Life Sciences and Agriculture

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

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Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences | 2021 | vol. 24 | No 4 |

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Abstract

In 46 dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt (cPSS) histopathological examination of the pancreas, including measuring of the islet area, was performed, and the results were compared with those obtained in 6 control dogs without cPSS. Pancreatic islets were found in 43 (94%) dogs with cPSS and in all control animals. Mean area of the pancreatic islets was significantly lower in cPSS patients (median of 2219.4 μm2, interquartile range [IQR] from 1559.0 to 3146.2 μm2, range from 485.4 to 10333.4 μm2) than in control dogs (median of 8705.5 μm2, IQR from 8284.4 to 9329.2 μm2, range from 7689.9 to 9624.2 μm2) (p<0.001). The area of pancreatic islets was weakly, but significantly, positively correlated with the body weight of dogs (r=0.32, p=0.026), but not with the age or sex. Vacuoles were found in the cytoplasm of pancreatic islet cells in 37 (87%) dogs with cPSS and in none of the control animals (p<0.001). Their presence was not linked to the sex, breed, age or body weight. Extracellular homogenous eosinophilic masses were present in pancreatic islets in 5 (12%) cPSS patients and in none of control animals. Connective tissue hyperplasia was found in pancreatic islets of 4 (9%) dogs with cPSS and in none of the control dogs. These results indicate that cPSS severely affects the pancreas, as shown by significantly reduced area of the islets, and the presence of eosinophilic masses in the pancreas and/or intracellular vacuoles.
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Frymus
1
P. Trębacz
1
M. Sobczak-Filipiak
2
M. Czopowicz
3
M. Galanty
1

  1. Department of Small Animal Diseases with Clinic, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-776 Warszawa, Poland
  2. Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-776 Warszawa, Poland
  3. Division of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-776 Warszawa, Poland
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Abstract

In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effect of hip dysplasia on some biochemical parameters, oxidative stress factors and hematocrit values in dogs. Hematocrit values (HTC), serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) levels, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine kinase (CK) activities and oxidative stress factors were evaluated in a total of 27 dogs with healthy hip joints (n: 11) and hip dysplasia (n: 16). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of HCT, Ca and P values (p˃0.05). ALP and CK activities were found to be statistically significantly increased in the group with hip dysplasia compared to the control group with a healthy hip joint (p˂0.05). While malondialdehyde (MDA) level, one of the oxidative stress factors, was increased in the group with hip dysplasia, decreased glutathione (GSH) levels, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were significantly decreased. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of superoxide dismutase (SOD) level. As a result, it was determined that oxidative stress factors differ in dogs with hip dysplasia compared to dogs with the healthy hip joint.
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Authors and Affiliations

E. Polat
1
M.C. Han
1
E. Kaya
2
S. Yilmaz
2
S.D. Kayapinar
1
S. Coskun
1
A. Yildirim
1
U.K. Can
1

  1. Fırat University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Surgery, Elazig, Turkey
  2. Fırat University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Elazig, Turkey
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Abstract

The present study was aimed to evaluate the growth performance and immune response of three genetic lines of Japanese quails. These lines i.e., selected for 4-week body-weight group (WBS), selected for egg number (EBS), and random-bred control (RBC), were selected for three consecutive generations from a base population of 1125 quails. In total, 2700 four-week-old quails from three selected groups were slaughtered in total of four generations (G0 to G3). Effects of selection and generations as well as their interactions were assessed for growth performance and immune response by applying a two-way analysis of variance. Significant means were compared with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of selection and generations on most of the growth and immune response parameters. WBS in G3 presented significantly higher values of body weight, weight gain, and FCR than RBC and EBS. FCR was better in WBS during G3 than those of EBS and RBC. However, Livability% was highest in RBC while the lowest was noted in G3 of WBS line. Thymus% and spleen% were higher in EBS as compared to RBC and WBS. RBC presented a better B/S ratio and ND titer than those of EBS and WBS. The decreasing trend of ND titer in both lines of WBS and EBS as compared to RBC suggested a decrease in New Castle disease resistance in progressive generations of selection. It was concluded that selection for body weight and egg number has a positive impact on respective traits but negatively affects the immunity in later generations.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Rehman
1
J. Hussain
1
A. Mahmud
2
K. Javed
3
A. Ghayas
1
S. Ahmad
1

  1. Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Animal Production and Technology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, 54000
  2. Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Animal Production and Technology,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, 54000
  3. Department of Livestock Production, Faculty of Animal Production and Technology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, 54000
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Abstract

Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins are considered to be the most important processes in sperm maturation during epididymal transit. The main aim of this study was to isolate and identify phosphoproteins from the epididymal milieu obtained from reproductively mature stallions during and out of the breeding season. With the use of 1D-PAGE and nanoLC-MS/MS, we identified phosphoproteins that fulfil various functions: regulatory, transport, motility, ubiquitination, chaperone, antioxidant, apoptotic and enzymatic. Moreover, we characterized tyrosine, serine and threonine phosphorylation patterns, taking into consideration the seasonal and epididymal segment variables. The intensity of phosphorylation and profiles of phosphoproteins varied in subsequent regions of the epididymis. With the use of western and immunoblot tests, we demonstrated that fourteen proteins underwent phosphorylation both during and out of the breeding season. However, significant differences (p≤0.05) in the phosphorylation status were demonstrated in the case of 44 kDa (glutamine synthetase), 38 kDa (malate dehydrogenase), 34 kDa (clusterin/inorganic pyrophosphatase), 31 kDa (clusterin/ /ubiquitin thioesterase), 29 kDa (14-3-3 protein/purine nucleotide phosphorylase) for the season factor and 55 (Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor alpha) and 31 kDa ((clusterin/ubiquitin thioesterase) proteins for the segment factor. The occurrence of the other phosphoproteins was spontaneous among individuals and in both seasons.
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Authors and Affiliations

K. Dyrda
1
A. Orzołek
1
J. Ner-Kluza
2
P. Wysocki
1

  1. Department of Animal Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 5, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
  2. Department of Biochemistry and Neurobiology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, University of Science and Technology, A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

Newcastle disease (ND) is a frequently reported disease in poultry among both vaccinated and non-vaccinated flocks in Pakistan. During 2011-2012 poultry industry in Punjab, mainly in Lahore region, faced fatal outbreaks of ND caused by a variant strain. An analytical study was conducted during outbreak period in Lahore region. A total of 114 environmentally controlled farms were selected with the help of convenient sampling method. A questionnaire was designed about the potential risk factors associated with the spread of ND outbreak. The bivariate relationships between ND status and independent variables were investigated by applying the Chi-square and Fisher’s exact test. Multivariable logistic model was used to estimate the effect of each studied variable on the outcome by adjusting the other variables in the model. The variables which showed an association with ND outbreaks at commercial poultry farms were improper method for dead birds disposal (OR=4.96; 95% CI 1.63-15.12), use of same feed transporting vehicle at multiple poultry farms (OR=4.92; 95% CI 1.58-15.33), farm to farm distance of less than 1 km (OR=9.32; 95% CI(1.19-73.12), number of sheds at one farm (OR=2.31; 95% CI 0.93-5.69), labor type (OR=2.72; 95% CI 0.83-8.88) and biosecurity (OR= 4.47; 95% CI 0.56-35.66).
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Maqsood
1 2
A. Khan
1
M.H. Mushtaq
1
T. Yaqub
3
M.A. Aslam
4
H.B. Rashid
5
S.S. Gill
1
R. Akram
1
A. Rehman
1
M. Chaudhry
1

  1. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore-Pakistan
  2. Institute of Continuing Education and Extension, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore-Pakistan
  3. Institute of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore-Pakistan
  4. Office of Research Innovation and Commercialization, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore-Pakistan
  5. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Pet Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore-Pakistan
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Abstract

The identification of various substances in seminal plasma has opened the way to study their functionality. It was aimed to identify the electrophoretic protein profile (EPP) and biochemical parameters (BP) of seminal plasma (SP) as predictors of semen quality and fertility in stallion. Forty-six ejaculates from 7 fertile stallions, aged between 6-26 years, were collected from May to July and 117 mares were used to obtain fertility data. For each ejaculate, volume, sperm motility, concentration were determined and seminal plasma samples were collected to perform one- -dimensional electrophoresis and biochemical profiling. Following the estrus detection, mares were inseminated with fresh sperm. Pregnancy rates and foal rates were recorded. The concentration of 15-18 kDa molecular weight (MW) proteins has shown a positive correlation with sperm concentration and foal rate. Besides, a strong positive correlation was found between sperm concentration and 23-28 kDa MW proteins (r=0.77). The volume of 19-22 kDa MW proteins was negatively correlated with pregnancy and foal rate. Similarly, the volume of high MW proteins (173-385 kDa) correlated negatively with sperm motility and foal rate. Apart from the protein profile, while Magnesium and Glucose levels were negatively correlated with sperm quality and foal rate, Cholesterol level was a positive indicator of the quality of semen as well as the foaling rate. Moreover, the total protein level was correlated negatively with the sperm concentration whereas triglyceride was correlated positively. In conclusion, EPP and BP of seminal plasma are valuable clinical tools as predictors of fertility and semen quality in the stallion.
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Authors and Affiliations

C. Stelletta
1
S. Alberti
2
B. Cil
3
K. Tekin
3
M.B. Tirpan
3
M. Arganaraz
4
E. Akcay
3
A. Daskin
3

  1. Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health, University of Padova, Agripolis, Viale dell’Università - 35020 Legnaro, Italy
  2. Practitioner, Veneto Region, Italy
  3. Department of Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, 06110, Ankara, Turkey
  4. Instituto Superior de Investigaciones Biológicas (INSIBIO) and Instituto de Biología “Dr. Francisco D. Barbieri”, Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia, UNT Chacabuco 461, T4000ILI, San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina
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Abstract

Abnormal DNA methylation is involved in the initiation and progression of lymphoid tumors. Hence, DNA demethylating agents are promising candidate drugs for chemotherapy against these tumors. The salicylic acid derived anti-inflammatory agent, olsalazine, reportedly suppresses DNA methyltransferase in human cells and has the potential to be clinically applied as a DNA demethylating agent. In this study, we investigated the effects of olsalazine on cell proliferation and DNA methylation using canine lymphoid tumor cell lines (CLBL-1, GL-1, and UL-1). Treatment with olsalazine led to significant cell growth inhibition and increased the apoptotic rate in all three cell lines. Treatment with olsalazine reduced the total amount of 5-methylcytosine in genomic DNA, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation revealed that 1,801 to 5,626 CpG sites showed decreased DNA methylation levels in three cell lines, including the promoter regions of ADAM23, FES, and CREB3L1 genes. The outcomes of the present study demonstrate that a DNA demethylating agent olsalazine, inhibits cell proliferation and DNA methylation in canine lymphoid tumor cells, suggesting that it can be a candidate drug for the treatment of lymphoid tumors in dogs.
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Authors and Affiliations

S. Itoh
1 2
J. Yamazaki
3 4
M. Iwahana
2
A. Tsukamoto
2

  1. Laboratory of Biology, Azabu University, School of Veterinary Medicine, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan
  2. Laboratory of Laboratory Animal Science, Azabu University, School of Veterinary Medicine, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan
  3. Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-0808, Japan
  4. One Health Research Center, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-0808, Japan
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Abstract

Orientating investigations were carried out in order to test the influence of oil extracts of lycopene (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg feed) and astaxanthin (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg feed) as feed additives on the metabolic parameters (glucose, creatinine, cholesterol) and enzyme activities (alanine aminotransferase, ALT; aspartate transaminase, AST) of laying hens. Eggs from these hens were stored at refrigerator temperatures of 4°C and 12°C for up to 30 days and analyzed for vitamin A, carotenoid and yolk color. 45 laying hens (Hy-Line W36 cross, 23 weeks of age) were divided in three groups of 15 birds each (control, lycopene fed group, astaxanthin fed group). Blood samples were taken from the hens and laid eggs were collected on days 31, 61, and 91 of the study. The eggs were stored for 30 days in refrigerators. Both lycopene and astaxanthin increased the content of glucose in serum (Р<0.05). The content of creatinine and cholesterol, and the activity of ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase varied dose-dependently. With the exception of cholesterol, metabolite concentrations in the serum of laying hens fed different lycopene and astaxanthin doses did not exceed clinically accepted physiological levels. The carotenoid content and color of the egg yolks from laying hens fed astaxanthin was significantly higher (Р<0.05) compared to lycopene fed birds. Refrigerator storage of the eggs did not affect carotenoid content and egg yolk color compared to freshly laid eggs. Both feed additives showed a favorable effect on the metabolism of laying hens and the enrichment of egg yolks with carotenoids, astaxanthin significantly more (Р<0.05) than lycopene.
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Authors and Affiliations

L.V. Shevchenko
1
O.M. Iakubchak
1
V.A. Davydovych
1
V.V. Honchar
1
M. Ciorga
2
J. Hartung
3
R. Kołacz
2

  1. Department of Veterinary Hygiene, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroiv Oborony St, 15, Kiev, Ukraine
  2. Department of Public Health Protection and Animal Welfare, Institute for Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Biological and Veterinary Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, Toruń, Poland
  3. University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bünteweg 9, Hannover, Germany
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the chemiluminescence (CL) of peripheral blood in clinically healthy horses of different sexes and ages. The tests were carried out on 119 half- -breed horses, representing various forms of use (66 recreational horses and 53 sport horses). The test material was peripheral blood, which was collected under resting conditions, i.e. before physical activity related to the use of these animals. In the blood samples, spontaneous and stimulated CL with zymosan and phorbol myristate acetate were determined. It has been found that regular training effort increases the blood’s pro-oxidative potential, which was demonstrated by significantly higher (p<0.05) CL values in sport horses compared to recreational animals. Analysis of the results did not show any statistically significant correlation between sex or age of the horses with chemiluminescence values in peripheral blood. The result of the research suggests the need to optimize the results of blood CL measurements, taking into account the number of neutrophils and the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood of tested animals. Analysis of non-optimized blood CL results may lead to premature conclusions.
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Authors and Affiliations

W. Krumrych
1
J. Danek
2
H. Markiewicz
3
M. Gołyński
4

  1. Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Kazimierz Wielki University, Powstańców Wlkp. Avenue 10, 85-090, Bydgoszcz, Poland
  2. Department of Biomedical Engineering, UTP University of Science and Technology, prof. S. Kaliskiego Avenue 7, 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
  3. Department of Animal Breeding, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Science and Technology, Mazowiecka Street 28, 85-082 Bydgoszcz, Poland
  4. Department of Diagnostics and Clinical Sciences, Veterinary Medicine Institute, Faculty of Biological and Veterinary Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Lwowska Street 1, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
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Abstract

Ichthyophthiriasis, commonly known as white spot disease, occurs in both wild and cultured fish and is responsible for heavy economic losses to the aquaculture industry. In past decade, several chemical therapeutants were used to treat ichthyophthiriasis, but the effective drugs, such as malachite green, have been banned for use in food fish due to its genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. To find efficacious drugs to control Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), whole Eclipta alba plants and dried root of Arctium lappa were evaluated for their antiprotozoal activity. E. alba and A. lappa extracts significantly reduced the survival of Ich trophonts and theronts. In vitro, the E. alba and A. lappa methanol extracts killed all trophonts at 3200 mg l-1. All trophonts were killed after exposure to E. alba aqueous extract at 3200 mg l-1. The methanol extracts of E. alba and A. lappa killed 100% of I. multifiliis theronts at 400 mg l-1 and 800 mg l-1, respectively. The aqueous extract of E. alba and A. lappa killed 100% of I. mulitifiliis theronts at 1600 mg l-1 and 3200 mg l-1, respectively. E. alba and A. lappa extracts may be new and efficacious drugs for the control of ichthyophthiriasis.
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Authors and Affiliations

P. Leśniak
1
K. Puk
1
L. Guz
1

  1. Department of Biology and Fish Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences, Akademicka 12, 20-033, Lublin, Poland
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Abstract

A highly immunogenic nucleotide fragment (195bp) was selected from the Mhp183 gene of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using information software technology and was named Mhp183195bp. Three Mhp183195bp were linked to form a new nucleotide sequence called Mhp183615bp. Mhp183615bp was directly synthesized and cloned into a pET100 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification, the proteins were successfully validated using SDS-PAGE and Western blot. BALB/c mice were injected with purified proteins on the first, eighth, and fifteenth days of feeding, respectively; serum samples were collected from mice on the day of immunization and on the 22nd day after immunization. The antibody level in mouse serum was detected by Western blotting using purified expressed proteins as antigens. IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ were simultaneously detected in mouse serum by ELISA. The 30 kDa protein was successfully expressed and reacted specifically with the specific serum Mhp His-Tag mouse monoclonal antibody and pig antibody. The expressed recombinant protein was immunogenic. The expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α were found to be significantly higher on day 22 than in the control group. This study suggests that the expressed recombinant protein could be used as one of the novel vaccine candidates for Mhp.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Xu
1
J. Zheng
1
S. Hu
1
G. Wang
1

  1. College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Road 1#, Changsha, 410000, China
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Abstract

Diabetes is characterized by high blood glucose level termed hyperglycemia affecting skeletal muscle structure and function by an unclear molecular mechanism. This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism(s) of hyperglycemia on skeletal muscle both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with hyperglycemic condition (25 mM) for 48 h significantly inhibited C2C12 myoblast proliferation detected by MTT assay whilst flow cytometry revealed an interruption of the cell cycle at subG1 and G2/M phases. An exposure to hyperglycemic condition significantly decreased the myosin heavy chain (MHC) protein expression in the differentiated myotube and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of Wistar rats. In addition, the muscle cross-section area (MCA) of TA muscle in diabetic rats were significantly decreased compared to the non-diabetic control. Western blotting analysis of C2C12 myoblasts and differentiated myotubes revealed the increased expressions of cleaved-caspase-9 and cleaved-caspase-3, but not cleaved-caspase-8. Of note, these caspases in the TA muscles were not changed under hyperglycemic condition. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of the hyperglycemic myoblasts and TA muscles revealed modulation of the gene expression of sirtuins (SIRTs). In C2C12 myoblasts, the expressions of SIRT1, SIRT2 and SIRT4 were upregulated whilst SIRT7 was downregulated. Meanwhile, the expressions of SIRT1, SIRT2 in TA muscles were upregulated whilst SIRT4 was downregulated. Taken together, this study showed that hyperglycemia induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in myoblasts, and protein degradation and atrophy in skeletal muscle most likely via modulation of SIRTs gene expression.
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Authors and Affiliations

P. Surinlert
1
T. Thitiphatphuvanon
2
W. Khimmaktong
3
C. Pholpramool
4
C. Tipbunjong
3 5

  1. Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum-Thani 12120, Thailand
  2. Faculty of Medicine, Siam University, Bangkok 10160, Thailand
  3. Department of Anatomy, Division of Health and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
  4. Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
  5. Gut Biology and Microbiota Research Unit, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
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Abstract

This study aims to determine the potential of Kebar grass extract in reducing the impact of liver damage in mice offspring ( Mus musculus) from parent exposed to carbofuran during lactation period. 42 lactation mice ( Mus musculus) used in the study were divided into seven groups, each group consisting of six mice. Carbofuran, Kebar grass extract, and vitamin C are administered orally on days 1 to 14 after birth. This group consisted of K (aquadest), P1 (carbofuran 1/4 LD50 0.0125 mg/day), P2 (carbofuran 1/8 LD50 0.00625 mg/day), P3 (Kebar grass extract 3.375 mg (0.2 ml) + carbofuran 1/4 LD50), P4 (Kebar grass extract 3.375 mg (0.2 ml) + carbofuran 1/8 LD50), P5 (vitamin C 5 mg (0.2 ml) + carbofuran 1/4 LD50), and P6 (vitamin C 5 mg (0.2 ml) + carbofuran 1/8 LD50). On the 15th day after birth, mice were sacrified and their liver taken for microscopic examination with hematoxilin and eosin staining. The scoring data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. The result showed significant different (p<0.05) among the treatment groups. Mean of P4 in degeration is (1.13), necrosis (1.13) and inflamation (0.73), while the mean of P6 in degeneration is (2.20), necrosis (2.73) and inflamation (1.93). The conclusion of this research is giving Kebar grass extract is more effective in reducing degeneration, necrosis and inflammatory cell’s infiltration than vitamin C in in mice offspring ( Mus musculus) from parent exposed to carbofuran during lactation period.
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Authors and Affiliations

N.A. Yulitasari
1
S. Hidanah
1
Widjiati
1
V.F. Hendrawan
2
E.M. Luqman
1

  1. Department of Veterinary Science Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Universitas Airlangga Kampus C Unair, Jalan Mulyorejo Surabaya 60115 Indonesia
  2. Department of Animal Reproduction Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Jl. MT. Haryono No.169, Ketawanggede, Lowokwaru, Kota Malang, 65144 Indonesia
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Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate the impact of age, season and ejaculation on ram testicular blood flow and echotexture. The survey was conducted biweekly on 7 Chios rams for one year, including breeding and non-breeding periods. The rams were divided into 2 age groups: 3 rams 2-6 years old (mature) and 4 rams 9-13 years old (old). Hemodynamic indices [Pulsatility index (PI), Resistive index (RI), End-diastolic velocity (EDV), testicular artery Diameter (D), Time-averaged maximum velocity (TAVM), Blood flow volume (BFV)] and echotexture parameters [Mean value (MV), Contrast (Con), Gray value distribution (GVD), Run length distribution (RunLD), Long run emphasis (LRunEm), Entropy (Ent), Correlation (Cor), Standard deviation (StD), Gray variance (GV) and Gradient mean value (GMV)] were evaluated in each testis before and after ejaculation. Ejaculation did not affect testes blood flow or echotexture (p>0.05). PI and RI were higher in the breeding period compared to the non-breeding period, for both testes (p<0.001). Left testis GV and Cor before ejaculation were lower (p=0.01) and higher (p=0.03), respectively, in the breeding compared to the non-breeding period. Left testis D (p=0.005) and BFV (p<0.001) were higher in old compared to mature rams after ejaculation. Right testis Con (p=0.03) and Cor (p=0.05) before ejaculation were higher in old rams, whereas right testis Ent after ejaculation was higher in mature rams (p=0.05). In conclusion, testicular blood flow and echotexture are affected by season and ram age, but not by ejaculation.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Ntemka
1
E. Kiossis
1
C. Boscos
1
A. Theodoridis
2
M. Patsikas
3
I. Tsakmakidis
1

  1. Clinic of Farm Animals, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, St. Voutyra 11, 54627, Thessaloniki, Greece
  2. Laboratory of Animal Production Economics, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 410, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
  3. Laboratory of Diagnostic Imaging, Clinic of Companion Animals, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, St. Voutyra 11, 54627, Thessaloniki, Greece
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Abstract

The shock is a general, non-specific pathological process, caused by the sudden action of very brutal pathogens, a situation for which the body has no reserves for qualitative and quantitative compensation-adaptation. The objective of our experiment was to make an evaluation of the changes in some hematological and biochemical parameters of the blood, during some hypovolemic evolutions, in the rabbits. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits we used. An IDEXX ProCyte Dx Hematology Analyzer was applied to perform hematological determinations. An IDEXX VetTest Chemistry Analyzer was used to perform blood biochemistry determinations. The data obtained were statistically analyzed, calculating the Media and Standard Deviation (SD), using the Microsoft Excel application. At the same time, the statistical significance of the differences between the batches was calculated based on the t test (Student) using the Microsoft Excel application. The study revealed a decrease in the number of red blood cells and leukocytes per unit volume of blood (p<0.05) in the case of group 2 and an increase in glucose, triglycerides (p<0.05).
Experimental hypovolemia induced in the conditions of our experiment determined: an obvious posthemorrhagic anemia, a significant leukopenia mainly 6 hours after the production of hypovolemic shock and a significant hyperglycemia, manifested mainly 12 hours after the induction of hypovolemia.
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Authors and Affiliations

G. Cotor
1
G. Zagrai
2
G. Gâjâilă
1
M. Ghiță
1
A.M. Ionescu
1
A. Damian
2
A.M. Zagrai (Măierean)
2
Ș. Dragosloveanu
3
D.C. Cotor
2 3

  1. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Bucharest-050097, Splaiul Independentei 105, Bucharest, Romania
  2. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca-400372, Calea Manastur 3-5, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  3. Clinical Hospital of Orthopedics, Traumatology and Osetoarticular TB “Foișor”, Bucharest-030167, Bd. Ferdinand nr. 35-37, Romania
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Abstract

This study aimed to assess the clinical efficacy of pentoxifylline (PTX) and L-glutamine (L-Gln) treatment on ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury in the abomasal tissue, acute phase response (APR), oxidative stress (OS), cytokine response, hemostatic, and coagulation disorders in the 96-h period before and after surgery in displaced abomasum (DA) cases. The study sample consisted of 48 dairy cows with DA that were categorized into four groups as group S (Sham group) (9 Left displaced abomasum (LDA)+3 Right displaced abomasum (RDA), group P (PTX) (10 LDA+2 RDA), group G (L-Gln) (10 LDA+2 RDA), and group P+G (PTX+L-Gln) (10 LDA+2 RDA). Acute-phase protein (Haptoglobin), oxidative stress indicators (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and glutathione), cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), coagulation factors (D-Dimer, Antithrombin (ATIII), Thrombin-antithrombin complex, Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), and enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase, gamma- -glutamyl transferase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, adenosine deaminase, myeloperoxidase, and creatine phosphokinase) in blood serum samples and coagulometric analyses of blood plasma were performed in samples taken before the operation and at 30 and 60 min and 2, 5, 10, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the operation. In DA cases, while post-operative treatment procedures with PTX and L-Gln were effective in decreasing APR and OS, these were ineffective in prohibiting the inflammatory response coordinated by cytokines. For the treatment and prevention of I/R injury in the DA cases, PTX and L-Gln procedures hold promise with their effects on APR, OS, and hemostatic dysfunction. Additional treatment procedures are required for the suppression of inflammatory response, and the effectiveness of preconditioning treatment may be evaluated.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Maden
1
R. Yildiz
2
R. Çöl
3
M. Arican
4
M. Ider
1
K. Parlak
4
B. Tras
5

  1. Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Selcuk University, 42003, Konya, Turkey
  2. Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, 15030, Burdur, Turkey
  3. Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Selcuk University, 42003, Konya, Turkey
  4. Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Selcuk University, 42003, Konya, Turkey
  5. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Selcuk University, 42003, Konya, Turkey
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Abstract

In recent years there have been a growing number of reports on applying viruses in oncological treatment. In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time that animal virus EHV-1 productively replicates in the human adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) without the need for adaptation. Real-time PCR analysis and immunofluorescence assay showed that EHV-1 could infect and causes lysis of human lung cancer cells. According to our results, we can assume that EHV-1 has oncolytic potential.
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Bibliography


Chodkowski M, Cymerys J, Słońska A, Bańbura M (2017) Oncolytic animal viruses and their applications in anti-cancer therapies. Med Weter 73: 4-9.

Courchesne MJ, White MC, Stanfield BA, Frampton AR (2012) Equine herpesvirus type 1-mediated oncolysis of human glioblastoma multi-forme cells. J Virol 86: 2882-2886.

Cymerys J, Dzieciątkowski T, Słońska A, Bierla J, Tucholska A, Chmielewska A, Golke A, Bańbura MW (2010) Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) replication in primary murine neurons culture. Pol J Vet Sci 13: 701-708.

Cymerys J, Słońska A, Brzezicka J, Tucholska A, Chmielewska A, Rola J, Bańbura MW (2016) Replication kinetics of neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) strains in primary murine neurons and ED cell line. Pol J Vet Sci 19: 777-784.

Drukker M, Katz G, Urbach A, Schuldiner M, Markel G, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Benvenisty N (2002) Characterization of the expression of MHC proteins in human embryonic stem cells. Proc Nat Acad Sci 99: 9864-9869.

Liu BL, Robinson M, Han ZQ (2003) ICP34.5 deleted herpes simplex virus with enhanced oncolytic, immune stimulating, and anti-tumour properties. Gene Ther 10: 292-303.

Słońska A, Cymerys J, Godlewski MM, Bańbura MW (2016) Application of scanning cytometry and confocal-microscopy-based image analysis for investigation the role of cytoskeletal elements during equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection of primary murine neurons. J Virol Met 237:1-9.

White MC, Frampton AR Jr (2013) The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid enhances equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1)-mediated oncolysis of human glioma cells. Cancer Gene Ther 20: 88-93.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Chodkowski
1 2
A. Słońska
1
M. Bartak
1
M.W. Bańbura
1
J. Cymerys
1

  1. Department of Preclinical Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Ciszewskiego 8, 02-786 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Laboratory of Nanobiology and Biomaterials, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Kozielska 4 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The effect of Ageratina adenophora on pathological characteristics of the liver and lungs as well as serum biochemical parameters in horses were investigated. Ten horses without ingestion history of Ageratina adenophora were classified into the control group, and 10 poisoned but survived horses with 3 months ingestion history were set as the case group. Results showed that serum AST, ALT, ALP, magnesium and phosphorus were elevated significantly, while creatinine was decreased remarkably. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of liver tissues showed diffuse swelling or destruction of hepatocytes, narrowing or atrophy of the hepatic sinusoids, and little lymphocytic infiltration; lung tissues presented destroyed alveoli and inflammatory cell infiltration.
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Bibliography


Feldman AT, Wolfe D (2014) Tissue processing and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Methods Mol Biol 1180: 31-43.

Jie F, Hu YC, Chen WH, Weng JH, Hu LW, Zhen S, He YJ, Quan M, Wang Y, Ren ZH (2018) Dosage-dependent effects of Eupatorium adenophorum on Saanen goat blood levels and the histopathology of several organs. Pratacul Sci 2: 11.

O’Sullivan BM (1979) Crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum) toxicity in horses. Aust Vet J 55: 19-21.

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Pessoa CR, Pessoa AF, Maia LA, Medeiros RM, Colegate SM, Barros SS, Soares MP, Borges AS, Riet-Correa F (2013) Pulmonary and hepatic lesions caused by the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing plants Crotalaria juncea and Crotalaria retusa in donkeys. Toxicon 71: 113-120.

Rhiouani H, El-Hilaly J, Israili ZH, Lyoussi B (2008) Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Herniaria glabra in rodents. J Ethnopharmacol 118: 378-386.

Sun W, Zeng C, Yue D, Liu S, Ren Z, Zuo Z, Deng J, Peng G, Hu Y (2019) Ageratina adenophora causes spleen toxicity by inducing oxida-tive stress and pyroptosis in mice. R Soc Open Sci 6: 190127.
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Authors and Affiliations

X.L. Gu
1
F.Y. Dai
1
X. Xiao
1
G.Z. Li
2
L.M. Zhang
1
W.J. Qu
1

  1. College of Veterinary Medicine, Yunnan Agricultural University, Jin Hei Road No.65, Panlong District, 650051, Kunming, P.R. China
  2. College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, P.R. China

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