologically advanced counterparts. However, current low-grade MEMS gyroscopes have poor performance and cannot compete with quality sensors in high accuracy navigational and guidance applications. The main focus of this paper is to investigate performance improvements by fusing multiple homogeneous MEMS gyroscopes. These gyros are transformed into a virtual gyro using a feedback weighted fusion algorithm with dynamic sensor bias correction. The gyroscope array combines eight homogeneous gyroscope units on each axis and divides them into two layers of differential configuration. The algorithm uses the gyroscope array estimation value to remove the gyroscope bias and then correct the gyroscope array measurement value. Then the gyroscope variance is recalculated in real time according to the revised measurement value and the weighted coefficients and state estimation of each gyroscope are deduced according to the least square principle. The simulations and experiments showed that the proposed algorithm could further reduce the drift and improve the overall accuracy beyond the performance limitations of individual gyroscopes. The maximum cumulative angle error was - 2:09 degrees after 2000 seconds in the static test, and the standard deviation (STD) of the output fusion value of the proposed algorithm was 0.006 degrees/s in the dynamic test, which was only 1.7% of the STD value of an individual gyroscope.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ding Yuan
1
Yongyuan Qin
1
Xiaowei Shen
2
Zongwei Wu
2

  1. School of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710129, China
  2. Xi’an Research Institute of High Technology, Hongqing Town, Xi’an 710025, China

Abstrakt

Angle calibrations are widely used in various fields of science and technology, while in the high-precision angle calibrations, a complete closure method which is complex and time-consuming is common. Therefore, in order to improve the measurement efficiency and maintain the accuracy of the complete closure method, an improved calibration method was proposed and verified by the calibration of a high-precision angle comparator with sub-arc-second level. Firstly, a basic principle and algorithm of angle calibration based on complete closure and symmetry connection theory was studied. Then, depending on the pre-established calibration system, the comparator was respectively calibrated by two calibration methods. Finally, by comparing En values of two calibration results, the effectiveness of the improved method was verified. The calibration results show that the angle comparator has a stable angle position error of 0:1700 and a measurement uncertainty of 0:0500 (k = 2). Through method comparisons, it was shown that the improved calibration method can greatly reduce calibration time and improve the calibration efficiency while ensuring the calibration accuracy, and with the decrease of measurement interval, the improvement of calibration efficiency was more obvious.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yangqiu Xia
1 2 3
Zhilin Wu
1
Ming Huang
2
Xingbao Liu
2 3
Liang Mi
2 3
Qiang Tang
2 3

  1. Nanjing University of Science & Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing, China
  2. Institute of Machinery Manufacturing Technology, CAEP, Mianyang, China
  3. National Machine Tool Production Quality Supervision Testing Center (Sichuan), Chengdu, China

Abstrakt

In recent years, assessing supply system impedance has become crucial due to the concerns on power quality and the proliferation of distributed generators. In this paper, a novel method is shown for passive measurement of system impedances using the gapless waveform data collected by a portable power quality monitoring device. This method improves the overall measurement accuracy through data regrouping. Compared with the traditional methods that use the consecutive measurement data directly, the proposed method regroups the data to find better candidates with less flotation on the system side. Simulation studies and extensive field tests have been conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results indicate that the proposed method can serve as a useful tool for impedance measurement tasks performed by utility companies.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Shuangting Xu
1
Xianyong Xiao
1
Yang Wang
1
Jun Wu
2

  1. Sichuan University, The College of Electrical and Engineering, Chengdu 610065, China
  2. Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Zhejiang Electric Power Company, Hangzhou 310014, China

Instrukcja dla autorów

Sample article with Author guidelines

Types of contributions
Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:
• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation
General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).
The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.

Figures
Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.

Equation
All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).

References
The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.

Journal

Publisher

ISSN

Metrologia

IOP Publishing

0026-1394

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

IEEE

0018-9456

Measurement

Elsevier

0263-2241

Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing

0957-0233

Metrology and Measurement Systems

PAS

0860-8229

Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing

0034-6748

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE

1557-9948

IET Science, Measurement & Technology

IET

1751-8822

Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing

1748-0221

Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter

1335-8871

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine

IEEE

1094-6969

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

PAS

2300-1917

Opto-Electronics Review

PAS

1896-3757

IEEE Sensors Journal

IEEE

1558-1748

Sensors

MDPI

1424-8220



References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.

Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: metrology@wat.edu.pl. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.

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