Humanities and Social Sciences

Slavia Orientalis


Slavia Orientalis | 2021 | vol. LXX | No 3 |

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In 1790, a small book appeared anonymously, Les fruits de la grâce. The article identifies the sources of this book and presents views of its two principal authors, prince Nikolay Repnin and Nikolay Kraevich. Both of them were Rosicrucians; they expressed a very deep Christian spirituality while their Masonic allegiance appears to have been a result of dissatisfaction with the legalism of the official Orthodox Church.
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Żytkowicz L., Rządy Repnina na Litwie w latach 1794‑7, Wilno 1938.
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Authors and Affiliations

Adam Drozdek

  1. Pittsburgh, Duquesne University
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Of the Victorian writers Tolstoy read, Charles Dickens was the most eminent, and his appreciation of the English author was permanent and unchangeable. Tolstoy admired Dickens for the democratic and humanistic qualities in his writings. The theme of social isolation and gradual re‑adaptation into society is explored by Dickens in A Christmas Carol and Tolstoy in Where Love Is, There Is God Also. The story of Scrooge’s mean‑spirited solitude which was later replaced by open‑hearted sociability was not like Martin’s. Scrooge deliberately isolated himself from his family and avoided all human contact. Martin was unable to find a purpose and meaning in life after the death of his wife and children. A series of events and encounters with people lead both protagonists towards the development of a new moral understanding and make life worth living. The moral lesson is to treat all people with compassion. Dickens and Tolstoy took the commonest and simplest sorts of human kindness and showed them intensified. Both stories are also openly didactic, and the main characters are developed through their actions, and good deeds. The details of place, time and people are made very real to the reader. They are intensified through the use of imagery, motifs of light and dark; and cold and heat, which recur throughout A Christmas Carol and Where Love Is, There Is God Also. In Tolstoy’s story there are also many examples of Biblical imagery which are used to add weight to the moral teaching of his story. In the final part of the stories the protagonists no longer desire isolation. Martin helps those in need and is glad to have guests. His every act of kindness is done as an act of charity, and accepted as such. According to Tolstoy, all people are able to do good if they will because man, as a child of the Heavenly Father, is himself good, and the evils of the world are obstructions which prevent him from being himself. What is more, striving towards God means striving for goodness and man’s progress towards his own perfection. In the final part of Dickens’s novel Scrooge visits his nephew Fred, where he has a wonderful time. Being a part of a family is equated for him with happiness. While the backdrop of A Christmas Carol is a Christian festival and moral values underpin the novel in the shape of kindness, generosity and care for others, there is little sense of solemn religious ceremony in the novel. Dickens’s vision of Christmas is largely a secular one. He focuses on secular aspects of Christmas as a joyous holiday with parties and gatherings of friends and family.
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Authors and Affiliations

Brygida Pudełko

  1. Opole, Uniwersytet Opolski
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The myth of the wanderings by Odysseus seems to be one of the most sought‑after among the protagonists of world literature. Odysseus’s nostalgia became the standard within a sense of longing for an abandoned homeland, home, past, paradise lost, and here for exiles and immigrants of different eras and countries, mentally united through the prism of Western culture. Odysseus is a versatile and rather contradictory type of personality, one that corresponds to the spirit of the latest transitional era. The specific psychosphere of an immigrant is focused in its archetypal layer on the myth of Odysseus. Modern immigrant poets include in their lyrical discourse the image of the long‑suffering Odysseus as a nostalgic eaten up by longing and the personification of an extraordinary mind. Odysseus is an equivalent figure for the transitional era and the paradoxical consciousness of an immigrant, which is intensified by Odysseus ambiguity and the tendency that arises as to various possibilities for reading the image: in the aspect of nostalgic, spiritual victory, ironization and carnival.
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Authors and Affiliations

Светлана Фокина

  1. Одесса, Одесский национальный университет имени И.И. Мечникова
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One of the most important problems of contemporary humanities is the issue of memory and the discourse around the concept of trauma. The last is the experience of two North Caucasian nations, the Ingush and the Chechens, who were deported to Kazakhstan in 1944 on Stalin’s orders. The purpose of this article is to expose the way made by Chechen and Ingush literature from an arbitrarily imposed oblivion to an attempt to dismantle the institutionalized memory of these events. Books belonging to the canon of Russian literature (e.g. the novel The Inseparable Twins (1987) by Anatoly Pristavkin or the “novel‑idyll” A Gloom is Cast Upon the Ancient Steps (2000) by Alexander Chudakov) provide merely the background to the study. The main subject of the researcher’s interest are works written by less known Chechen and Ingush authors (Said Chakhkiyev, Gabatsu Lokaev, Yusup Chakhkiyev and Issa Kodzoyev). The fiction and non‑fiction both reveal a post‑traumatic syndrome and a victim narrative. The article presents a number of examples showing how the subject of deportation appeared in literature and how psychological memory was dominated by the compulsion of memory. The author’s attention is also directed to the practices of censoring the past and using memory for current political purposes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Joanna Kula

  1. Uniwersytet Wrocławski
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The aim of this article is to analyze the relationships between the characters of Serhij Zhadan’s novels and their place, in terms of geopoetics. Voroshilovgrad ( Ворошиловград) and The Orphanage ( Iнтернат) are the two novels that have been chosen to compare the characters in the context of the war in the Donbas, which can be considered a kind of censorship of the people. The methodological tools employed here are geopoetics, as determined by Elżbieta Rybicka. Further elements were recalled, such as the sensory space category, the reciprocal relationships between literature and geographical space and Mikolaj Madurowicz’s theory of homo localis, which is a visualisation of the relationship between the human and place. Moreover, the relationships between the characters and the place in the two mentioned texts were confronted with the recent study of Maria Lewicka on the psychology of place conducted in the Donbas. As the analysis shows, Zhadan’s characters develop either a weak or unusual bond with place. This was heavily affected by the historical background and its homo sovieticus phenomenon. The place alone seen through the sensory space category reflects a human attitude, thus fulfilling a broader view. As described in The Orphanage, the war becomes an indicator for this relationship, a moment of trial, whose results are currently unknown. A transversal view of change from a homo sovieticus to homo localis attitude emerges from the comparison of the relationships between Voroshilovgrad and The Orphanage, and their places.
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Authors and Affiliations

Joanna Majewska

  1. Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
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This article examines substandard vocabulary in Russian proverbs attested in collections going back to the period from the end of the 17th century. Our analysis of collections published in the 18th through to 20th century shows that their authors’ excessive prudery and moral purism along with state‑imposed censorship severely affected both the nature of folklore as a genre and the history of the Russian language. In later reprints one often detects an intentional corruption of the text possibly caused by either censorial demands or by the well‑intentioned self‑censorship of the editors who redacted the proverbs and replaced “lowly” lexical items with socially acceptable ones based on their idea of contemporary moral norms. Any investigation of Russian phraseology of the 17th‑18th centuries must therefore be based on primary sources such as manuscripts or early printed books.
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Authors and Affiliations

Елена Николаева
Сергей Николаев

  1. Санкт‑Петербург, Российский государственный гидрометеорологический
  2. Санкт‑Петербург, Институт русской литературы (Пушкинский Дом) РАН
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The poetic system of calendar and ritual folklore is especially characterized by parallelism, which is a stylistic device based on the homogeneous syntactic structure of two or more adjacent language units, mainly text lines, which seem to be symmetric. Parallelism is often supported with an expressive comparison of the ideas which can be called “psychological parallelism” – between the life of nature and fragments of a human life. This helps create the parallel “world of nature” and the “world of a person”. Parallelisms in ritual folklore works make the poetic images of characters, their actions, thoughts and feelings more expressive. Quite often the object and the subject of the action are compared based on the category of movement. Lexical and semantic and syntactic structures in calendar and ritual songs are based on associative and semantic relations as a form of systemic coordination and regularity of folklore thinking and are built upon a similarity of action. The majority of them are related to matrimonial motives. The article also focuses on negative parallelisms. Similar to comparisons, they were first used to specify the essence of the phenomena and only later became the means for any emotional colouring of the main images.
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Authors and Affiliations

Галина Коваль

  1. Львів, Інститут народознавства НАН України
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The paper focuses on the peculiarities of interaction between the Kryvorivnya dialect (Kr) of Southwest Ukrainian, on the one hand, and Standard Ukrainian (SU), on the other. Such interaction is analysed through the language mentality of a native speaker in terms of Martin Buber’s philosophy of dialogue. The author explores different approaches toward deep‑rooted mechanisms of the encounter of a speaker’s I with both non‑standard (dialect) and standard varieties of Ukrainian. The analysis is based on the material of literary works written in Kr or SU by Paraska Plytka‑Horytsvit as well as six interviews with native speakers who live in that area. All speakers interviewed for this paper speak both Kr and SU, thus being able to switch codes in various environments. The author argues that native speakers’ basic perception unfolds primarily along the I‑Thou relation, if viewed from the perspective of Kr, while it unfolds along the I‑It relation if perceived from the point of view of SU. These two types of perception are likely to temporarily fluctuate from the I‑Thou to I‑It relation and vice versa, which can be explained by the complexity of any linguistic mentality and human nature, in general.
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Authors and Affiliations

Оксана Лебедівна

  1. Київ, Національний університет «Києво-Могилянська академія»
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The paper considers the application feasibility of the category of disembodied proper names (as introduced by A. Gardiner) in the context of embodied proper names regarded as a feature of the language‑cultural description of Ukrainian eponyms. Drawing on eponyms found in Leksykon lʹvivsʹkyy, the author elucidates both advantages of this application and problems it involves, and argues for the typology of disembodied name semantic shifts within a unified theory of deonomastic formation of lexical and phraseological items.
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Authors and Affiliations

Serhiy Yermolenko

  1. Kyiv, O.O. Potebnia Institute of Linguistics
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The aim of the study is a historical‑etymological and sociolinguistic analysis of the above designations. Тhe traditional Ukrainian demonym цигани is considered to be an ancient borrowing from Greek. Historical names in other Slavic languages have the same origin, while the less widely used Germanic names are presumably borrowed from Slavic or other (Hungarian or Italian) languages. Names like the English term Rom(any) have been known since the 19th century. The distribution of such names in Europe concerns primarily the political sphere and is explained by the social unacceptability of names such as the English term Gypsies given their negative connotations. The peculiarity of the nomination lies in the historical diversity of the names of this ethnic group in different languages, their semantic ambiguity, and characteristic secondary meanings. The historical experience of Ukrainian designations is evidenced by derivatives and figurative meanings of various, including those of a negative nature. Set expressions and paroemias (catch phrases, aphorisms etc) refer to the characteristic realities of Gypsy life and its specific features. The perception of the traditional Ukrainian name by some speakers is ambiguous, something that should be considered rather a social problem. It is caused, in particular, by ethnic stereotypes that are reflected in the language. The names циган and ром(а) are not lexical duplicates, though their meanings are quite similar. Роми and ромський are increasingly used in the media, although, it has not yet become a normative phenomenon. The use of synonyms when referring to words with a relative meaning cannot be a problem. Similarly, belonging to exonyms cannot be problematic, because the term does not contain anything negative. Therefore, there are insufficient grounds to speak of the necessity of using any designation other than the historically established one. However, the authorities and society itself have the right to choose freely.
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Authors and Affiliations

Володимир Пономаренко

  1. Київ, Інститут мовознавства ім. О.О. Потебні НАН України
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Here conducted is research into functional parallels within Ukrainian and Polish media lexicography. The analysis of non‑vocabularies in the context of the functional‑stylistic approach, so dominant in modern times, is updated. In the information age, lexicography has become an interdisciplinary, syncretic and innovative field of academic knowledge, testing the experience of several academic disciplines, primarily linguistics, semiotics and computer science / cybernetics. The purpose of our article is to create a model for a new media dictionary (of a discursive and functional type), which would meet the requirements of the times and the practical needs of a 21st‑century user. Here lies the matter of superimposing the Ukrainian and Polish experience of modern progressive changes in media lexicography as an innovative method for the creation of dictionaries. The complex screening of neo‑lexicography in the field of the media in Ukraine and Poland is presented, the functional criteria for the analysis of media innovations and their representation in dictionaries are defined, while the prospects of the cooperation of lexicographers on e‑dictionaries are outlined. The authors see in the Polish‑Ukrainian media lexicographic disposition, evolutionary changes on the way to the creation of a dictionary that would reflect the dynamic language processes within mass communication.
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Authors and Affiliations

Лариса Шевченко
Дмитро Сизонов

  1. Київський національний університет імені Тараса Шевченка
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The article presents a pragmatic analysis of precedent units in Ukrainian religious media discourse based on the publications from websites “RISU”, “Religion in Ukraine”, “The Catholic Observer” for the period 2014 to 2016. The sample comprises analytical articles and interviews focused on inter‑confessional relations, Catholic-‑Orthodox dialogue and interfaith dialogue in general. It has been found that precedent units, as verbal equivalents of precedent phenomena, play a crucial role in exerting a persuasive influence upon one’s audience, particularly in terms of verbal aggression within the communicative discrediting strategy. This type of verbal aggression is implemented via the verbal tactics of taunting, mocking, accusation, indirect insult, criticism, defamation through negatively‑marked comparison, and irony. Based on our data, references to precedent phenomena correlate with an author’s intentions of swaying the readers’ opinion on controversial issues in interfaith relations along with undermining the authority of representatives of other confessions by associating their deeds and words with negatively marked precedent names, phrases, texts and situations. It is argued that precedent units subjected to structural transformations in the text (such as truncation and extension) represent a particularly potent way of discrediting one’s opponent in the context of religious media discourse.
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Authors and Affiliations

Олександр Левко

  1. Київський національний університет імені Тараса Шевченка

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Recenzenci (2015-2019)

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Duda, Katarzyna, dr hab., prof. UJ, Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Dudek, Andrzej, dr hab., Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Fałowski, Adam, prof.dr hab. Uniwersyetet Jagielloński
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Kiklewicz, Aleksander, prof. zw., dr hab., Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski
Korytkowska, Małgorzata, prof. zw., dr hab., Instytut Slawistyki PAN
Kościołek, Anna, dr hab., prof. UMK, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika
Kowalczyk, Witold, dr hab., prof. UMCS, Uniwersytet Marii Curie -Skłodowskiej
Kozak, Stefan, em. prof. zw., dr hab., Uniwersytet Warszawski
Laszczak, Wanda, prof. zw., dr hab., Uniwersytet Opolski
Łucewicz, Ludmiła,, dr hab., Uniwersytet Warszawski
Majmieskułow, Anna, dr hab., prof. UKW, Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego
Malej, Izabella, prof. zw., dr hab., Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Małek, Eliza, prof. zw., dr hab., Uniwersytet Łódzki
Mędelska, Jolanta, prof. zw., dr hab., Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego
Mianowska, Joanna, em. prof. zw., dr hab., Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego
Mikiciuk, Elżbieta, dr hab., prof. UG, Uniwersytet Gdański
Mozer, Michael, prof., Instytut Slawistyki, Uniwersytet w Wiedniu
Orłowski, Jan, em. prof. zw., dr hab., Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej
Pluskota, Teresa, dr hab., prof. UKW, Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego
Ranczin, Andriej, prof., Moskiewski Uniwersytet im. M. Łomonosowa
Raźny, Anna, prof. zw., dr hab., Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Rieger, Janusz, em. prof. zw., dr hab., Uniwersytet Warszawski
Stawarz, Barbara, dr hab., prof. UP, Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny w Krakowie
Suchanek, Lucjan, em. prof. zw., dr hab., Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Wawrzyńczyk, Jan, em. prof. zw., dr hab., Uniwersytet Warszawski
Wołodźko-Butkiewicz, Alicja,, dr hab., Uniwersytet Warszawski


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