Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

Content

Polish Polar Research | 2021 | vol. 42 | No 2 |

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Abstract

Studies of isotopic ages were conducted for rock samples of the Keller, Visca Anchorage and Domeyko Glacier formations. Together they form a part of the Martel Inlet Group, a terrestrial calc-alkaline volcanic and volcanoclastic suite and they crop out along the Keller Peninsula on King George Island. The U-Pb and 40Ar-39Ar isotope data from the Keller Peninsula lava flows, although differing in quality, made it possible to obtain reliable age intervals. The stratified volcanogenic rocks of Keller Peninsula, Visca Anchorage and Domeyko Glacier formations of the Keller Peninsula were emplaced there near the Early/Late Palaeocene boundary (ca. 62.11 ± 0.66 Ma ago), in the Early Eocene (ca. 56.3–51.9 Ma) and near the Early/Middle Eocene boundary (ca. 49.9–47.9 Ma), respectively. A certain difference in the ages of Eocene volcanogenic formations, in particular tectonic blocks of King George Island, may indicate a migration of centres of volcanic activity over time, from northwest to southeast.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jerzy Nawrocki
1
Magdalena Pańczyk
1
Agata Kozłowska-Roman
1

  1. Polish Geological Institute – NRI, Rakowiecka 4, 00-975 Warszawa, Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents data on the total phenolic and flavonoid content in Deschampsia antarctica È. Desv. plants collected from natural habitats, plants cultured in vitro, regenerated plants, and plants cultivated in a growth chamber. It was found that the shoots (aerial parts) had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to the roots. The largest amount of these substances was found in wild plants from Great Yalour Island. The content of phenolics and flavonoids in plants cultured in vitro was generally comparable to that in plants collected from natural habitats except for some clones. HPLC analysis revealed five main metabolites present in similar ratios in the studied samples of wild and in vitro plants. Minor substances varied slightly in different extracts, however their presence did not depend on plant growth conditions. No significant qualitative differences in HPLC profiles were found between the wild and in vitro plants. The studied samples did not contain quercetin, kaempferol and luteolin, whereas orientin was found in all studied samples of D. antarctica.
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Authors and Affiliations

Maryana Twardovska
1
Iryna Konvalyuk
1
Kateryna Lystvan
2
Igor Andreev
1
Ivan Parnikoza
1 3
Viktor Kunakh
1

  1. Department of Cell Population Genetics, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,150 Acad. Zabolotnogo Str., 03143, Kyiv, Ukraine
  2. Department of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic, Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 148 Acad. Zabolotnogo Str., 03143, Kyiv, Ukraine
  3. State Institution National Antarctic Scientific Center, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 16 Shevchenko Ave., 01601, Kyiv, Ukraine
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Abstract

Identification of discrete stocks of Greenland halibut is an important aspect of proper fisheries exploitation. Available literature data indicated a lack of significant inter‑area differences between Greenland halibut populations from the Northeast Atlantic. To define the population diversity, two aspects were taken into account: enzyme‑genetic diversity and the concentration of heavy metals in tissues. Seven allozyme loci variations were used to characterize the genetic structure of four populations of Greenland halibut from the Western Barents Sea region. The samples were collected from the spawning area in the period when this species took migration to spawn. The sample RH4 was significantly different from the other samples collected from the same location (RH2 and RH3) and depth for over two days. Another sample (RH8), collected from the nearby area 6 days later was similar to the samples RH2, RH3. We noticed a significant divergence between the sample RH4 and the three remaining samples, where the value of the index FST fluctuated about 0.40 and approximately 0.01 between three similar populations. This genetic fluctuation negates the thesis of a panmictic character of the Western Atlantic population. Feeding groups of Greenland halibut are moving along the Barents Sea shelf and they are exposed to different heavy metals concentrations according to the food preferences or the exact place of feeding. We identified similar concentrations of heavy metals, i.e., Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in all samples. Trace metal analysis of aquatic organisms from the Barents Sea can provide important information on the degree of environmental contamination, and the potential impact of seafood consumption.
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Authors and Affiliations

Barbara Wojtasik
1
Agnieszka Kijewska
2
Monika Mioduchowska
1 3
Barbara Mikuła
4
Jerzy Sell
1

  1. University of Gdansk, Department of Genetics and Biosystematics, Gdansk, Poland
  2. Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland
  3. University of Gdansk, Department of Marine Plankton Research, Gdynia, Poland
  4. University of Silesia, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Katowice, Poland
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Abstract

The Arctic region is under considerable pressure from the rapidly growing global tourism industry. The goal of this article is to present the current state of tourism in Spitsbergen, including the results of empirical research about the type of tourists and their preferences in organizing a trip, i.e. motivation, choice of attractions, etc. The survey in Longyearbyen town was conducted in 2018 and 2019 during two summer and two winter trips. As a result, a total of n=214 questionnaires were collected, presenting interesting insights into tourists’ profiles and their motivation in coming to the island. Based on the results, the Arctic tourism sector is characterized by seasonality, which significantly affects the distribution of tourist arrivals throughout the year. During the last 15 years, Spitsbergen island noticed the greatest boom in tourism linked to the development of transport infrastructure (new ports and airports) and accommodation (hotels). From one side, the tourism industry contributes significantly to employment in Longyearbyen, still from the other side, it burdens the local community and challenges their lives due to increased pollution of air, water and ground. The increased tourism also poses serious threats to the natural environment, which is already under pressure due to global warming resulting in melting Arctic glaciers and increased sea level. Therefore, it is crucial to implement new regulations to control and manage the development of tourism while protecting nature and its residents.
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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalena Kugiejko
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Department of Tourism and Recreation, Bogumiła Krygowskiego 10, 61-680 Poznań, Poland

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