Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2013 | vol. 39 | No 2 |

Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The photocatalytic, sonolytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP) using heterogeneous (TiO2) was investigated in this study. Experiments were performed in slurry mode with artificial UV 125 watt medium pressure mercury lamp coupled with ultrasound (100 W, 33+3 KHz) for sonication of the slurry. The degradation of compound was studied in terms of first order kinetics. The catalyst concentration was optimized at 1.5 gL-1, pH at 7 and oxidant concentration at 1.5 gL-1. The results obtained were quite appreciable as 80% degradation was obtained for photocatalytic treatment in 120 minutes whereas, ultrasound imparting synergistic effect as degradation achieved 96% increase in 90 minutes during sonophotocatalysis. The degradation follows the trend sonophotocatalysis > photocatalysis > sonocatalytic > sonolysis. The results of sonophotocatalytic degradation of pharmaceutical compound showed that it could be used as efficient and environmentally friendly technique for the complete degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants which will increase the chances for the reuse of wastewater.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Anoop Verma
Harmanpreet Kaur
Divya Dixit
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The aim of the study was to determine the contamination transport condition with sediment in the Widawa River, which inflows to the Odra River below Wrocław city. The transport simulations have been performed by means of HEC-RAS model, which was calibrated. Study and geochemical analyses indicate that pollutions are cumulated mainly in sediment of grain size, less than 0,20 mm. It was stated that the main sources of contaminations occurring in the Widawa River bottoms are: superficial run-off, municipal and industrial wastes. Sediment bed quality from the Widawa River in selected cross-sections has been analyzed. Samples of suspended load were collected and divided into eight fractions, for which the phosphorus concentration P was calculated. Deposit particles less than 0,20 mm contained most phosphorus, i.e. 73% (3,52 ppm), and particles greater than 0,20 mm about 27% (1,30 ppm) for the whole sample volume. Relationship between the phosphorus concentration P and the sediment grain size was determined. Analysis showed that the initiation of contamination-sediment suspension in the Widawa River is well described by Engelund criterion. Simulations of the migration of pollutions together with deposits in the Widawa River showed that during average flow discharge, the transport intensity of pollution was equal 2 mg/s, and sediments 6 kg/s. In the present work the water quality of the Widawa River has been also presented.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Robert Kasperek
Marian Mokwa
Mirosław Wiatkowski
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The purpose of the study was to optimize the removal of Cr(VI) by means of the Trichoderma viride strain isolated from chromium mud samples a well as the Aspergillus niger and Penicillium citrinum strains from other environments. The growth of organism and removal of chromium(VI) was carried out in water solution of various chromium(VI) contents. The research was carried out at optimal pH for each fungus i.e. Aspergillus niger 4.0, Penicillium citrinum 5.0 and Trichoderma viride 4.5. During 14 days of incubation, samples of 5 ml each were collected every day in order to determine chromium(VI) content in the solution and the efficiency of bioaccumulation of this element was then specified. Furthermore, chromium contents in filtrate and mycelium were checked to verify this type of biological activity of microorganisms. The fungi culture investigated in this study could grow at 10-125 mg/l chromium concentration which indicated that it was characterized by high tolerance to various concentrations of chromium. At 125 mg/l chromium, these organisms could accumulate successfully about 90% of chromium. High tolerance of this culture can make it a potential candidate to be a heavy metal scavenger of chromium.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Anna Hołda
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


This paper presents the content changes in the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) solubilised in hydrolisates obtained from thermally disintegrated municipal waste biofractions. A series of tests related to biowaste undergoing thermal treatment at the following temperatures: 55, 75, 95, 115, 135, 155 and 175°C were conducted for 0.5, 1 and 2 hours. The highest increase in COD solid fraction solubilisation (238%) was observed for the samples disintegrated at 175°C for 2 hours. The values of the reaction rate coefficient k20 = 0.6 d-1 and temperature coefficient θ = 1.023 were determined. Statistical analysis of the multiple regression (correlation coefficient R = 0.89) showed that the temperature has a greater impact on COD solid fraction solubilisation - determined β = 0.66. The multiple correlation coefficient for the treatment time was β = 0.61.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Sylwia Myszograj
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


In the present study, treatment of synthetic wastewater containing phenol, resorcinol and catechol was studied in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Parameters such as hydraulic retention time (HRT) and filling time have been optimized to increase the phenol, resorcinol, catechol and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies. More than 99% phenol, 95% resorcinol and 96% catechol and 89% COD removal efficiency was obtained at optimum conditions of HRT = 1.25 d and fill time = 1.5 h. The heating value of the sludge was found to be 12 MJ/kg. The sludge can be combusted to recover its energy value.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Chandrakant Thakur
Indra Deo Mall
Vimal Chandra Srivastava
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The paper presents results of floristic investigation conducted within the territory of waste dumps in Lower Silesia: landfill of municipal waste Wrocław-Maślice, post-metallurgic waste heap in Siechnice, serpentine dumping grounds in Grochów and slag heaps in Bielawa.

The investigated flora was analyzed with regard to species composition, participation of geographical-historical groups, live forms (according to classification by Raunkiaer), as well as selected ecological factors: light indicator (L), thermal indicator (T), soil moisture (W), trophic indicator (Tr), soil reaction (pH), value of resistance to increased heavy metals content (M). On 4 waste dumps there were found 269 species of vascular plants, belonging to 51 families. Only 5 species occurred on 4 sites, which provides for 2% of all plants recorded. The most numerous families are Asteraceae, Poaceae and Fabaceae. Apophytes dominate in waste dumps flora Hemicryptophytes are the most numerous group.

Analysis of the floras (selected ecological factors) of investigated objects has shown general similarities, but also apparent differences. The most significant differences concerned two parameters: trophism (Tr) and resistance to increased heavy metals content (M).

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Anna Koszelnik-Leszek
Magda Podlaska
Klara Tomaszewska
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Treatment of leachate from an exploited since 2004 landfill by using two methods of advanced oxidation processes was performed. Fenton’s reagent with two different doses of hydrogen peroxide and iron and UV/H2O2 process was applied. The removal efficiency of biochemically oxidizable organic compounds (BOD5), chemically oxidizable compounds using potassium dichromate (CODCr) and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) was examined. Studies have shown that the greatest degree of organic compounds removal expressed as a BOD5 index and CODCr index were obtained when Fenton’s reagent with greater dose of hydrogen peroxide was used - efficiency was respectively 72.0% and 69.8%. Moreover, in this case there was observed an increase in the value of ratio of BOD5/CODCr in treated leachate in comparison with raw leachate. Application of Fenton’s reagent for leachate treatment also allowed for more effective removal of nutrients in comparison with the UV/H2O2 process.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Barbara Pieczykolan
Izabela Płonka
Krzysztof Barbusiński
Magdalena Amalio-Kosel
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Salinity has adverse effects on plants and is one of the causes of environment degradation. Plants have developed many defensive mechanisms, protecting them from sodium chloride (NaCl), including accumulation of osmoprotective compounds, which maintain osmotic balance, protect cell structure and enzymes. In the current study, we investigated the effects of salinity resulting from a range of sodium chloride concentrations (from 0 to 400 mM) on the growth of common duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.). Increasing concentration of sodium chloride decreased the area of common duckweed leaves. At the highest applied salt concentration, the decrease of leaf area was associated with leaf chlorosis. In yellow lupin, the increasing sodium chloride concentration inhibited root and stem elongation. The highest tested NaCl concentration of 400 mM completely stopped elongation of yellow lupin shoots. The content of cyclitols and soluble carbohydrates in plant tissues was evaluated as well. Cyclitols (D -chiro -inositol and D -pinitol), as well as soluble carbohydrates (glucose, fructose and sucrose) were detected in common duckweed tissues. Yellow lupin seedlings also contained cyclitols - D -pinitol, myo -inositol and D -chiro -inositol - and soluble carbohydrates - glucose, galactose and sucrose. The content of osmoprotectants in plant tissues, especially sucrose and cyclitols, increased with increasing concentration of sodium chloride in the soil. The results indicate that the content of cyclitols and soluble carbohydrates in plant tissues can be an indicator of plant response to salinity stress.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Łukasz Sikorski
Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz -Cieślak
Barbara Adomas
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) produced from Rhizobium radiobacter F2, designated as EPSF2, was investigated as a biosorbent for the removal of Pb(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solution. The optimum biosorption pH values were 5.0 for Pb(II) and 6.0 for Zn(II). Kinetics study revealed that the biosorption followed pseudo-first-order model well, and the equilibrium data fit the Langmuir model better. The adsorbed metal ions could be effectively desorbed by HCl. Desrobed EPSF2 regained 80% of the initial biosorption capacity after five cycles of biosorption-desorption-elution. These results demonstrated that EPSF2 could be a promising alternative for Pb(II) and Zn(II) removal from aqueous solution.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Lili Wang
Jixian Yang
Zhonglin Chen
Xiaowei Liu
Fang Ma
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


This paper presents the results of the investigation associated with the determination of mercury content in Polish hard coal and lignite samples. Those coals are major fuels used for electricity generation in Poland. The results indicated that the average content of mercury in the coal samples was roughly about 100 ng/g. Apart from the determination of the mercury contents a detailed ultimate and proximate analysis of the coal samples was also carried out. The relationships between the mercury content and ash, as well as fixed carbon, volatile matter, sulfur, and high heating value of the coal samples were also established. Furthermore, the effect of coal enrichment was also investigated, and it was found that the enrichment process enabled the removal of up to 75% of the coal mercury from the samples.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Michał Wichliński
Rafał Kobyłecki
Zbigniew Bis

Instructions for authors

Archives of Environmental Protection

Instructions for Authors

Archives of Environmental Protection is a quarterly published jointly by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Committee of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Thanks to the cooperation with outstanding scientists from all over the world we are able to provide our readers with carefully selected, most interesting and most valuable texts, presenting the latest state of research in the field of engineering and environmental protection.

The Journal principally accepts for publication original research papers covering such topics as:
- Air quality, air pollution prevention and treatment;
- Wastewater treatment technologies and processing of sewage sludge;
- Technologies in waste management in the field of neutralization / recovery / closed circulation;
- Hydrology and water quality, water treatment;
- Soil protection and remediation;
- Transformations and transport of organic/inorganic pollutants in the environment;
- Measurement techniques used in environmental engineering and monitoring;
- Other topics directly related to environmental engineering and environment protection.

The Journal accepts also authoritative and critical reviews of the current state of knowledge in the topic directly relating to the environment protection.

If unsure whether the article is within the scope of the Journal, please send an abstract via e-mail to:

Preparation of the manuscript
The following are the requirements for manuscripts submitted for publication:
* The manuscript (with illustrations, tables, abstract and references) should not exceed 20 pages. In case the manuscript exceeds the required number of pages, we suggest contacting the Editor.
* The manuscript should be written in good English.
* The manuscript ought to be submitted in doc or docx format in three files:
– text.doc – file containing the entire text, without title, keywords, authors names and affiliations, and without tables and figures;
– figures.doc
– file containing illustrations with legends;
– tables.doc
– file containing tables with legends;

*The text should be prepared in A4 format, 2.5 cm margins, 1.5 spaced, preferably using Time New Roman font, 12 point. The text should be divided into sections and subsections according to general rules of manuscript editing. The proposed place of tables and figures insertion should be marked in the text.
* Legends in the figures should be concise and legible, using a proper font size so as to maintain their legibility after decreasing the font size. Please avoid using descriptions in figures, these should be used in legends or in the text of the article. Figures should be placed without the box. Legends should be placed under the figure and also without box.
* Tables should always be divided into columns. When there are many results presented in the table it should also be divided into lines.
* References should be cited in the text of an article by providing the name and publication year in brackets, e.g. (Nowak 2019). When a cited paper has two authors, both surnames connected with the word “and” should be provided, e.g. (Nowak and Kowalski 2019). When a cited paper has more than two authors, surname of its first author, abbreviation ‘et al.’ and publication year should be provided, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019). When there are more than two publications cited in one place they should be divided with a coma, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019, Nowak 2019, Nowak and Kowalski 2019). Internet sources should be cited like other texts - providing the name and publication year in brackets.
* The Authors should avoid extensive citations. The number of literature references must not exceed 30 including a maximum of 6 own papers. Only in review articles the number of literature references can exceed 30.
* References should be listed at the end of the article ordered alphabetically by surname of the first author. References should be made according to the following rules:

1. Journal:
Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title of the article, Journal Name, volume, number, pages, DOI.
For example:

Nowak, S.W., Smith, A.J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of the article, Archives of Environmental Protection, 10, 2, pp. 93–98, DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330

If the article has been assigned DOI, it should be provided and linked with the website on which it is made available.

2. Book:
Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title, Publisher, Place and publishing year.
For example:

Kraszewski, J. & Kinecki, K. (2019). Title of book, Work & Sudies, Zabrze 2019.

3. Edited book:
Surnames and initials of text authors. (publishing year). Title of cited chapter, in: Title of the book, Surnames and initials of editor(s). (Ed.)/(Eds.). Publisher, Place, pages.
For example:
Reynor, J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of chapter, in: Title of the cited book, Kaźmierski, I. & Jasiński, C. (Eds.). Work & Studies, Zabrze, pp. 145–189.

4. Internet sources:
Surnames and initials or the name of the institution which published the text. (publication year). Title, (website address (accessed on)).
For example:
Kowalski, M. (2018). Title, ( (03.12.2018)).

5. Patents:
Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009. Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

6. Materials published in language other than English:
Titles of cited materials should be translated into English. Information of the language the materials were published in should be provided at the end.

For example:
Nowak, S.W. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of article, Journal Name, 10, 2, pp. 93–98, DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330. (in Polish)

Not more than 30 references should be cited in the original research paper.

Submission of the manuscript
By submitting the manuscript Author(s) warrant(s) that the article has not been previously published and is not under consideration by another journal. Authors claim responsibility and liability for the submitted article. The article is freely available and distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0, https: //, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the article is properly cited, is not used for commercial purposes and no modification or adaptation are made.

© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0, https://, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial, and no modifications or adaptations are made

The manuscripts should be submitted on-line using the Editorial System available at Authors are asked to propose at least 4 potential reviewers, including 2 from Poland, together with their e-mail addresses. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

Review Process
All the submitted articles are assessed by the Editorial Board. If positively assessed by at least two editors, Editor in Chief, along with department editors selects two independent reviewers from recognized authorities in the discipline. Reviewers receive a text of the article (without personal data of Authors) and review forms applicable in the journal. Review process usually lasts from 1 to 4 months. Reviewers have access to PUBLONS platform which integrates into Bentus Editorial System and enables adding reviews to their personal profile. After completion of the review process Authors are informed of the results and - if both reviews are positive - asked to correct the text according to reviewers’ comments. Next, the revised work is verified by the editorial staff for factual and editorial content.

Acceptance of the manuscript
The manuscript is accepted for publication on grounds of the opinions of independent reviewers and approval of Editorial Board. Authors are informed about the decision and also asked to pay processing charges and to send completed declaration of the transfer of copyright to the editorial office.

Proofreading and Author Correction
All articles published in the Archives of Environmental Protection go through professional proofreading process. If there are too many language errors that prevent understanding of the text, the article is sent back to Authors with a request to correct the indicated fragments or - in extreme cases – to re-translate the text. After proofreading the manuscript is prepared for publishing. The final stage of the publishing process is Author correction. Authors receive a page proof copy of the article with a request to make final corrections.

Article publication charges
The publication fee of an article in the Journal is:
* 20 EUR/80 zł per page (black and white or in gray scale),
* 30 EUR/120 zł per page (color).

Payments in Polish zlotys
Bank BGK
Account no.: 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001

Payments in Euros
Bank BGK
Account no.: 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001
IBAN: PL 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001

Authors are kindly requested to inform the editorial office of making payment for the publication, as well as to send all necessary data for issuing an invoice.

Additional info

Abstracting & Indexing

Archives of Environmental Protection is covered by the following services:

AGRICOLA (National Agricultural Library)



Baidu Scholar


CABI (over 50 subsections)

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) - CAplus

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) - SciFinder

CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure)



DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals)

EBSCO (relevant databases)

EBSCO Discovery Service

Engineering Village

FSTA - Food Science & Technology Abstracts

Genamics JournalSeek



Google Scholar

Index Copernicus


Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)


Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition


KESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders)

Microsoft Academic

Naviga (Softweco)

Primo Central (ExLibris)

ProQuest (relevant databases)






Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest)


TEMA Technik und Management

Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb

WanFang Data

Web of Science - Biological Abstracts

Web of Science - BIOSIS Previews

Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded

WorldCat (OCLC)

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more