Nauki Techniczne

Opto-Electronics Review


Opto-Electronics Review | 2022 | 30 | 4

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The paper presents a design and performance analysis of a photosensor device enabling the measurement of the visible light illuminance. The sensor is designed for use in the light metering matrix of a mobile measurement platform allowing the correct operation of in-pavement airport lamps. This kind of control can be required by regulations and must meet the standards defined by the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). An important assumption of the solution was to obtain the highest possible speed of a measurement acquisition so that the control process would take place in a relatively short time. The proposed module concept is dedicated to the task of testing the quality of airport lamps, due to the characteristics of the photosensitive elements matching the light beams emitted by luminaries. The device is based on a VTP1220FBH photodiode and an ATmega328P microcontroller, which, in addition to the analogue-to-digital conversion and correction, sends the results back to the master unit via the I 2C bus.
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  4. Suder, J., Podbucki, K., Marciniak, T. & Dąbrowski, A. Spectrum sensors for detecting type of airport lamps in a light photometry system. Opto-Electron. Rev. 29, 133–140 (2021).
  5. Suder, J., Podbucki, K., Marciniak, T. & Dąbrowski, A. Low complexity lane detection methods for light photometry system. Electronics 10, 1665 (2021).
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  7. Krac, E. & Górecki, K. Wpływ kąta padania światła na wartości natężenia oświetlenia zmierzone za pomocą czujników fotometry-cznych (Influence of the angle of incidence of light on the values of illuminance measureg with photodetectors). Przegląd Elektro-techniczny 97, 214–217 (2021). (in Polish)
  8. Sitompul, D. D., Surya, F. E., Suhandi, F. P. & Zakaria, H. Runway Edge Light Photometry System by Using Drone-Mounted Instrument. in International Symposium on Electronics and Smart Devices (ISESD) 1–5 (2019).
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Kacper Podbucki
Jakub Suder
Tomasz Marciniak
Wojciech Mańczak
Adam Dąbrowski

  1. Division of Signal Processing and Electronic Systems, Institute of Automatic Control and Robotics, Poznan University of Technology, 5 M. Skłodowska-Curie Sq., 60-965 Poznań, Poland
  2. Faculty of Computing and Telecommunications, Poznan University of Technology, 5 M. Skłodowska-Curie Sq., 60-965 Poznań, Poland
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In this work the influence of the cavity parameters on optical losses of a simple intensity-based in-line refractive index sensor utilizing a micromachined side-hole fibre was studied by means of numerical simulations. To perform these simulations, the Authors used the finite-difference time-domain method. The proposed sensor setup consists of light source, micromachined optical fibre as a sensor head, and a detector which makes it low-cost and easy to build. The changes of the external refractive index can be, therefore, recovered by direct measurements of the transmitted intensity from which insertion loss values can be calculated. By changing geometry of the cavity micromachined into the side-hole optical fibre, it was possible to determine its influence on the final sensor sensitivity and measurements range. Based on the provided analysis of simulations results, a simple fibre optic sensor can be fabricated mainly for sensing external liquids refractive index for application in biochemistry or healthcare.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Michał Dudek
Kinga.K. Köllő

  1. Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 2 gen. S. Kaliskiego St., 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
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The presented research shows that commercially available graphene on quartz modified with rhenium oxide meets the requirements for its use as a conductive and transparent anode in optoelectronic devices. The cluster growth of rhenium oxide enables an increase in the work function of graphene by 1.3 eV up to 5.2 eV, which guarantees an appropriate adjustment to the energy levels of organic semiconductors used in organic light-emitting diode devices.
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  3. Naghdi, S., Sanchez-Arriaga, G. & Rhee, K. Y. . Tuning the work function of graphene toward application as anode and cathode. Alloys Compd. 805, 1117–1134 (2019).
  4. Adetayo, A. E., Ahmed, T. N., Zakhidov, A. & Beall, G. W. Improvements of organic light-emitting diodes using graphene as an emerging and efficient transparent conducting electrode material. Opt. Mat. 9, 2002102 (2021).
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  8. Kowalczyk, D. A. et al. Local electronic structure of stable mono-layers of α-MoO3−x grown on graphite substrate. 2D Mat. 8, 025005 (2021).
  9. Kowalczyk, P. J. et al. Flexible photovoltaic cells based on two-dimensional materials and their hybrids. Przeglad Elektrotechniczny 98, 117–120 (2022). (in Polish)
  10. Kowalczyk, D. A. et al. Two-dimensional crystals as a buffer layer for high work function applications: the case of monolayer MoO3. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 14, 44506–44515 (2022).
  11. Lei, Y. et al. Graphene and beyond: recent advances in two-dimensional materials synthesis, properties, and devices. ACS Nanosci. Au (2022).
  12. Pabianek, K. et al. Interactions of Ti and its oxides with selected surfaces: Si(100), HOPG(0001) and graphene/4H-SiC(0001). Coat. Technol. 397, 126033 (2020).
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  14. Miao, Y. et al. Small-size graphene oxide (GO) as a hole injection layer for high-performance green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. Mater. Chem. C 9, 12408–12419 (2021).
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  17. Huet, B. & Raskin, J. P. Role of the Cu substrate in the growth of ultra-flat crack-free highly-crystalline single-layer graphene. Nanoscale 10, 21898–21909 (2018).
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Paweł Krukowski
Michał Piskorski
Ruslana Udovytska
Dorota A. Kowalczyk
Iaroslav Lutsyk
Maciej Rogala
Paweł Dąbrowski
Witold Kozłowski
Beata Łuszczyńska
Jarosław Jung
Jacek Ulański
Krzysztof Matuszek
Aleksandra Nadolska
Przemysław Przybysz
Wojciech Ryś
Klaudia Toczek
Rafał Dunal
Patryk Krempiński
Justyna Czerwińska
Maxime Le Ster
Marcin Skulimowski
Paweł J. Kowalczyk

  1. Department of Solid State Physics (member of National Photovoltaic Laboratory, Poland), Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, 149/153 Pomorska St., 90–236 Łódź, Poland
  2. Department of Molecular Physics (member of National Photovoltaic Laboratory, Poland), Lodz University of Technology, 116 Żeromskiego St., 90– 924 Łódź, Poland
  3. Department of Intelligent Systems, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, 149/152 Pomorska St., 90–236 Łódź, Poland
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The article presents a study of a hybrid structure based on the combination of a tapered optical fibre and gold nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid crystal material. Sensitivity to changes of the refractive index of the environment in which the structure is located, as well as the possibility of changing the refractive index of liquid crystals by external factors, such as temperature and electric field, were investigated. Electro- and thermally-induced changes of the refractive index of a liquid crystal through the rotation of a molecule director, which cause changes in the light propagated in a tapered optical fibre, were described. The most important issue in the article is to determine the influence of doping a liquid crystal with gold nanoparticles the concentration of which varies between 0.1 and 0.3 wt.%. The paper presents transmission measurements in a wide optical range depending on voltage, temperature, and frequency changes. Additionally, time courses of the obtained signal were measured. The study shows that the appropriate selection of nanoparticle concentration has a huge impact on the optical wave propagation. The experimental results show that the optical changes obtained for the investigated hybrid structure prefer it for use as an electro-optical switcher, filter, or sensor.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Joanna E. Moś
Karol A. Stasiewicz
Leszek R. Jaroszewicz

  1. Faculty of New Technologies and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego St., 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
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Solar-blind ultraviolet cameras as part of high-voltage electrical inspections until recently have mostly been used for pure observations. These observations only imply the presence of corona discharges and not the severity thereof. A radiometric algorithm together with a calibration algorithm to perform an optical energy measurement were presented earlier. This is a guide on how to apply the algorithm to determine the total optical measurement from corona discharges, plus additional processing. This guide and additions are used to compare the electrical and optical domains with actual examples. The main objective is to illustrate how to determine the electrical and optical relation for the IEC 60720 high-voltage electrical test configurations using a standard open procedure.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Casper J. Coetzer
Hermanus C. Myburgh
Nicholas West
Jerry Walker

  1. Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Hatfield 0028, South Africa
  2. Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Wits 2050, South Africa
  3. Walmet Consultancy (Pty) Ltd, Powerville, Vereeniging 1939, South Africa
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This paper presents the results of a thermal computational analysis of a two-dimensional laser array emitting from a surface. The array consisted of eight equispaced ridge-waveguide edge-emitting nitride diode lasers. Surface emission of light was obtained using mirrors inclined at 45°. The authors investigate how the geometrical dimensions of the array emitters and their pitch in the array affect the increase and distribution of temperature in the device. They also examine the influence on the temperature increase and distribution of the thickness of the insulating SiO2, the thickness of the gold layer forming the top contact of the laser, and the thickness of the GaN substrate, as well as the influence of the ridge-waveguide width.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Dominika Dąbrówka
Robert P. Sarzała
Michał Wasiak
Anna Kafar
Piotr Perlin
Kiran Saba

  1. Institute of Physics, Lodz University of Technology, 217/221 Wólczańska St., 93-005 Łódź, Poland
  2. Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 29/37 Sokołowska St., 01-142 Warsaw, Poland
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An adaptive and precise peak wavelength detection algorithm for fibre Bragg grating using generative adversarial network is proposed. The algorithm consists of generative model and discriminative model. The generative model generates a synthetic signal and is sampled for training using a deep neural network. The discriminative model predicts the real fibre Bragg grating signal by the calculation of the loss functions. The maxima of loss function of the discriminative signal and the minima of loss function of the generative signal are matched and the desired peak wavelength of fibre Bragg grating is determined. The proposed algorithm is verified theoretically and experimentally for a single fibre Bragg grating peak. The accuracy has been obtained as ±0.2 pm. The proposed algorithm is adaptive in the sense that any random fibre Bragg grating peak can be identified within a short wavelength range.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Sunil Kumar
Somnath Sengupta

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India


Various intelligent transportation systems are proposed in different forms of wireless communication technologies. Recently, the importance of visible light communication and free-space optics has been demonstrated in accomplishing vehicle-to-vehicle and infrastructure-to-vehicle communication systems, due to power efficiency, free licenses, and safety for human health. In this paper, a new hybrid relay system supported by free-space optics/visible light communication with two scenarios is proposed. The first one is that the data are transferred from the source to the relay through a free-space optics communication link and are then directed to the destination through a visible light communication link. The second scenario is that the data are transmitted from the source to the destination passing through two different relays to ensure larger coverage. A 10−6 bit error rate is achieved at a distance of 900 m for the first scenario with a remarkable signal-to-noise ratio of ~25.5 dB, while the largest distance that can be covered by the second scenario is 1200 m with a signal-to-noise ratio of ~30 dB.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Suzan M. EL-Garhy
1 2
Ashraf A. M. Khalaf
Moustafa H. Aly
Mohamed Abaza

  1. Electronics and Communications Department, College of Engineering, Higher Technological Institute, Tenth of Ramadan, Egypt
  2. Electronics and Communications Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Egypt
  3. Electronics and Communications Department, College of Engineering and Technology, Arab Academy for Science Technology and Maritime Transport, Egypt

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