Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering


Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2021 | vol. 70 | No 1

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The article presents a modulation method for BLDC motors with unconnected windings. This method uses two full bridges (or three 12-switch H-bridges). The use of the described modulation enables reducing the motor current variable and increasing (fourfold in relation to the switching frequency) the motor current ripple frequency. The most important benefit of using a 12-switch inverter is the twofold reduction of the dc-link voltage while maintaining the rated rpm (voltage reduction in comparison to a typical supply method). A voltage reduction causes a reduction in losses on semi-conductor elements. The article also demonstrates that the proposed modulation technique significantly shortens the time of current commutation between windings.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Baszynski

  1. AGH – University of Science and Technology, Poland
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The Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model is one of the most effective models for load forecasting with hyperparameters which can be used not only to determine the CNN structure and but also to train the CNN model. This paper proposes a framework for Grid Search hyperparameters of the CNN model. In a training process, the optimal models will specify conditions that satisfy requirement for minimum of accuracy scores of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE). In the testing process, these optimal models will be used to evaluate the results along with all other ones. The results indicated that the optimal models have accuracy scores near the minimum values. Load demand data of Queensland (Australia) and Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam) were utilized to verify the accuracy and reliability of the Grid Search framework.
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Authors and Affiliations

Thanh Ngoc Tran

  1. Faculty of Electrical Engineering Technology, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, 12 Nguyen Van Bao, Ward 4, Go Vap District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
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For voltage-source-converter based high-voltage-direct-current (VSC-HVDC) transmission systems, fault ride-through (FRT) capability is a very important grid requirement in order to enhance its operational availability under an alternating current (AC) grid fault condition. Voltage sags during a short-circuit fault in power transmission lines can lead to fluctuations in the direct current (DC) link voltage of converter systems, and may induce reversed power flow and even trip a VSC-HVDC transmission system. A practical method is developed in this paper for investigating FRT capability of VSC-HVDC transmission system characteristics during a voltage sag event using experimental results from Smart Grid Laboratory. Symmetrical and asymmetrical voltage sag events with different remaining voltages are applied to an AC grid that lasts with a variable duration. The experimental waveforms of the two converter systems are recorded and analyzed in order to evaluate the FRT capability of VSC-HVDC transmission systems.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ngo Minh Khoa
Nguyen An Toan
Doan Duc Tung

  1. Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Quynhon University, Vietnam
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Wind power integration through the voltage source converter-based high-voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) system will be a potential solution for delivering large-scale wind power to the “Three-North Regions” of China. However, the interaction between the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) and VSC-HVDC system may cause the risk of subsynchronous oscillation (SSO). This paper establishes a small-signal model of the VSC based multi-terminal direct current (VSC-MTDC) system with new energy access for the problem, and the influencing factors causing SSO are analyzed based on the eigenvalue analysis method. The theoretical analysis results show that the SSO in the system is related to the wind farm operating conditions, the rotor-side controller (RSC) of the DFIG and the interaction of the controller in the VSC-MTDC system. Then, the phase lag characteristic is obtained based on the signal test method, and a multi-channel variable-parameter subsynchronous damping controller (SSDC) is designed via selecting reasonable parameters. Finally, the correctness of the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the multi-channel variable-parameter SSDC are verified based on time-domain simulation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Miaohong Su
Haiying Dong
1 2
Kaiqi Liu
Weiwei Zou

  1. School of Automatic and Electrical Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China
  2. School of New Energy and Power Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China
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Multilevel inverters have been widely used in various occasions due to their advantages such as lowharmonic content of the outputwaveform. However, because multilevel inverters use a large number of devices, the possibility of circuit failure is also higher than that of traditional inverters. A T-type three-level inverter is taken as the research object, and a diagnostic study is performed on the open-circuit fault of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) devices in the inverter. Firstly, the change of the current path in the inverter when an open-circuit fault of the device occurred, and the effect on the circuit switching states and the bridge voltages were analyzed. Then comprehensively considered the bridge voltages, and proposed a fault diagnosis method for a T-type three-level inverter based on specific fault diagnosis signals. Finally, the simulation verification was performed. The simulation results prove that the proposed method can accurately locate the open-circuit fault of the inverter device, and has the advantage of being easy to implement.
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Authors and Affiliations

Danjiang Chen
Yutian Liu
Shaozhong Zhang

  1. College of Information and Intelligence Engineering, Zhejiang Wanli University, China
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Mathematical models of electric an arc with disturbed geometric sizes were created based on initial assumptions adopted from theMayr and Cassie models. Two cases of approximation of arc characteristics were considered separately. The Mayr–Voronin model was created in the low-current range with an exponential dependence of conductance on plasma enthalpy. However, the Cassie–Voronin model created is valid in the high-current range with a linear dependence of conductance on plasma enthalpy. In addition, the effect of two different assumptions about the method of energy dissipation, proportional to the lateral surface of the column or proportional to the volume of the column, on the parameters of both mathematical models was compared. It has been shown that under constant geometrical parameter values, created models can be reduced to classic Mayr and Cassie models. Then, these modelswere modified by taking into account the additional increase in heat dissipation as the current increases. Increasing voltage and current characteristics correspond to such an arc. Using the computer simulations, the effectiveness of using developed mathematical models in mapping the dynamic characteristics of the electric arc has been shown.
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Authors and Affiliations

Antoni Sawicki

  1. Association of Polish Electrical Engineers (NOT-SEP), Czestochowa Division, Poland
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The comprehensive evaluation of the smart grid is of great significance to the development of the power grid. This study mainly analyzed the coordinated planning of major networks and power distribution networks of the grid. Firstly, the coordinated planning of major networks and power distribution networks was introduced, then a comprehensive evaluation index system was established based on six domains, i.e., economy, safety, reliability, coordination, environmental protection, and automation. The evaluation of the indexes was realized through the expert scoring method. Finally, taking the power grid planning of Boao Town, Qionghai City, Hainan Province, China, as an example, the current scheme and planning scheme were evaluated. The results showed that the planning scheme had better performance in aspects such as economy and reliability, and its score was 15.39% higher than the current scheme, which verifies the effectiveness of the planning scheme and its feasible application in practical projects.
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Authors and Affiliations

Guangtao Ning
Bing Fang
Dan Qin
Yafeng Liang
Lijuan Zheng

  1. Power Grid Planning and Design Research Center, Hainan Power Grid Co., Ltd., China
  2. Tellhow Software Co., Ltd, China
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This paper established a radio-frequency electrode model and human head model used in RF cosmetic instruments. The distribution of electric field strength, a specific absorption rate (SAR), and temperature distribution in the human brain at 1 MHz and 6 MHz were studied and the results compared with the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The results showed that under those two frequencies the maximum value of electric field strength in the human brain was 1.52 V/m and it was about 5.4% of the ICNIRP basic restrictions, the maximum SAR in human brain was about 2:21 ? 10??3 W/kg, which was far less than 2 W/kg of ICNIRP basic restrictions, the maximum temperature of the human brainwas 37:6? located in thewounded skin, which was the same as the normal temperature 37?. Since all the results were within the ICNIRP basic restrictions, the electromagnetic exposure generated by the RF cosmetic electrode will not pose a threat to the human health.
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Authors and Affiliations

Xinzhe Qi
Mai Lu

  1. Key Laboratory of Opt-Electronic Technology and Intelligent Control of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou, 730070, Gansu Province, P.R. China
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With the development of wireless power transfer technology, more and more attention has been paid to its electromagnetic safety. In this paper, a novel hybrid shielding structure composed of the innermost fan-shaped ferrite, the interlayer nanocrystalline strip and the outermost aluminum foil is proposed to shield the electromagnetic field of the inductive power transfer system. Eight structure parameters of the proposed shielding are optimized by finite element simulation, in order to reduce the magnetic leakage of the system and improve the utilization rate of shielding materials. In addition, the proposed structure is compared with two types of typical double-layer hybrid shielding from the perspectives of the weight, the coupling coefficient and the magnetic flux leakage. Both simulation and experiment results show that the cost and weight of the proposed shield are about 60% lower than the traditional disk shield. Moreover, the shielding layer proposed in this paper can not only effectively reduce the magnetic flux leakage of the system, but also maintain a high coupling coefficient.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yun Rui Liu
Chunfang Wang
Dongwei Xia
Rui Yue

  1. Qingdao University, China
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In the asynchronous interconnected power grid that is composed of the multiterminal voltage-source converter high voltage direct current (VSC-MTDC) system, the control methods of each converter station and the frequency of the connected AC system are not the same. When a fault occurs in any place of the asynchronous interconnected system, it will cause the system to have power shortage or surplus, affecting the safe and stable operation of the interconnected power grid. In order to solve the problem of insufficient regional active power reserve, based on the VSC-MTDC asynchronous regional interconnection system and the principle of regional sharing, the dynamic power controller under disturbance conditions is established, and the controller parameters are set to achieve the accuracy of unbalanced power in the disturbance area measuring. Then, according to the degree of the disturbance power, considering the factors that affect the support effect of the converter station, an emergency DC power support (EDCPS) scheme under different power disturbances is formulated to achieve power compensation for the disturbance area. Based on PSCAD/EMTDC software, the proposed control strategy is simulated. The result shows that the converter station closer to the disturbance area has a better support effect, and the dynamic active power controller can timely and accurately deliver to the disturbance area when the active power reserve is insufficient.
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Authors and Affiliations

Congshan Li
Tingyu Sheng
Yan Fang
Yikai Li

  1. School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, China
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This paper presents the application of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices based on heuristic algorithms in power systems. The work proposes the Autonomous Groups Particle Swarm Optimization (AGPSO) approach for the optimal placement and sizing of the Static Var Compensator (SVC) to minimize the total active power losses in transmission lines. A comparative study is conducted with other heuristic optimization algorithms such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Timevarying Acceleration Coefficients PSO (TACPSO), Improved PSO (IPSO), Modified PSO (MPSO), and Moth-Flam Optimization (MFO) algorithms to confirm the efficacy of the proposed algorithm. Computer simulations have been carried out on MATLAB with the MATPOWER additional package to evaluate the performance of the AGPSO algorithm on the IEEE 14 and 30 bus systems. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm offers the best performance among all algorithms with the lowest active power losses and the highest convergence rate.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ahmed A. Shehata
Ahmed Refaat
Mamdouh K. Ahmed
Nikolay V. Korovkin

  1. Institute of Energy, Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, Russia
  2. Electrical Engineering Department, Port-Said University, Egypt
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This paper proposes an advanced Internet of Things (IoT) system for measuring, monitoring, and recording some power quality (PQ) parameters. The proposed system is designed and developed for both hardware and software. For the hardware unit, three PZEM-004T modules with non-invasive current transformer (CT) sensors are used to measure the PQ parameters and an Arduino WeMos D1 R1 ESP8266 microcontroller is used to receive data from the sensors and send this data to the server via the internet. For the software unit, an algorithm using Matlab software is developed to send measurement data to the ThingSpeak cloud. The proposed system can monitor and analyse the PQ parameters including frequency, root mean square (RMS) voltage, RMS current, active power, and the power factor of a low-voltage load in real-time. These PQ parameters can be stored on the ThingSpeak cloud during the monitoring period; hence the standard deviation in statistics of the voltage and frequency is applied to analyse and evaluate PQ at the monitoring point. The experimental tests are carried out on low-voltage networks 380/220 V. The obtained results show that the proposed system can be usefully applied for monitoring and analysing chosen PQ parameters in micro-grid solutions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ngo Minh Khoa
Le Van Dai
Doan Duc Tung
Nguyen An Toan

  1. Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Quy Nhon University, Vietnam
  2. Faculty of Electrical Engineering Technology, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
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The paper presents a method of determining the efficiency of the slewing drive system applied in tower cranes. An algorithm for the proper selection of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) for crane applications is presented. In the first stage of our research the proper PMSM was proposed on the basis of the simulation calculation. Next, the PM motor was examined on a special test bench. The experimental setup allows determining major electrical and mechanical parameters of the motor drive system. The applied slewing system consists of: an inverter, gear, cable drum and a permanent magnet motor. The performance and efficiency of the system were experimentally determined. Selected results of the experimental measurement are presented and discussed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Łukasz Knypiński
Jacek Krupiński

  1. Poznan University of Technology, Poland
  2. Krupinski Cranes, Poland
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The neutral point clamped (NPC) three-level inverter is widely used in highvoltage and high-power applications. However, neutral point voltage oscillation (NPVO) and common-mode voltage (CMV) problems exist in the NPC three-level inverter. In this paper, an improved virtual space vector modulation (VSVM) is proposed based on the reconstruction of a virtual small vector and a virtual medium vector. Compared with the traditional VSVM, an improved VSVM can effectively reduce the CMV. On this basis, a vector conversion method is proposed to further reduce the NPVO in the whole range. Simulation results verify the effectiveness and superiority of the improved VSVM.
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Authors and Affiliations

Junlong Fang
Guangya Wang
Ran Li
Siyuan Liu
Shuyu Wang

  1. School of Electricity and Information, Northeast Agricultural University, China
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The energy storage system (ESS) is an important way to improve the power quality of renewable energy sources (such as solar energy and wind energy). A bi-directional DC/DC converter is an essential part of the ESS to achieve bi-directional energy transfer. According to the characteristics of the low-voltage gain and high-voltage stress of switches in the existing bi-directional DC/DC converter, this study proposes a novel two-phase interleaved parallel bi-directional DC/DC converter. The converter can effectively combine the advantages of a Z-source network and interleaved parallel structure. The working principle, the boost mode and buck mode of the converter are analyzed in detail. In addition, the voltage conversion ratios under the two modes are deduced. The control strategy of the two-phase interleaved parallel bi-directional DC/DC converter is introduced in detail. Furthermore, the main working waveforms of the system under each working mode are verified by building a simulation experiment model using MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results show that the system has advantages of high-voltage gain, low-voltage stress of switches and automatic current sharing between inductors.
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[16] Galigekere V.P., Kazimierczuk M.K., Small-Signal Modeling of Open-Loop PWM Z-Source Converter by Circuit-Averaging Technique, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 1286–1296 (2013), DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2012.2207437.
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Authors and Affiliations

Baoge Zhang
Deyu Hong
Tianpeng Wang
Zhen Zhang
Donghao Wang

  1. Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China
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Varying ohmic loss in the winding of electrical machines, which are operated at various operating points, results in temperature changes during operation. Particularly, when the temperature is varying dynamically, the insulation system suffers from repeated thermalmechanical stress, since the thermal expansion coefficients of the insulating materials and copper conductors are different. For the appropriate design of an insulation system, the effect of thermal-mechanical stress must be known. In the present work, motorettes are subjected to repeated thermal cycles. The expected lifetime is estimated and compared to the lifetime which is achieved by applying a lifetime-model which only considers thermal aging while ignoring thermal-mechanical stress effects. In addition, the hotspot temperature is simulated, the lifetime at the hotspot is estimated as theworst case. As expected, the results indicate that the thermal-mechanical stress plays a significant role during dynamic thermal aging of the winding insulation system. To better understand the thermal-mechanical stress effect, the resulting thermal-mechanical stress in a single wire is analyzed by the finite element method. A preliminary analysis of the aging mechanism of materials due to cyclic thermal-mechanical stress is performed with the theory of material fatigue.
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[1] Stone G.C., Boulter E.A., Culbert I., Dhirani H., Electrical insulation for rotating machines: design, evaluation, aging, testing, and repair, John Wiley & Sons (2004).
[2] Rothe R., Hameyer K., Life expectancy calculation for electric vehicle traction motors regarding dynamic temperature and driving cycles, 2011 IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference (IEMDC), Niagara Falls, ON, Canada, pp. 1306–1309 (2011).
[3] Huang Z., Modeling and testing of insulation degradation due to dynamic thermal loading of electrical machines, Licentiate Thesis, Lund University, Lund (2017).
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[8] Pauli F., Schröder M., Hameyer K., Design and evaluation methodology for insulation systems of low voltage drives with preformed coils, 2019 9th International Electric Drives Production Conference (EDPC), Esslingen, Germany, pp. 1–7 (2019).
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[11] IEC 60505, Evaluation and qualification of electrical insulation systems (2011).
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[13] Pauli F., Ruf A., Hameyer K., Low voltage winding insulation systems under the influence of high du/dt slew rate inverter voltage, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 187–202 (2020).
[14] IEC 60034–18–41, Rotating electrical machines – Part 18–41: Partial discharge free electrical insulation system (Type I) used in rotating electrical machines fed from voltage converters – Qualification and quality control tests (2014).
[15] Nikolova G., Ivanova J., Interfacial shear and peeling stresses in a two-plate structure subjected to monotonically increasing thermal loading, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, vol. 51 (2013).
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Authors and Affiliations

Liguo Yang
Florian Pauli
Kay Hameyer

  1. Institute of Electrical Machines (IEM), RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstraße 4, 52062 Aachen, Germany

Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

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[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript

[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

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[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).


[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).


[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).


[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).


[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).


[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms

[8] Author A., Title of article, in Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].


[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259


[9], accessed April 2010.


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The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro.

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