Humanities and Social Sciences

Polish Psychological Bulletin

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Polish Psychological Bulletin | 2021 | vol. 52 | No 1 |

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Abstract

The development of international proficiency tests such as IELTS, which entail important decision making about people’s academic lives, requires complex processes to ensure item discrimination. Previous research has indicated that IELTS has been ineffective in omitting distractor components, which may offer limitations in differentiating among the candidates. Among all the sections, particular attention has been paid to the reading comprehension component and it is considered as a criterion for determining whether a person is academically literate or not. While there seems to be a deep linkage between brain and reading comprehension, Event Related Potentials (ERP), as one of the methods used for measuring brain activity, allows researchers to observe reading- related brain processes and can document neural patterns at the millisecond level. This study aimed at examining item discrimination of the reading comprehension section of the IELTS exam through ERP. With a sample of 10 participants holding the band scores from 6 to 8, the reading comprehension items of a retired version of IELTS were given to the test takers as the task or the stimulus. It was found out that there is a mismatch between the proposed category of difficulty given for the reading comprehension item types and ERP evidence.
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Authors and Affiliations

Reyhaneh Barani Toroghi
1
Zahra Zohoorian
1
Majid Ghoshuni
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Languages, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Iran
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Abstract

The present study explores the connection between the actual/ideal (A/I) and actual/ought (A/O) self- -discrepancies and negative emotional states such as stress, anxiety and depression. Moreover, it seeks to understand the effects of potentially intervening variables, self-control //and self-consciousness, on the affect-discrepancy relationship. 638 participants (60% female, aged 18-55) participated in the study. They filled out questionnaires measuring actual/ ideal self-discrepancy, actual/ought self-discrepancy, self-control, private/public self-consciousness and psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress; DAS). The results revealed that both, A/O and A/I self-discrepancies, are positively associated with DAS but do not have a predictive value for them. However, depression, anxiety and stress are significantly predicted by low self-control and high personal self-consciousness. Also, the study confirms that self- -control and self-consciousness moderate affect-discrepancy relationship: self-control is a significant moderator of the relationships between (1) A/I and A/O self-discrepancy and depression and (2) A/I and A/O self-discrepancy and stress. Also, public self-consciousness moderates the relationship between A/O self-discrepancy and stress. In this respect those who have high self-control and high self-consciousness are less likely to experience negative emotional reactions related to the discrepant self-constructs.
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Authors and Affiliations

Maia Mestvirishvili
1
Natia Mestvirishvili
2

  1. Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
  2. Caucasus University
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Abstract

Background: The concept of negative transgression describes behavior as crossing personal limits in destruction against oneself or other people. Theoretically, personality dimensions have been distinguished that may trigger or weaken negative transgression, e.g. empathy and anxiety.
Aims: The goal of this study was to empirically verify the relationship between negative transgression and empathy and fear in the perpetrators of violence against close relatives. Our hypothesis was that negative transgression would be associated with poor empathy, but with a high level of anxiety.
Methods: The examined persons from the group of male prisoners (N = 50) were recruited in one of the prisons in Poland. The participants were convicted of domestic violence – or intimate partner violence. Their age ranged from 21 to 50 years.
Results: The results obtained confirm the hypotheses established, showing that prisoners have an increased level of negative transgression and anxiety, and a decreased level of empathy.
Conclusions: This first study shows that more research is needed on negative transgression with different personality dimensions. Also in the process of reclamation of prisoners, it is worth developing empathy and dealing with anxiety. Then the number of negative behaviors in close relationships will decrease.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sławomir Ślaski
1

  1. Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University
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Abstract

In the present study, we analyse the influence of goal maintenance and goal change on the efficiency of executive control. Although there is empirical evidence on the impact of goal maintenance and task-switching on executive control, little is known about the consequences of changing between processing goals (e.g., speed or accuracy goals). We assessed the influence of changing between speed and accuracy goals while performing a task-switching procedure that requires social categorization. Experiment 1 included frequent goal changes, whereas Experiment 2 included one goal change across the experimental session. The results showed that both goals influence general performance and flexibility. A comparison between experiments suggested that frequent goal change (Experiment 1) resulted in worse performance and lower flexibility overall, compared to sequential goal change (Experiment 2). Frequent goal change was also associated with increased difficulties in pursuing the accuracy goal. The implications regarding the role of goal maintenance and goal change on executive control are discussed, as well as new research possibilities.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sofía Castro
1
Marcin Bukowski
1
Juan Lupiáñez
2
Zofia Wodniecka
1

  1. Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
  2. Department of Experimental Psychology, and Mind, Brain and Behavior Research Center (CIMCYC), University of Granada, Granada, Spain
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Abstract

Objectification in the workplace refers to relationships in which employees can be reduced to the status of objects. This phenomenon has deleterious consequences for health. In this study we examine the protective role of reflexivity, i.e. self-consciousness and team reflexivity. 98 employees answered an online questionnaire which measured objectification, self-consciousness, team reflexivity, mentalization and instrumentality/humanness. The results highlighted a moderation effect of private self-consciousness in the relations between objectification and its consequences. An elevation of self-consciousness is associated with a decrease in dementalization and is associated with an increase in instrumentality. Team reflexivity promotes a decrease in instrumentality and an elevation in humanness either directly or indirectly via the diminution of objectification. The two forms of reflexivity are therefore complementary when facing objectification in the workplace and its consequences. The question of the articulation of the self and co-regulation processes is discussed in connection with these results.
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Authors and Affiliations

Auzoult Laurent Auzoult
1

  1. Université de Bourgogne Franche Comté
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Abstract

Background: Observing one’s own body has been shown to influence pain perception—a phenomenon called visual analgesia. The effect was originally obtained using a mirror reflection of one’s own hand and later replicated with prosthetic and virtual hands. Most studies show increased pain thresholds during visual analgesia, but the opposite effect can be obtained by inducing ownership illusion over a limb that looks wounded. We tested the hypothesis that a resilient-looking virtual limb would lead to an increased pain threshold.
Methods: Eighty-eight students (Mage = 21.4, SDage = 2.98) participated in a within-group experimental design study (natural hand virtual reality [VR], marble hand VR, and non-VR control). In both VR conditions, a visuo-tactile synchronous stimulation was used to elicit the illusion of embodiment. Pressure pain stimulus was applied to the forearm. Dependent variables were: pressure pain threshold, pain intensity and self-reported embodiment.
Results: There were significant differences between the control condition and the Natural Hand VR (V = 647, p < .0001), and between the control condition and the Marble Hand VR (V = 947.5, p < .005), but not between the Natural Hand and Marble Hand conditions (V = 1428.5, p = .62). Contrary to our predictions, pain threshold was higher in the control condition. Pain intensity differences were not significant.
Conclusions: We obtained a significant effect in the opposite direction than predicted. Such results may mean that the visual analgesia effect is more context-dependent than previously thought. We discuss methodological differences between the paradigm used in this study and paradigms reported in the literature as a possible explanation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Czub
1
ORCID: ORCID
Joanna Piskorz
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Instytut Psychologii
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Abstract

Our aim was to test existing sex and age stereotypes related to emotional expressivity, gender and age. This was a complex analysis of facial expressions of all basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) to everyday life stimuli observing a large sample (2,969 unique participants creating 39,694 recordings) using an Emotion Artificial Intelligence. Our data partially support emotion-specific stereotype that women express more affiliate emotions and men express more dominant emotions except for sadness. There were found correlations of emotion expression with age, however intensity and frequency of emotion expression did not follow the same pattern. Not eliminating the differences between men and women in the baseline facial appearance resulted in men expressing dominant emotions (anger and disgust) more intensively, and women expressing more affiliative emotions (happiness, fear, and surprise). To sum up, facial appearance can be one of the origins of the existing gender stereotypic socialisation stereotype.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mária Gablíková
1
Júlia Halamová
1

  1. Institute of Applied Psychology, Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava
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Abstract

The study aimed to determine the psychological aspects of captivity in the War in the East of Ukraine: the purposes and motives of the capture of Ukrainian Forces (UF); the types of captivity and their specifics; the stages and phases of captivity. The measures included a questionnaire and interview method. 694 former prisoners of war (POWs) (servicemen of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and soldiers of volunteer battalions) participated in the study. The research results revealed the purposes of capturing UF: to stop UF advance; obtaining intelligence; demoralization of UF; demonstration of military superiority; capturing prisoners for exchange; unwillingness to kill; receiving a ransom. The UF invaders were military units, professional mercenaries’ units, and gang formation units. The stages of captivity (capture and transportation to a place of permanent detention; first interrogation; being held captive; exchange of POWs and homecoming) were characterized by intimidation, aggression, physical, psychological and sexual violence against POWs, the purposeful creation of an environment of mass psychosis among POWs. Captivity kept the POWs in constant tension and fear. The altered mental status of POWs took place in successive phases: life reactions, shock, psychological demobilization, denouement, recovery, and conflict phase.
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Authors and Affiliations

Olexander Timchenko
1
Ihor Prykhodko
2
Yuri Shyrobokov
3
Nataliia Onishchenko
1
Vasiliy Lefterov
4

  1. National University of Civil Protection of Ukraine
  2. National Academy of National Guard of Ukraine
  3. Ivan Kozhedub Kharkiv National University of the Air Force
  4. National University "Odessa Law Academy", Ukraine
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Abstract

Background: Integrity involves adherence to a set of moral principles and the courage to act on those principles. In clinical psychology and other health professions, consideration of integrity ensures that the upmost care and respect is given to all- regardless of individual background or mental health condition. However, despite the salience of integrity in clinical practice, it is frequently neglected in the literature. Thus, the main aim of the present study was to test a theoretical model and investigate the use of integrity assessments in clinical populations.
Subjects and Methods: Participants (N=80) were assessed using the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO), self-reports and simulated cheating task.
Results: Statistical analysis revealed that age, as well as agreeableness; conscientiousness, impression management, moral values and dark triad traits, accounted for 63% of the variance with age and impression management as significant predictors. Integrity was a predictor for cheating at work (Adj. R2 = 0.41), unethical work behavior (Adj. R2 = 0.27) and simulated cheating task (Adj. R2 = 0.07).
Conclusions: The results of the study suggest the possibility of using integrity tests in mood disorders with a moderate level of mood and anxiety impairments.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tereza Příhodová
1 2
Marek Preiss
1 3
Eva Straková
1
Veronika Juríčková
1
Radek Heissler
1

  1. National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, Czech Republic
  2. Department of Psychiatry, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
  3. University of New York in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic
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Abstract

Abstract: The present study was carried out to develop a valid and reliable scale for assessing enthusiasm among teachers teaching at the school level.
Methods: After reviewing the literature and discussing with experts, an item pool of 115 statements was created. The items were organized into seven dimensions of teacher enthusiasm based on factors generated after performing exploratory factor analysis. These seven dimensions were: Interest and Engagement (IE), Interaction with Students (IWS), Passion for Teaching (PT), Creativity and Innovation (CI), Professional Development (PD), Subject Knowledge Enrichment (SKE), and Professional Commitment (PC). The responses of teachers were taken on five points Likert scale. The standardization of the scale was completed on 558 teachers, who were teaching at Primary, Secondary and Senior Secondary level schools in the state of Haryana in India. Multi-stage random sampling was used to select the sample.
Results: Item analysis was done by calculating t-value and r-value for each statement; twenty items were deleted and 95 items were retained. Factor analysis (principal component methods) generated seven factors behind the teacher enthusiasm scale which explain 44.02% of the total variance together. Cronbach's Alpha of the final teacher enthusiasm scale was .957. The final teacher enthusiasm scale contains 78 items.
Discussion: The findings of the present study suggest that it would be a useful tool for future research and will help in assessing the enthusiasm of the teachers. The results have demonstrated that this teacher enthusiasm scale is a reliable and valid tool.
Implications for practitioners: The teacher enthusiasm scale would be useful for different stakeholders (government, school administration and management) as they can evaluate the enthusiasm of teachers while selection process and due weightage can be given to the enthusiastic candidates. Enthusiastic teachers can work effectively for children with special needs along with normal students.
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Authors and Affiliations

Poonam Punia
1
Manju Bala
1

  1. BPSMV, Khanpur Kalan

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