Applied sciences

Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management

Content

Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management | 2020 | vol. 36 | No 3 |

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Abstract

The continuous improvement in the industries and organizations hinges upon the evaluation of their performance. In fact, the performance evaluation assists organizations to identify their strengths and weaknesses and, accordingly, enhance their efficiency. As soon as the concept of sustainability was propounded in the engineering based industries, the performance evaluation got more importance due to the environmental issues and social concerns along with the economical aspects. Therefore, this paper is an attempt to propose an approach based on fuzzy best-worst method (BWM) and fuzzy inference system (FIS) in order to evaluate the performance of an Iranian steel complex in terms of sustainability concept. In the proposed approach, the weights of some selected criteria were determined by fuzzy BWM method and, then, the score of the under study industry was calculated in terms of economic, environmental, and social aspects. At the end, an FIS was developed to calculate the final score of the intended industry. In order to check the efficiency of the proposed approach, its performance was measured using expert knowledge as well as real data of a steel complex in Iran. A moderate to high performance has been achieved for the understudy case through conducting the proposed approach. It was suggested that the industry should focus on the criteria with both high weights and low evaluated scores (for example the environmental management technologies and knowledge criterion) to increase its performance evaluation score. The obtained results were indicative of the efficiency of the proposed approach.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mehdi Pezeshkan
Navid Hosseini
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Abstract

The fact that mines have to be established at the place where they are located without having a chance to choose a location brings out area usage conflicts with areas that need to be protected. In fact, forestlands are most common in these overlapping areas in Turkey. In order to perform mining activities in this overlapping forestlands, mining enterprises in Turkey receive forest land permit fees (FLPF), reforestation fees, rehabilitation fees + security deposit of conformity to the environment (SDCE), and other fees. In order to determine the share of these costs in mining investments and operating costs (OC) and to bring a solution proposal so that these costs do not pose a risk of loss of the investment in the mining enterprises, questions have been asked to mining enterprises within Turkey using the “Survey Monkey” program. The averages of all forest fees determined from the answers are proportioned to the mining investment amounts (MIA) and the annual average OC of each mining company responding to the Survey.

Thus, the distribution criteria of different forest fees that are required to be paid by the mining enterprises in order to carry out mining operations in the forestlands in Turkey and their distribution on the basis of mineral groups were analyzed. In this calculation, it was suggested that all the fees in Turkey should be reduced to a more reasonable degree by suggesting solutions regarding the calculation method envisaged by the FLPF, which has a very high share. Otherwise, the result of these rates shows that the costs of forest land-use for mining stipulated by the legislation in Turkey are quite high compared to other countries, and that the current mining investments can have difficulty in maintaining their economic operability in the presence of these required costs.

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Authors and Affiliations

Taşkın Deniz Yildiz
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Abstract

The growth of the global population, urbanization as well as economic and industrial development, affect the continuously increasing demand for mineral aggregates. The current assessed global production of mineral aggregates amounts to 50 billion Mg/year, which statistically approximates 6.5 Mg per an inhabitant of the globe. In terms of consumption volume, water is the only raw material ahead of aggregates. Despite such a great scale, in many countries and regions the extraction and production of aggregates belong to the least regulated sector of human activity. This refers particularly to the countries of A sia, A frica, and North A merica, where both the resources and the extraction of aggregates, particularly of sand and gravels, are either not monitored and registered. It significantly increases the negative impact on the natural environment, due to the destruction of riverbeds and oxbows, coastal erosion, drying up cultivation areas, etc. In the reports, local terminology of aggregates often functions, which makes it difficult to compare them and prepare appropriate balances. In order to regulate the unfavorable situation, one of the main conclusions of the Report (UNEP 2019) is the need of implementing a common requirement to plan and monitor the process of extraction of natural resources. The paper presents the possibility of forecasting the extraction and producing aggregates based on the consumption of cement, i.e. the basic building material. A lthough the analyzed coefficient of mineral aggregate production per unit of cement consumption (production) varies, its advantage is the fact that the production of cement is identified and taken into account in balances of industrial production of the majority of countries, whereas such identification for mineral aggregate production are still lacking.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ireneusz Ryszard Baic
Wiesław Kozioł
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Abstract

This publication presents the research aimed at developing statistical models, on the basis of which it was possible to prepare credible forecasts of unit cost and coal net output for longwalls in 5 hard coal mines in P oland. The argument has been verified that there is a dependence between the level of nuisance and the level of costs, as well as longwall production results.

A research procedure has been developed for that purpose, which aimed at developing two statistical models connecting the nuisance due to geological and mining conditions with costs and longwall production results. The multiple linear regression technique has been used to develop statistical models. The set of data taken into account in the analyses comprised 120 longwalls mined in the years 2010–2019. Two models have been developed – one for forecasting unit costs, the other for forecasting coal net output. Subsequently, the models’ forecasting ability has been verified on a sample of historical data. A relative forecast error for 75% of observations has been in the range of (–25%; +37%). That result has been considered satisfactory. Subsequently, using those models, forecasts of unit costs and coal net output have been prepared for 220 longwalls planned for mining in the years 2020–2030. Those forecasts have been prepared in the stipulated ranges of geological and mining nuisance influencing mining process, by means of dedicated W Ue and W Ut factors. The nuisance models for forecasting purposes have been developed using the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method. The research hypothesis has been confirmed on the basis of the obtained results. An increase in the level of nuisance leads to an increase in the unit costs for longwalls and the deterioration of production results. Unit operating costs for longwalls in specific ranges of nuisance may differ by up to 30%, being in the range of 52.0–120.3 zł/Mg. Likewise, the coal daily output of longwalls may be even 22% lower, having the average level in the range of 1.89–3.61 thousand Mg/d.

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Authors and Affiliations

Eugeniusz Jacek Sobczyk
Andrzej Sokołowski
Michał Kopacz
Kamil Fijorek
Sabina Denkowska
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Abstract

Waters with mineralization above 1000 mg/dm3, classified as mineral waters, are exploited in many regions of Poland. Their resources are usually not renewable and their excessive exploitation can lead to the deterioration of their physical and chemical properties and negatively affect their quantitative status.

The stages in the life of a groundwater deposit involve prospecting, exploration, development, and exploitation. Deposit management is the basis for a sustainable and economically successful process of using water resources.

The problem of effective management of mineral water deposit management has not been raised so far, which is why the authors decided to address issues that should be taken into account in the abovementioned process. An integrated approach to the prospecting, exploration, opening, and exploitation of mineral waters combining the knowledge of specialists from various disciplines (hydrogeologists, geologists, drillers and producers) will enable the appropriate management of these resources.

The article describes the basic elements of the process, special attention has been paid to the mineral water deposit development plan conditioning the correct and economically justified exploitation of these waters. This plan should take the development strategy and legal and environmental conditions into account. Hydrogeological and mathematical models of mineral water deposits developed as part of the plan provide the basis for determining the extent of the mining area and estimating water resources. The deposit opening, exploitation, and monitoring methods are important elements of the deposit development plan.

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Authors and Affiliations

Barbara Uliasz-Misiak
Elżbieta Wojna-Dyląg
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Abstract

The heavy metal content is one of the criteria for foundry dust commercial use. To assess the possibility of foundry dust use, it is necessary to analyze its composition, including the content of basic heavy metals, and its mechanical properties. The paper presents the results of research on foundry dust from one of the Polish foundries. The aim of the study was to assess the waste management based on its composition and content of heavy metals. Dust samples were taken from one of the Polish foundries, producing iron and steel castings. Samples were taken from several places in the foundry, i.e. from electric furnace dust collectors, shock grating unit, transport of moulding sands unit, pneumatic blast cabinet units and the regeneration of spent foundry sand units. Samples were taken twice from each place at the turn of 2017–2018. The total content of heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, and Fe for recovery and additionally Hg as environmental pollution was analyzed. Based on the results of the research, it was found that the dust from foundry furnaces and pneumatic cleaners can be used in metallurgy due to a high percentage of iron. It was found that the dust from casting cleaning, transport and regeneration department can be used in the cement or construction industry. In addition, an assessment of the mercury content showed that the re-use of this dust would not cause an environmental hazard. It was found that the profitability of foundry dust use depends on the stability of its composition and requires testing for each batch of dusts.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marta Bożym
Beata Klojzy-Karczmarczyk
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Abstract

The aim of the work was to draw attention to the usefulness of the alkaline thermal activation process with sodium hydroxide in the process of rare earth metal leaching (REE), from fly ash with hydrochloric acid and nitric acid(V). The work is a part of the authors’ own research aimed at optimizing the REE recovery process coming from fly ash from hard coal combustion.

The article contains an assessment of the possibility of leaching rare earth metals (REE) from fly ash originating from the combustion of hard coal in one of the Polish power plants. The process was carried out for various samples consisting of fly ash and sodium hydroxide and for different temperatures and reaction times. The process was carried out for samples consisting of fly ash and sodium hydroxide containing respectively 10, 20 and 30% on NaOH by weight in relation to the weight of fly ash. Homogenization of these mixtures was carried out wet, and then they were baked at 408K, 433K and 473K, for a period of three hours. The mixture thus obtained was ground to a particle size of less than 0.1 mm and washed with hot water to remove excessive NaOH. The solid post-reaction residue was digested in concentrated HCl at 373K for 1 hour at a weight ratio fs/fc of 1:10. The results of chemical analysis and scanning microscopic analysis along with EDS analysis and X-ray analysis were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of the tested material.

The results indicated that REE recovery from fly ash strictly depends on heat treatment temperature with NaOH, and an increase in REE recovery from alkaline-activated fly ash along with increasing the amount of NaOH in relation to fly ash mass.

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Authors and Affiliations

Sylwester Żelazny
Henryk Świnder
Andrzej Jarosiński
Barbara Białecka
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of hydrothermal zeolitization of fly ash from hard coal combustion in one of the Polish power plants. The synthesis was carried out using various NaOH fly ash mass ratio (3.0, 4.0 and 6.0) and the effect of NaOH concentration in the activating solution on composition of synthesized sample was tested. The process was carried out under the following permanent conditions temperature: 90°C, time – 16 hours, water solution of NaOH (L)/fly ash (g) ratio – 0.025. In the studied fly ash the dominant chemical components were SiO2 and Al2O3, while the main phase components were mullite, quartz and hematite, and a significant share of amorphous substance (glass and unburnt organic substance). After hydrothermal synthesis, the presence of unreacted fly ash phases was found in the products, as well as new phases, the quality and quantity of which depend on the NaOH to fly ash mass ratio used for synthesis:

 for ratio 3.0 – Na-LSX type zeolite and hielscherite,

 for ratio 4.0 – Na-LSX type zeolite, hielscherite and hydrosodalite,

 for ratio 6.0 – hydrosodalite and hielscherite.

The grains in all products of synthesis are poly-mineral. However, it was found that the new phases, overgrowing the unreacted phase components of fly ash, crystallize in a certain order. Hielscherite is the first crystallizing phase, on which the Na-LSX type zeolite crystallizes then, and the whole is covered by hydrosodalite. In the products of synthesis, the share of sodium-containing phases (the Na-LSX type zeolite and hydrosodalite) increases with the increasing concentration of NaOH in the solution used for the process.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zdzisław Adamczyk
Magdalena Cempa
Barbara Białecka
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of hydrogeological parameters determination carried out in the area of the Muschelkalk outcrop (Middle Triassic) near Tarnów Opolski. The studies consisted of a short pumping test in 16 piezometers and then their flooding and observation of water table recovery after the stopping of the pumping. The test allowed the values of hydraulic conductivity and specific capacity of Muschelkalk layers ranging from 8.56 · 10–8 m/s to 3.63 · 10–3 m/s and from 0.0075 to 128 m3/h/1mS, respectively, to be calculated. The wide range of values is related to the fact of studying the layers characterized by high permeability and water-bearing capacity (Karchowice Beds, Diplopora Beds and Górażdże Beds) as well as layers with low permeability (Gogolin Beds). The dense network of the research points made it possible to demonstrate the surface variability of rocks permeability and water- bearing capacity, determined mostly by the direction of outcrops of individual layers. The results of the conducted studies show that the most water-bearing zone of the area is related to the carbonate rocks of the Karchowice, Diplopora and Górażdże Beds, characterized by the highest values of hydraulic conductivity k (above 2 · 10–4 m/s) and specific capacity q (above 15 m3/h/1mS), in the belt stretching latitudinally through Kosorowice–Otmice. The studied area can be considered a Polish limestone-concrete field where several mines exploiting Muschelkalk carbonate rocks operate. The results of the conducted studies may be useful for the correct prognosis of the groundwater inflow either to already existing quarries or newly designed mines within the Major Groundwater Basins.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mirosław Wąsik
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Abstract

This paper deals with issues related to tribological processes occurring as a result of excessive wear of the surface of scraper conveyor components caused by the impact of the mined material created during drilling of development or exploitation galleries. One of the most common types of tribological wear is abrasive wear. W ear tests were carried out for hard coal – based abrasive using dry carbon abrasive and a hydrated mixture with 76 and 58% hard coal. Based on the conducted research, it was established that the effects of wear processes are associated with damage typical of wear mechanisms: micro-scratching and micro-fatigue. For the wear variant in the presence of dry coal abrasive, individual scratches caused by the abrasive grains were observed on the surface of the samples. The main reason for this type of damage was the aggregation of quartz, which is one of the basic components of the mineral substance present in the tested hard coal. When hydrated carbon mixtures were used as an abrasive, the surface of the samples also displayed scratches characteristic of the aggregate quartz. A small part of the carbon abrasive was pressed into the scratches. Under the influence of the wear caused by friction, small depressions were also formed, where coal penetrated. The effect of coal pressing into micro-scratches is related to its plastic properties. T ests of the abrasive conducted after the conclusion of wear tests have shown that under the influence of the local increase in temperature and pressure, the hard coal contained in the abrasive can undergo transformations. In the abrasive transformed under friction, small, but measurable changes in the content of the C element in relation to the initial hard coal sample were exhibited.

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Authors and Affiliations

Iwona Jonczy
Andrzej N. Wieczorek
Jacek Podwórny
Anna Gerle
Marcin Staszuk
Jacek Szweblik

Editorial office

Editorial Board
  • Editor-in-Chief: Eugeniusz Mokrzycki
  • Deputy Editor-in-Chief: Ryszard Uberman (section: mining)
  • Editorial Secretary: Krzysztof Galos (section: mineralogy)
  • Deputy Editorial Secretary: Lidia Gawlik (section: mineral and energy economy)
  • Deputy Editorial Secretary: Beata Klojzy-Karczmarczyk (section: environmental engineering in mining)
  • Statistical Editor: Jacek Mucha
Advisory Board
  • Mattias Bäckström, Assistant Professor, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  • Wiesław Blaschke, PhD(Eng), Professor, The Institute of Mechanised Construction and Rock Mining, Katowice, Poland
  • Jan Butra, Professor, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wrocław, Poland
  • Dennis L. Buchanan, Professor, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, United Kingdom
  • Michal Cehlár – Technical University of Košice, Slovak Republic
  • Józef Dubiński, Professor, The Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland
  • Jakub Jirasek, Associate Professor, The Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
  • Roman Magda, Professor, The AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
  • Antonio Mateus, Professor, Universidade de Lisboa, Lizbona, Portugal
  • Jacek Motyka, Professor, The AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
  • Marek Nieć, DSc(Eng), Professor, The MEERI PAS, Kraków, Poland
  • James Otto, Professor, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, USA
  • Marian Radetzki, Professor, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
  • Anton Sroka, Professor, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, University of Resources, Freiberg, Germany
  • Krzysztof Szamałek, Professor, The University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • Günter Tiess, Assistant Professor, MinPol GmbH, Dreistetten, Austria
Publishing Committee
  • Emilia Rydzewska – linguistic editor (Polish)
  • Michelle Atallah – linguistic editor (English)
  • Barbara Sudoł – technical editor

Contact

Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of
Sciences J. Wybickiego 7A, 31-261 Kraków,
Phone: (+48) 12 632 33-00, Fax: +48 12 632 35-24
Email: gsm@min-pan.krakow.pl

Additional information

The subject matter of the articles published in Mineral Resources Management covers issues related to minerals and raw materials, as well as mineral deposits, with particular emphasis on:

  • The scientific basis for mineral resources management,
  • The strategy and methodology of prospecting and exploration of mineral deposits,
  • Methods of rational management and use of deposits,
  • The rational exploitation of deposits and the reduction in the loss of raw materials,
  • Mineral resources management in processing technologies,
  • Environmental protection in the mining industry,
  • Optimization of mineral deposits and mineral resources management,
  • The rational use of mineral resources,
  • The economics of mineral resources,
  • The raw materials market,
  • Raw materials policy,
  • The use of accompanying minerals,
  • The use of secondary raw materials and waste,
  • Raw material recycling,
  • The management of waste from the mining industry.

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